Showing posts with label Brahma. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Brahma. Show all posts

Hinduism - What Is Yoganidra?


("yoga slumber") The Goddess's epithet appears in the first episode of the Devi Mahatmya, the oldest and most authoritative document on the Goddess's mythology.

In this episode, the Goddess uses her power of illusion to lull Vishnu into a coma, rendering him unconscious to Brahma's screams for aid when he is threatened by the demons Madhu and Kaitabha.

When Brahma praises the Goddess, she withdraws her yogic slumber from Vishnu, allowing him to restore consciousness and save Brahma by destroying the demons.

~Kiran Atma

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Hinduism - What Is Rishi Panchami In The Hindu Calendar?


Rishi Panchami  is a Hindu festival. The fifth day (panchami) of the light (waxing) half of the lunar month of Bhadrapada (August–September) is celebrated as a festival.

Bhrgu, Pulastya, Kratu, Pulaha, Marichi, Atri, and Vasishtha are the Seven Sages (rishis) born by Brahma, and this festival is devoted to them.

On this day, it is stated that worshiping these seven sages would bring wealth and pleasure.

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Hinduism - Who Is Ravana In Hindu Mythology?


Ravana is the ten-headed demon ruler of Lanka in the Ramayana, the first of the two major Indian epics.

Vishnu, in his incarnation as Rama, is born to vanquish Ravana.

Ravana is the reincarnation of Vishnu's guardian Jaya, who was cursed by a guru to be reincarnated three times as a demon, each time being destroyed by Vishnu.

Ravana is a rakshasa, a sort of demon with enormous physical strength and a variety of magical abilities.

In Indian culture, rigorous physical asceticism (tapas) is commonly thought to develop spiritual strength and bring boons from the gods, and he uses it to supplement these natural powers.

When the deity Brahma comes and instructs Ravana to pick his boon, Ravana demands that he be able to be slain only by humans.

This effectively makes him immortal, since his abilities are such that no average human will be able to injure, much alone kill him.

Ravana then proceeds to torment the gods, certain that they would be unable to stop him.

He starts with his half-brother Kubera, a lesser god who loses his house and all he has to Ravana.

Ravana's near-invulnerability gets the better of him, and the mighty demon starts to break all moral and ethical conventions.

He has a history of abusing and kidnapping women, which has resulted in a slew of curses from his defenseless victims, many of which prophesy his demise.

Rama's brother Lakshmana mutilates his sister Shurpanakha as a consequence of one of these curses.

Ravana is determined to revenge this insult, and he believes that abducting Rama's wife Sita is the best way to do it.

Ravana steadfastly refuses to listen to his wife Mandodari and brothers, who chastise him for his actions and implore him to return Sita and make peace with Rama.

His inflated pride and desire to revenge his sister's insult deafens him to their advice, and he pays the price for his obstinacy with his life when Rama kills him in combat.

Ravana, like other demons, isn't wholly evil by nature, but he is very strong and imperfect at the same time.

Ravana is said to be a devotee (bhakta) of the deity Shiva, and the Shivatandava Stotra, a hymn to the dancing Shiva, is sometimes credited to him.

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Hinduism - What Is A Traditional 'Pustaka'?


A book typically formed of palm leaves joined by a thread flowing through a hole punched in the center and protected by a wooden cover on top and bottom to prevent the leaves from being twisted or damaged.

The goddess Saraswati is most firmly connected with the book in Indian iconography, in line with her role as patron Goddess of the arts, culture, and learning.

It is also often shown as one of the deity Brahma's possessions.

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Hinduism - Who Is Madhu?

One of two demons that tries to destroy the deity Brahma in Hindu mythology; the other demon is Kaitabha.

The narrative is told in a variety of legendary texts, with some significant changes between them.

During the moment of cosmic dissolution, Madhu and Kaitabha are born from the deity Vishnu's ear wax, according to all traditions (pralaya).

A lotus blooms from Vishnu's navel as the universe is created all over again.

