Showing posts with label Bhakta. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Bhakta. Show all posts

Hinduism - What Is Viraha?

 



Viraha means “separation” in classical Sanskrit poetry. Much of vernacular devotional (bhakti) poetry, has Viraha as a well-established poetic genre.





Whether the separated lovers are two human beings or devotee (bhakta) and deity, the genre focuses on describing the pain that results from the separation of lover and beloved.





Separation is thought to cause specific physical symptoms, which the poets describe in great detail—lack of appetite, insomnia, inability to attend to daily life, or think about anyone but the beloved.







Because love in union is sweetened by the presence of the beloved, whereas the former must stand alone, the type of love felt in such separation is thought to engender an even more intense love for the beloved than love in union.


~Kiran Atma



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Hinduism - Who Is Considered A Yatri In Hindu Spirituality?

 


The term yatri refers to a novitiate Bairagi, a renunciant ascetic society made up of worshippers of the deity Vishnu (bhakta).

As a common term, it refers to a person who is embarking on a yatra ("journey"; more specifically, a travel of religious meaning).


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Hinduism - Who Is Yashoda In Hindu Mythology?

 



Krishna's foster mother in Hindu mythology, who welcomes him the night he is born and raises him until he is old enough to return to Mathura and claim his kingdom.

Yashoda, who loves Krishna as if he were her own child, is a model of unselfish devotion.

Rupa Goswami, a devotee (bhakta) of the god Krishna and a follower of the Bengali saint Chaitanya, has used her mythic example of loving, motherly care as the model for vatsalya bhava, one of the five modes of devotion most prominently articulated by Rupa Goswami, a devotee (bhakta) of the god Krishna and a follower of the Bengali saint Chaitanya Devotees who practice vatsalya consider themselves to be God's parents, lavishing love and care on the god in the same way as a cow does for her calf.


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Hinduism - How Is Hindu Worship Practiced Or Expressed?

 

Hindu devotion may be described using two different terms, each with two different sets of assumptions.

Darshan ("seeing") is the original and most prevalent form of devotion, in which devotees (bhakta) stare at the god's image and think that the deity is also gazing at them.

Darshan is therefore an exchange of looks between the god and the devotee that conveys comprehension.

Puja ("homage") is the term used to describe worship with offerings and artifacts.


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Hinduism - What Is Visarjana?

 

Visarjana means "dismissing" in Sanskrit.

The sixteenth and last upacharas ("offerings") offered to a god as part of devotion, based on the principle of treating the deity as a valued guest.

As the last act of devotion, the devotee (bhakta) grants the god permission to depart.

Although the phrase dismissal seems arrogant in any conversation with a god, it really relates to the parting remarks that one would give to a leaving guest.

The fundamental aim here, as with other upacharas, is to demonstrate one's devotion for the god by ministering to the deity's needs.


Kiran Atma


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Hinduism - What Is The Vinaya Patrika By Tulsidas?

 

 

Vinaya Patrika or a petition letter is a collection of 280 short poems written in the Braj Bhasha dialect by poet-saint Tulsidas (1532–1623?).


The entire work is presented as a letter of petition to Tulsidas' chosen deity, Rama, through the monkey god Hanuman, who acts as his intermediary.


The letter's main theme is a plea for deliverance from the current degenerate age's evils (kali yuga).


The first sixty-odd verses are a series of invocations to various gods, demonstrating Tulsidas' devotion's ecumenical quality.

The poem's remainder is addressed to Rama and emphasizes other themes that run throughout Tulsidas' poetry.


One of the themes is the kali yuga's corrupted nature, which makes devotion the only effective means of salvation.


Another pervasive theme is the incomparable power of God's name to rescue the devotee (bhakta).

Finally, the listeners are cautioned not to squander the gift of human birth.

Much of the poetry has an intensely personal quality to it, and it seems to reflect both the poet's despair and eventual hope for salvation.

The Vinaya Patrika is generally thought to have been written in the poet's later years, though it cannot be precisely dated, based on its general tone.



~Kiran Atma


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Hinduism - Who Was Surdas Among The Ashtachap?

 

 

 (early sixteenth century) One of the ashtachap, a group of eight bhakti (devotional) poets from northern India.

The Pushti Marg, a religious society whose members are Krishna devotees (bhakta), utilized the works of these eight poets for liturgical reasons.

All eight poets are also identified as members of the community and colleagues of either the community's founder, Vallabhacharya, or his successor, Vitthalnath, in the Pushti Marg's sectarian literature.

