Showing posts with label Advaita Vedanta. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Advaita Vedanta. Show all posts

Hinduism - What Is Vivartavada In Hindu Philosophy?

 


The world is described as an illusory transformation of the Ultimate Reality or Realities, according to this philosophical model.

The Advaita Vedanta philosophical school is known for its vivartavada model.

The Advaitins believe in a causal model known as satkaryavada, which assumes that effects already exist in their causes and that when they appear, they are simply transformations (parinama) of those causes.

Milk is transformed into curds, butter, and clarified butter as a classic example.

Each of these effects was already present in the cause, according to proponents of asatkarya, and emerges from it through a natural transformation of the cause.

The Advaita school adheres to the philosophical position of monism, which holds that everything is merely different manifestations of a single Ultimate Reality.

Despite the appearance of difference and diversity in the world, Advaita proponents claim that reality is nondual (advaita), that is, that all things are "actually" nothing but the formless, unqualified Brahman.

The Advaitins' belief that an effect already exists in its cause is based on the principle that all things in the universe ultimately rely on Brahman as the first cause.

Simultaneously, the Advaitins refuse to acknowledge that Brahman ever changes because this would negate its eternal and unchanging nature.

As a result, they talk about a fictitious transmission (vivartavada).

The Advaitins believe that Brahman never truly changes because it is eternal and thus unchanging; the apparent changes are only illusory, based on human ignorance through shifting superimposition patterns (adhyasa).

Advaitins are able to maintain Brahman's transcendence while also accounting for (apparent) changes in the phenomenal world in this way.

Proponents of a different approach, which portrays the perceivable world as an actual trans creation of this unified reality, argue against this stance.

Proponents of the Samkhya, Vishishthadvaita Vedanta, and Bhedabhada philosophical traditions, who, like Advaitins, believe in satkaryavada, hold this position.

Each of these three schools thinks that the world as we see it is real, that it is rooted in a single ultimate source, and that this fundamental principle undergoes a genuine metamorphosis through which the universe is born.

This parinama connection permits these schools to explain the phenomenal world, but in a manner that undermines the transcendence of these initial principles by incorporating them within it.

Philosophically, they struggle to explain how the sublime might become commonplace, then transcendent again.


Kiran Atma


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Hinduism - What Is Vivarana Advaita?

 


Vivarana Advaita  is a Sanskrit phrase that means "to live in the present moment."

Shankaracharya was the greatest figure in one of the later Advaita Vedanta schools, a philosophical school.

The Advaita school adheres to the philosophical position of monism, which is the belief in a single impersonal Ultimate Reality, which they refer to as Brahman.

Despite the appearance of difference and diversity in the perceptible world, Advaita proponents believe that reality is "nondual" (advaita), that is, all things are nothing but the formless Brahman.

This assumption of diversity is a manifestation of avidya for Advaitins, who believe it is a fundamental mental misunderstanding of the ultimate nature of things.

Although frequently translated as "ignorance," avidya refers to a lack of genuine understanding that leads to karmic bonds, reincarnation (samsara), and suffering.

Because the Advaitins' real problem is this erroneous understanding, realization (jnana) was the most effective spiritual path for achieving ultimate liberation (moksha).

The Vivarana Advaita school is based on the ideas of Padmapada (9th century), one of Shankaracharya's disciples, but takes its name from a commentary written by Prakashatman in the thirteenth century.

Traditionally, the latter was a Padmapada disciple, but this appears to be problematic.

The Vivarana school, like the Bhamati school, took firm positions on a number of issues where Shankaracharya had been silent.

One of these was on the locus of ignorance, described by the Vivarana school as being in Brahman.

The Vivarana Advaitins use the theory of reflectionism to explain the apparent difference between Brahman and the Self, despite the fact that the Selves are identical with Brahman, because it appears to compromise the integrity of Brahman.

Their position appears to be based on an unwavering affirmation of Brahman as the sole "reality," to which everything that exists must belong.


Kiran Atma


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Hinduism - Who Was Vishakhadatta?

 



 Vishakhadatta(6th c.), was a Sanskrit playwright, Mudrarakshasa ("Rakshasa's Ring") is his sole extant work.