Surdas started writing songs about Krishna's lila, his humorous interactions with the universe, and his followers at Vallabhacharya's instruction, according to the Chaurasi Vaishnavan ki Varta ("Lives of eighty-four Vaishnavas").

He subsequently went on to write the Sursagar's 5,000-odd poems.

Surdas is shown in a very different light in the earliest manuscripts, since most of them only include a few hundred verses, most of which are relatively brief.

Supplication (vinaya) and separation (viraha) are the most essential topics in early poetry, and although Surdas is best known for his descriptions of Krishna's boyhood, these themes are more prominent later in the poetic tradition.

Surdas' poetry covers a broad variety of topics, from his personal spiritual life to devout "glimpses" of Krishna, the latter of which often explores the religious conflict between Krishna's image as a cute kid and his alter ego as master of the world.

Surdas wrote these poems to draw his listeners into Krishna's realm, as he does in most Vaishnava devotional poetry.

The disparity between these images casts doubt on Surdas' and Vallabhacharya's relationship.

Surdas, unlike the other ashtachap poets, did not produce poetry in honor of Vallabhacharya, despite his songs being included into the Pushti Marg's ceremonies.

It's just as probable that, as Surdas' poetry rose in popularity, the Pushti Marg "claimed" him as a fellow Krishna lover.

In truth, very little is known for certain about him, including whether or not he was indeed blind, as is often assumed.

Only two of the earliest poems address blindness; one is obviously allegorical, and the other is part of a litany of old age's ills.

One knows a lot more about the poetry than the poet, as is the case with many bhakti poets.

For further detail, read John Stratton Hawley's Krishna: The Butter Thief (1983) and Surdas: Poet, Singer, Saint (1984); also check John Stratton Hawley and Mark Juergensmeyer's Songs of the Saints of India (1988).


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Hinduism - Who Was Sundaramurtti Among The Nayanars?

 

 

 (8th century) The last of the Nayanars, a group of sixty-three poet-saints from southern India who were Shiva worshippers (bhakta).

The Nayanars, along with their contemporaries the Alvars, who were Vishnu worshipers, drove the revival of Hindu religion by their fervent devotion (bhakti) to a personal deity, which they expressed through songs sung in Tamil.

Sundaramurtti, like his forefathers Appar and Sambandar, actively opposed the heterodox sects of the time, particularly the Jains, whom he despises in his poems.

The Devaram, the most sacred of the Tamil Shaivite texts, is composed of the hymns of the three most important Nayanars—Appar, Sambandar, and Sundaramurtti.

Sundaramurtti's inventory of the sixty-three Nayanars is significant since it is the earliest written source for Tamil Shaivite hagiography.


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Hinduism - What Is A Rudraksha?


 ("Rudra's eye") The dried seed of the Elaeocarpus ganitrus tree, which is revered as Shiva's holy tree.

Shiva's worshippers typically wear garlands with Rudrakshas strung on them (bhakta).

The seed is spherical, with a knobby, pitted surface and a natural groove in the center through which a thread may be readily threaded.

Natural longitudinal lines running from top to bottom on each seed, dividing it into units known as "faces" (mukhi).

Rudrakshas typically have five faces, but they may have up to fourteen.

Each of the various numbers of faces has been associated with a different god.

The ekmukhi rudraksha, which has no faces and is said to be a manifestation of Shiva himself, is the rarest.

Because this rudraksha is so precious, counterfeit replicas are often carved out of wood by street vendors.

The Gauri-Shankar is a rare form in which two rudraksha seeds are connected longitudally; it is considered a manifestation of Shiva and Shakti.

Aside from the number of "faces," the color and size of rudrakshas are used to determine their quality.

The hue ranges from a reddish brown to a light brown, with the former being preferred over the latter, and smaller sizes being preferred over bigger ones.


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Hinduism - Who Are Considered Rasik Or Rasik Devotees In Hinduism?


Someone who is intellectual and intelligent who can appreciate a developed artistic mood (rasa).

The term refers to a person who has translated this awareness of aesthetic mood into a devotional setting in the context of religious activity.

Rasik devotees (bhakta) would engage in intricate visualizations and mental accompaniments of their chosen god throughout the day.

These contemplative visualizations were thought to provide the devotee a feeling of involvement in God's presence on earth's divine drama (lila), sharpening his or her appreciation of it.

The Pushti Marg and the Ram Rasik Sampraday, whose objects of devotion were the gods Krishna and Rama, respectively, placed the highest emphasis on this talent.

This kind of devotion is nearly entirely devoted to these gods or other manifestations of Vishnu.