The play is historically significant since its central narrative is the ascent of Chandragupta Maurya (r. 321–297 B.C.E. ), the founder of the Maurya dynasty, despite the fact that the play attributes his victory to his crafty brahmin minister, Chanakya.

Although, in respect to the actual monarch, this picture is wrong, the play portrays the king as a weak character, with the minister as the true power behind the throne.

The narrative of the drama is convoluted, as is the case with many Sanskrit plays, but the drama's climax occurs when the main protagonists are dramatically saved from execution at the last minute.

Michael Coulson translated the play into English and released it in the collection Three Sanskrit Plays in 1981.

Vishishthadvaita ("Qualified Non-Dualism") is a Sanskrit word that means "qualified non-dualism." Vedanta One of the branches of Vedanta, the philosophical school that claims to reveal the Vedas' ultimate meaning and purpose (anta), the Hindu religious texts' oldest and most authoritative texts.

The greatest figure in Vishishthadvaita is Ramanuja, an eleventh-century philosopher who was central to its formulation, despite the fact that he was building on earlier work.

Ramanuja believed that Brahman, or Supreme Reality, was a personal god rather than an impersonal abstract concept, and that the most significant kind of religious activity was devotion (bhakti).

His philosophical viewpoint, Vishishthadvaita Vedanta, emphasized both of these ideas, and so contrasted with the Advaita Vedanta school, created by the philosopher Shankaracharya.

The Advaita school adheres to the philosophical position of monism, or the belief in a single impersonal Ultimate Reality, which they refer to as Brahman.

Despite the appearance of difference and variety in the perceivable world, Advaita adherents believe that reality is "nondual" (advaita), meaning that all things are nothing but the formless Brahman.

This assumption of diversity, according to Advaitins, is a fundamental misunderstanding of the ultimate nature of things, as well as a manifestation of avidya.

Although avidya is often translated as "ignorance," it is better understood as a lack of genuine understanding that leads to karmic bonding, rein carnation (samsara), and suffering.

Because the real issue for Advaitins is a misunderstanding, realization (jnana) was the best spiritual path to achieve ultimate liberation (moksha).

The material universe and self have genuine and autonomous existence, according to Ramanuja's formulation, while their existence is ultimately anchored in God, whom he names as Vishnu.

The world emerges from God through an evolutionary process based on the Samkhya model, but because matter is unconscious, it is both similar to and dissimilar to God.

Human beings are similar to God in that they have God as their source, but they differ from him in that they are subject to ignorance and suffering.

God, according to Ramanuja and his followers, is not the same as ourselves or the world, which are all thought to have real and independent existence.

In a way that the Advaita proponents will never concede, this notion of identity and difference makes the perceptible world real.

Ramanuja's stance differs from that of a later thinker, Madhva, whose Dvaita Vedanta emphasized the enormous chasm between God and all else.

Because of the disparity in capacities between the god and the devotee (bhakta), Ramanuja and his followers have emphasized bhakti as the most effective route of redemption.

Even after freedom, souls maintain enough separation from God to allow devotion; liberation is seen as a perpetual relationship with God rather than a loss of individuality.

For further detail, read John Braisted Carman's The Theology of Ramanuja, published in 1974, and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Charles A. Moore's A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy, published in 1957.


Kiran Atma


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Hinduism - Who Was Sureshvara In Hindu Philosophy?

 

 

Advaita Vedanta philosopher, one of two documented pupils of Shankaracharya (788–820? ), the other being Padmapada.

The Advaita school believes in monism, which is the concept that there is a single Ultimate Reality that lies underlying all things, and that all things are only different expressions of that reality.

Advaita proponents exhibit this idea by claiming that reality is nondual (advaita), that is, that all things are nothing but the formless, unqualified Brahman, despite the appearance of diversity and variety.

The idea that the universe is actual as seen is a basic misunderstanding of the ultimate essence of things, according to Advaita proponents, and an evidence of avidya.

Although typically interpreted as "ignorance," avidya refers to a lack of genuine insight that leads to karmic bonds, rebirth (samsara), and pain.

Sureshvara is the sole explicit proponent of jump philosophy in Hindu thinking, however aspects of it may be seen in other Advaita Vedanta thinkers, notably in his instructor.