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Hinduism - Who Was Raskhan?


 (late 16th c.) Saiyid Ibrahim was a poet-saint and Krishna follower (bhakta) who was born a Muslim, especially a Pathan (Afghan), and whose name may have been Saiyid Ibrahim.

Raskhan spent his early years in Delhi, when he was enamored by a lovely lad, according to leg end.

When the object of his emotions proved unattainable, he moved to Brindavan, the place where Krishna is claimed to have resided as a kid, and spent the remainder of his life using his devotion to Krishna to sublimate that desire.

The attraction of the cowherd ladies (gopis) to Krishna, ignited by Krishna's physical attractiveness and, notably, the mesmerizing sound of his flute, are the principal topics of his poetry.

Raskhan is a person who was born a Muslim but who utilized symbols and attitudes from Hindu culture in a real way.

The ras lila is the "circular dance" that Krishna and his followers (bhakta), the gopis, conduct on fall evenings on the Yamuna River, according to Krishna's legend.

Krishna provides a form of himself to each lady present in this dance, which is a symbol of divine contact, in order to persuade them that God is paying attention to her and her alone.


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Hinduism - What Is Radhashtami In The Hindu Calendar?

 


Radhashtami  ("Radha's eighth") is a Hindu festival.

The festival takes place on the eighth day of the bright (waxing) half of the lunar month of Bhadrapada (August–September); this day is commemorated as Krishna's consort Radha's birthday.

Radha is seen differently by different Vaishnava religious communities: for some, she is a human woman who represents the ideal devotee (bhakta) who sacrifices everything to be with her beloved, while for others, she is the queen of heaven and an equal to Krishna himself.

In any instance, her proximity to him is shown by the fact that she was born in the same month and lunar day as Krishna, albeit on the opposite side of the month.

The Radhashtami celebration is especially popular in Barsana, the Braj area hamlet where Radha is claimed to have been born.


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Hinduism - What Is The Pushti Marg?

 



Vallabhacharya (1479–1531) formed a religious community whose teachings have remained the sect's primary impact.

Vallabhacharya's philosophical viewpoint is known as "pure monism" (Shuddadvaita); his fundamental belief is that the deity Krishna is the Supreme Being and the ultimate source of everything that exists.

As a result, the earth and humans partake in his divine essence, although in limited ways, and the human soul is endowed with divinity as its inner light and controller.

Because Krishna is the ultimate source of everything, everything ultimately relies on God, the school's major religious focus is on God's grace.

This blessing is said to nourish (pushti) the devotee (bhakta) and is best obtained via devotion (bhakti), which is seen to be the only successful religious method.

Because of this focus on grace and devotion, the Pushti Marg has placed little emphasis on abstinence or sacrifice, and Vallabhacharya's followers mostly came from prosperous merchant groups.

In the Pushti Marg's temples, the emphasis on devotion was quickly expressed in beautifully structured forms of image worship.

Devotees would imagine themselves as Krishna's companions throughout his everyday activities—waking, eating, bringing his cows to pasture, returning home, and so on—and so be able to participate in the divine drama (lila).

The emergence of large liturgical materials, composed by eight poets (the ashtachap) affiliated with Vallabhacharya and Vitthalnath, his son and successor, aided this focus on vision and participation.

Vitthalnath's son Gokulnath, the group's third head, further cemented the growing community, whose main holy place is currently at Nathdwara, Rajasthan.

R.K. Barz, The Bhakti Sect of Vallabhacharya, 1976, is a good source of information.


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Hinduism - Who Are The Pashupata?

 

An austere society of devo monks (bhakta) of the deity Shiva in his guise as Pashupati, "Lord of Beasts," that has vanished.

Although the Pashupatas are no now active, they were once the most influential ascetic cult in northern India, according to the Chinese scholar ologist Hsuan Tsang.

According to historical accounts, its members would engage in bizarre and deviant conduct in order to embarrass themselves, despite the fact that they were not motivated by desire or hatred.

This was modeled by one of Shiva's epic stories, in which he exposed himself to the women of the Sages in the Pine Forest but had no desire for them.

See Daniel H. H. Ingalls, "Cynics and Pasupatas: The Seeking of Dishonor," Harvard Theological Review, 55, 1962, for more details.


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Hinduism - What Is The Man-Lion Or Nara-Simha Avatar Of Lord Vishnu?

 


Avatar of the Man-Lion. - The deity Vishnu's fourth avatar or incarnation; the man-form lion's is commonly shown as a lion's head and shoulders with a man's torso and legs.

The Man Lion avatar, like all of Vishnu's avatars, arrives to restore cosmic balance that has been thrown out of whack by some individual's inordinate strength.

The cause of problems in this situation is the demon-king Hiranyakashipu, who gets three boons from the gods thanks to his asceticism (tapas): he cannot be destroyed by man or beast, by day or night, inside or outside.

These boons make Hiranyakashipu almost invulnerable, and he goes on to conquer the world and expel the gods from heaven.

He oppresses his son Prahlada, who stays a true devotee (bhakta) of Vishnu despite his father's dominance.

The more devotion Prahlada exhibits to Vishnu, the more abuse he receives from his father, until Hiranyakashipu becomes enraged at the prospect of someone refusing to worship him and kills Prahlada.

Prahlada appeals to Vishnu for assistance, and the Man-Lion emerges from a pillar in the palace, neither man nor beast.

The Man-Lion captures Hiranyakashipu at the palace entryway, which is neither inside nor outside, and uses his keen claws to rip out the demon's innards, killing him.

Vishnu appoints the saintly Prahlada as monarch of the kingdom after Hiranyakashipu is murdered.

This behavior illustrates a crucial fact about Hindu reality perception.

Despite the fact that Prahlada is a "devil" (asura), he is neither intrinsically malevolent or a creature to be eradicated.

In the Hindu world, all sorts of entities have their due place; the difficulty arises when they acquire excessive power and utilize it for their own objectives.


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Hinduism - Who Was Mahendravarman?

 


 (r. 600–630) During the Pallava dynasty, when southern India was a bastion of Tamil culture, he was the ruler.

Mahendravarman was born a Jain, but under the influence of the poet-saint Appar, he became a devotee (bhakta) of the deity Shiva.

Mahendravarman was a learned man who supported the arts and was the creator of the famous drama Mattvavilasa ("Sport of Drunkards") in southern India.

During his reign, the rock-cut temples of Mahabalipuram were constructed.

He clashed with the neighboring monarchs, particularly the Chalukya king Pulakeshin II, and was killed in a fight with Pulakeshin's army.


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Hinduism - How Is The Anglicized Term Juggernaut Derived From Jagannath?

 


Juggernaut is an Anglicized version of Jagannath, the presiding deity of the same-named temple in the eastern Indian city of Puri.

The name "juggernaut," which in ordinary English use refers to something that requires blind devotion or heinous sacrifice, derives from a popular legend surrounding Jagannath, or Juggernaut, and his two siblings as they parade through Puri each summer during the Rath Yatra.

The automobiles that transport them in the procession are massive—is Jagannath's 45 feet high, 30 feet wide, and moves on sixteen seven-foot-high wheels—and are dragged by ropes pushed by hundreds of people.

The frantic worshippers (bhakta) of Jagannath committed suicide by flinging themselves under the car's wheels in order to die in front of the deity, according to one of the basic fictions of British colonial history.

Despite their legendary position, suicides of this kind were exceedingly rare: the majority of persons who perished beneath the wheels of the Juggernaut procession were pulling the ropes when they lost their footing, fell into the vehicles' path, and were unable to flee due to the crush of the spectators.


 

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Hinduism - Who Is Indradyumna In Hindu Mythology?


 A good ruler who is a big devotee (bhakta) of the deity Vishnu in Hindu mythology.

The sage Agastya, enraged that the monarch, deep in concentration, fails to meet the sage with customary reverence, has cursed him to become a gigantic elephant.

Agastya declares that the curse will be lifted when Vishnu touches the elephant on the back after much begging.

As a consequence of the curse, Indradyumna spends many years roaming the globe as an elephant.

His hind limb gets kidnapped by a big crocodile one time as he is drinking at a lake.

The crocodile is really Huhu, a gandharva or heavenly musician condemned to become a crocodile by another sage.

The elephant is unable to break free, and the crocodile is unable to defeat the elephant after a thousand years of fighting.

Finally, Vishnu arrives, kills the crocodile, and transforms Indradyumna back into his former self.

Gajendramoksha, or "liberation of the elephant king," refers to Indradyumna's escape from both the curse and the crocodile.



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Hinduism - Who Is A Bhakta?



Bhakta is a Sanskrit word that means "sharer." 


In Hinduism, this term refers to a devotee of a certain god. 


  • The literal definition of the term, "sharer," has two meanings. 
  • On the one hand, the devotee benefits from the deity's favor as a result of his or her devotion. 
  • On the other hand, since most Hindu devotionalism includes a congregation of worshippers, the devotee also benefits from the companionship and fellowship of like-minded individuals.


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