The leap philosophy asserts that complete freedom from bondage, which is defined in the Indian context as the end of rebirth and full release of the soul (moksha), may be attained, but that such freedom cannot be attained by a perfectly determined sequence of causes and consequences.

Since the ultimate issue arises from one's erroneous understanding, the only solution, according to Sureshvara, is pure, accurate knowledge.

Sureshvara's approach, such as it is, is to utilize a negative dialectic to clearly define what the Self is not, and then to obtain a flash of mystic insight by hearing one of the mahavakyas ("great utterances") that connect the Self with Brahman once one's mind has been pre pared.

Sureshvara asserts that actions have no place in this process since action is inextricably linked to the world and is tainted by ignorance.

For further detail, see A. J. Alston's translation of Sri Suresvara's Naiskarmya Siddhi, published in 1959, and Karl H. Potter's ed. of Advaita Vedanta up to Samkara and His Pupils, published in 1981.


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Hinduism - What Is Reflectionism In Hindu Philosphy?

 

Reflectionism  is a theory employed in later Advaita Vedanta schools to explain how one primal ignorance may affect several ignorant selves.

Reflectionism is founded on the concept of a reflection in a mirror; although it differs from the original, it is nonetheless based on it.

Similarly, according to this argument, each individual's ignorance is only a mirror of a basic ignorance.


Karl H. Potter's Presuppositions of India's Philosophies, published in 1972, has further material.


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Hinduism - What Is Nirguna In Hindu Spirituality?


 ("devoid of attributes") The highest feature of heavenly reality's epithet.

Many Hindu traditions hold that God is ultimately devoid of traits and attributes, transcending all particularity and being superior to any qualifying form.

The Upanishads, the theoretical religious scriptures that constitute the most recent component of the Vedas, and philosophical traditions founded on the Upanishads, such as Advaita Vedanta, are the first to express this notion.

Certain Hindu theistic traditions, such as the Gaudiya Vaishnava religious group, disagree with this idea, believing that a specific deity—in this instance, Krishna—is the Ultimate Reality.


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Hinduism - What Is Maya In Hindu Philosophy?


The literal definition of Maya is "magic" or "illusion," with the sense of a magic performance or illusion in which items seem to be there but are not.

Maya is a term used in Hindu philosophy to explain how people get perplexed about the actual nature of the universe and themselves.

Such delusion keeps them bound to their wants and perpetuates the cycle of rebirth (samsara) that results from this; nonetheless, such individuals are blissfully unconscious of their enslavement.

Maya is often regarded as one of God's powers in Hindu theism, in which the highest power is viewed as a deity, and through which the deity may achieve his or her intentions; in this conception, maya is considered as an existing reality.

The Advaita Vedanta school, which advocates for monism, approaches maya in a somewhat different way.

Behind everything, according to Monism, is an one Ultimate Reality known as the unqualified Brahman.

Despite appearances of diversity and variation, the only thing that really exists is this formless, unqualified Brahman.

The presupposition of variety, according to Advaitins, is a basic misunderstanding of the ultimate essence of things.

God wields maya as a power, according to the Advaita school, but since God (as a being with specific traits) is considered lower than the greatest, ultimate Brahman, both God and maya are part of this lower reality.

As a result, both are unquestionably unreal.

Maya, according to the Advaitins, is confusion caused by a lack of accurate knowledge; the confusion vanishes when absolute emancipation is attained.


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Hinduism - Who Was Mandana Mishra?

 

Mandana Mishra (early 9th c.) Founder of the Bhamati school of Advaita Vedanta, who is said to have lived about the same time as Shankaracharya, the Advaita school's greatest figure.

The Advaita school adheres to the philosophical idea of monism, which claims that all things are essentially different manifestations of a single Ultimate Reality.

Despite the appearance of difference and variety, Advaita proponents say that reality is non-dual (advaita)—all things are nothing but the formless, unqualified Brahman (the greatest reality in the cosmos).

The assumption of variety, according to Advaitins, is a fundamental mental misunderstanding of the ultimate essence of things, a symptom of avidya.

Although sometimes translated as "ignorance," avidya is more accurately defined as a lack of actual insight that leads to karmic bonding, reincarnation (samsara), and pain.

Mandana proposes the vivarta ("illu sory manifestation") causal linkage to demonstrate how the unchanging Brahman is linked to the seen universe.

Superimposition (adhyasa) is a notion that describes how people project a faulty understanding onto the correct knowledge.

A piece of rope, for example, is mistaken for a snake.

Despite the fact that this judgment is incorrect, one is genuinely observing something real, in this example the rope, but "superimuting" a false identity on it, therefore "transforming" it into something it is not.

Human awareness, it is believed, starts with the existing reality (Brahman), which is already there, but superimposes something that is not (the judgment of a diverse world).

Mandana also disagreed with Shankaracharya on a number of matters, which caused difficulties for his subsequent disciples.

One of these judgements was that the source of ignorance was in the Self, since it was ludicrous to think of Brahman as ignorant; another was that there were several Selves, because the liberation of one person did not result in the liberation of others.

Mandana's remarks imply the presence of a common (though illusory) reality over which he felt compelled to pass judgment; he eventually dubbed it anirvachaniya—"that which cannot be named." 

Mandana defined two types of ignorance in his analysis: a primary "covering" that prevents one from seeing the truth and a "projective" ignorance in which humans intentionally conceal facts.


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Hinduism - Who Is Madhva The Hindu Philosopher?

 

Philosopher and founder of the Dvaita Vedanta philosophical system, who lived much of his life at Udupi, a tiny town on the Malabar coast in Karnataka.

Madhva's primary idea was that God was completely transcendent.

This belief prompted him to establish the dualism thesis, which asserts a qualitative distinction between God's transcendence and the corruptions of material things.

Despite the fact that both humanity and the material universe come from God and rely on Him for their continued existence, Madhva believes God is fundamentally separate from both.

Madhva stood in stark contrast to the largest school, Advaita Vedanta, which defended the philosophy of monism—the notion that all things are essentially different manifestations of a single Ultimate Reality (called Brahman).

Whereas Advaita combines all things into one, Madhva focuses on keeping the distinctions.

Madhva's focus on dualism led him to describe these distinctions, which he dubbed the "fivefold difference": the distinctions between God and Self, God and the universe, individual Selves, Selves and matter, and particular material objects.

Despite the fact that each Self includes a part of God, basic differences restrict the Self's ability to live a religious life.

Because of this restricted strength, complete soul release is only possible via the grace of God, who alone has the ability to do so.

Final emancipation was envisioned as both a way to avoid rebirth and a way for the soul to stay in the divine presence forever.


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Hinduism - Who Is Madhava?

 


 (14th c.) The Sarvadar shanasangraha, a philosophical encyclopedia written in the late fourteenth century, was written by Madhava.

Madhava compiles the viewpoints of all current philosophical systems in this literature, organizing them in hierarchical order according to his assessment of their worth.

The materialist school, according to the text, is the lowest and least trustworthy, since its proponents entirely reject the value of any religious life.

Madhava's Advaita Vedanta school is considered the greatest and most complete manifestation of reality.

Although prejudiced, the Sarvadarshanasangraha is one of the few remaining texts that examines all of the current schools' opinions.


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Hinduism - What Is Leap Or Ajativada In Hindu Philosophy?

 


Leap Philosophy is a philosophy that encourages people to take risks.

(“ajativada”) In the Indian context, total release from bondage is recognized as the end of rein carnation (samsara) and eventual liberation of the soul (moksha), although such freedom cannot be obtained by a perfectly determined series of causes and consequences, according to leap philosophy.

There is no way to encourage or influence the process of obtaining freedom since it is not a question of cause and effect.

Leap philosophers tend to dismiss the efficacy of ritual activity as a means of achieving ultimate emancipation, save in the context of a preliminary phase, emphasizing that liberation can only be attained by inner awareness.

Members of the Advaita Vedanta school Sureshvara and Shankaracharya discard ceremonial conduct except as preparation for wisdom.

Both thinkers believe that liberation from enslavement comes through knowledge received in a moment of realization, which changes one's view on the world drastically and permanently.



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Hinduism - What Is Jnanakarmasamucchaya In Hindu Philosophy?


 ("consciousness and action in tandem") Members of the bhedabhada ("identity-in-difference") philosophical school encouraged religious discipline to eliminate the soul's bondage and rebirth (samsara).

Correct consciousness (jnana) and ritual activity (karma) were both crucial factors in achieving eventual soul liberation, according to this school.

The first phase was to lessen one's bad karmic dispositions, such as greed, wrath, and ignorance, by doing meritorious ritual deeds like as fasting (upavasa), devotion, and pilgrimage.

Meditation was used to totally eradicate these weaker dispositions.

Other philosophical schools, notably the Advaita Vedanta school, criticized the assumptions that underpin this path, claiming that ultimate liberation comes only through awareness. 


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Hinduism - Who Is A Jivanmukta?

 

A person who has gained ultimate soul liberation while still alive (jivanmukti) and continues to exist in a condition of freedom in Indian philosophy.

Many forms of Advaita Vedanta, one of the six schools of traditional Indian philosophy, include the notion of jivanmukta.

The Advaita school adheres to a philosophical viewpoint known as monism, which believes that everything is essentially different manifestations of a single Ultimate Reality known as Brahman.

The difficulty of human bonding, according to Advaita proponents, is that human beings, blinded by avidya or erroneous understanding, fail to see this ultimate oneness and continue to regard the universe as made up of distinct and varied entities.

The prospect of achieving jivanmukta status is important to the Advaita school because it supports their concept that bondage and liberation are achieved by replacing a faulty understanding with a true one, rather than by doing or becoming something.

After this has occurred, one will continue to exist, but their lives will never be the same due to the drastic shift in awareness.


 


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Hinduism - What Is The Concept Of Jivanmukti In Hindu Philosophy?

 

 ("freedom in the act of living") The idea that one may achieve ultimate soul liberation while still alive and then dwell in a liberated condition for the rest of one's life in later Indian philosophy.

Many of the subschools of Advaita Vedanta, one of the six schools of traditional Indian philosophy, make the claim of jivanmukta (one who is freed while still alive).

The Advaita school adheres to a philosophical viewpoint known as monism, which believes that all things are essentially different manifestations of a single Ultimate Reality known as Brahman.

The difficulty with human bonding, according to Advaita proponents, is that humans, blinded by avidya or misunderstanding, fail to comprehend this ultimate connection.

Liberation is achieved by comprehending what has always been the case, and therefore swapping a faulty idea for a true one, rather than by "doing" anything or becoming someone one is not.

Although this understanding permanently alters how a person perceives the universe, it has no ontological implications, implying that on a physical level, one continues to exist as before until the karma that generated one's current body has been spent.

For further detail, read Karl H. Potter's Advaita Vedanta up to Samkara and His Pupils, Advaita Vedanta up to Samkara and His Pupils, 1981.


 


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Hinduism - What Are The Theories Of Error In Indian Philosophy?



The subject of how and why humans make mistakes in judgment is seriously addressed in Indian philosophical systems. 

Although these schools may use apparently innocuous examples like mistaken a seashell's glittering flash for a chunk of silver, the investigation of judgment mistakes is ultimately motivated by religious purposes. 

The religious purpose is to obtain real knowledge of the true essence of things and, as a result, to achieve eventual soul liberation (moksha) from the karmic cycle of rebirth (samsara). 

The responses to the truth and falsity issue reflect fundamental disparities in each school's view of the basic essence of things, which have evident consequences for bondage and liberation. 

Although the various schools vary on the mechanics of "how" one sees silver instead of a shell, there is widespread agreement on why this occurs. 

This and other faults are caused by karmic predispositions coming from avidya, most notably greed, which drives people to seek out valuable objects. 

Individual entries provide much more detail, but in general, there are six primary theories of mistake. 

The doctrine is akhyati, or "nondiscrimination," in the Prabhakara branch of the Mimamsa school, in which the basis of mistake is the inability to discern precise differences. 

Anyathakhyati, or "discrimination of something else," is the Naiyayika school's doctrine, in which the mind projects an incorrect perception (pratyaksha) onto another object. 

Kumarila, a Mimamsa philosopher, defines mistake as viparitakhyati, or "contrary discrimination," where the root of error is an incorrect judgment of an object's similarities and differences. 

Sadasatkhyati, or "discrimination of the unreal as the real," is a theory proposed by the Samkhya school, in which the cause of mistake is simply an extension of the initial error to discriminate between the two primary realities, purusha and prakrti. 

The doctrine of satkhyati, or "discrimination of the actual," is proposed by Ramanuja, founder of the Vishishthadvaita Vedanta school, in which one observes the silvery flash accurately but forms an inaccurate inference based on it. 

The Advaita Vedanta school advances the final idea of anirvachaniyakhyati, or "indescribable discrimination," in which one illusory experience is superimposed on another conventionally accurate but ultimately illusory vision. 

See Bijayananda Kar, The Theories of Error in Indian Philosophy, 1978, and Karl H. Potter (ed. ), Presuppositions of India's Philosophies, 1972, for further details. 



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Hinduism And Hindu Theology - What Is Advaita Vedanta?

Advaita Vedanta is a school of thought. One of the divisions of Vedanta, the philosophical school that claims to have discovered the ultimate (anta) message of the Vedas, the ancient holy scriptures. 


  • The Advaita school adheres to the philosophical stance of monism, which argues that everything is governed by a single Ultimate Reality. 
  • Advaita adherents believe that reality is nondual (advaita), meaning that everything in the universe, despite appearances of variety and diversity, is really the formless, unqualified Brahman. 
  • To back up this assertion, the Advaitins provide a compelling explanation for why one sees the universe to be made up of many different and distinct entities. 
  • Advaitans explain this seeming variety with the notion of adhyasa (superimposition), in which a false, erroneous knowledge is projected onto a genuine object—for example, seeing a rope in the twilight and mistaking it for a snake in the traditional Advaita example. 
  • The Advaitins believe that the "snake" is not entirely unreal since it is dependent on the rope for its existence—the snake cannot be seen unless the rope is there. 
  • At the same time, the "snake" is obviously not real, since one does not continue in this mistake, and once the snake's illusion is broken, one can no longer see it. 
  • Similarly, Advaitins believe that our perception of the phenomenal daily world is projected onto the one really actual object in the universe—Brahman. 
  • The universe, like the serpent, is unreal as it is seen yet real as it is dependent on Brahman. 
  • The origins of adhyasa, according to Advaitins, are epistemological, that is, linked to how humans come to know things, while adhyasa's outcomes are both epistemological and ontological (related to how things actually are). 


On the one hand, adhyasa obscures the Ultimate Reality and makes it difficult to see it correctly, while on the other hand, its projective nature shapes our perceptions of the universe. 


  • The cause of all this perplexity, according to Advaitins, is avidya, or primordial ignorance, under the influence of which one develops false beliefs about the universe. 
  • Although it is stated that the operation of ignorance has no beginning, one of the factors that keeps it running is one's karma, which is based on the ongoing acts produced by this erroneous thinking. 
  • The power of illusion (maya) possessed by God (Ishvara), which perplexes humans, is another cause of ignorance. 


God is identified as a qualified (saguna) form of Brahman, hence below the ultimate unqualified (nirguna) Brahman, and himself a result of superimposition, according to Advaita Vedantins. 


  • Because the Advaita school thinks that incorrect thinking is the root of karma bonding, the only way to break free is to acquire the right knowledge. 
  • Although the Advaitans believe that individuals are obligated to do religious acts (nitya karma) as a matter of duty, actions can never bring about the insight that is required for salvation, though they may help by eliminating karmic barriers. 
  • The Advaitins begin their study by appealing to the knowing subject as the one thing that can never be questioned, claiming that this self-consciousness is proof of the presence of the inner Self, or atman. 



Apart from this appeal to experience, they rely heavily on the sacred texts' authority, particularly the Upanishads, to uphold their key doctrines: 


  1. That Brahman is the source of all things; 
  2. That the human soul is ultimately identical to Brahman, albeit hampered by obstacles based on past karma; and that true knowledge is the basis of liberation. 


The philosopher Shankaracharya was the first and greatest Advaita thinker; other notable individuals were his two students, Sureshvara and Padmapada, as well as Mandana Mishra and Vachaspati Mishra. Karl H. Potter (ed. ), Advaita Vedanta up to Samkara and His Pupils, 1981; and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Charles A. Moore (eds. ), A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy, 1957, for further details.


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