It begins by revealing Brahma, the creator-god, who is immediately threatened by Madhu and Kaitabha.

In all versions of the narrative, Brahma asks for assistance, and Vishnu fools and kills the demons.

The distinction between the two accounts is the god to whom Brahma pleads for assistance.

The narrative is originally told in the Vishnu mythology, when Brahma summons Vishnu.

The Devimahatmya, the oldest text in which the Mother Goddess emerges as the highest divine force, tells the same narrative.

Brahma's song of adoration in this version is to the Goddess, who, in her shape as Yoganidra ("yoga slumber"), has lulled Vishnu into a cosmic lethargy, making him powerless to assist Brahma.

The Goddess, pleased by Brahma's praise, relinquishes her control over Vishnu, who wakes and slays the demons.

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Hinduism - Who Is Kratu In The Hindu Pantheon?

Kratu is one of Brahma's six sons, all of whom become renowned sages in Hindu mythology.

All are "mind-born," which means that Brahma's ideas are sufficient to create them.

Marichi, Angiras, Pulastya, Pulaha, and Atri are the other five sages. 

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Hinduism - Who Is Kaitabha In Hindu Mythology?


One of two demons that tries to murder the deity Brahma in Hindu mythology (the other is Madhu).

The narrative is told in a variety of legendary texts, with some significant changes between them.

During the age of cosmic dissolution, Madhu and Kaitabha are born from the deity Vishnu's earwax, according to all traditions (pralaya).

A lotus erupts from Vishnu's navel as the universe is being created.

It begins with the revelation of Brahma, the creator-god, who is promptly assailed by Madhu and Kaitabha.

Brahma makes a plea for aid in all versions of the narrative.

Vishnu deceives and kills the demons (who are powerful but not very intelligent).

The distinction is in the god to whom Brahma pleads for assistance.

The narrative initially occurs in Vishnu's mythology, when Brahma summons the god.

The Devimahatmya, the oldest legendary source for the religion of the Mother Goddess as the greatest celestial force, tells a similar scenario.

In this version, Brahma's song of gratitude is to the Goddess, who has lulled Vishnu into a cosmic coma in her guise as Yoganidra ("yoga sleep"), making him unable to assist Brahma.

The Goddess, pleased by Brahma's praise, relinquishes her control over Vishnu, who wakes and slays the demons.


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Hinduism - Who Is Indrajit In Hindu Mythology? What Does Indrajit Mean?


 ("Indra's Conqueror") Indrajit is the son of the demon-king Ravana and his wife Mandodari in the Ramayana, the earlier of the two major Indian epics.

He is presented as the son of the deity Shiva himself in some later versions of the Ramayana, having been born after his mother had married Ravana.

Indrajit, like his father, is a great Shiva devotee (bhakta), and as a result of his devotion, Shiva teaches Indrajit how to become invisible.

This ability is clearly incredibly useful to a fighter, and it allows Indrajit to conquer Indra's celestial kingdom and return Indra to Lanka as a prisoner, thus his name.

Brahma travels to Ravana's realm of Lanka to secure Indra's freedom, in exchange for which Indrajit requests physical immortality.

When informed that this is impossible, Indrajit seeks a different power: that if he makes a particular sacrifice, he would be given horses and a chariot, allowing him to kill every opponent he encounters while riding in the chariot.

Indrajit undertakes this sacrifice as the god-king Rama and his companions are invading Lanka in an attempt to reclaim Rama's stolen wife Sita.

Brahma warns Rama of the danger, so he sends his brother Lakshmana to stop it.

Lakshmana successfully disturbs the sacrifice and kills Indrajit in the subsequent struggle.


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Hinduism - Who Is Lord Brahma?


Brahma is the first of the Trimurti, the Hindu pantheon's "three aspects" of divinity, which include Brahma as the creator of the world, Vishnu as the preserver or sustainer, and Shiva as the destroyer. 

Brahma is typically shown with four heads (the fifth was slashed off by Bhairava, Shiva's wrathful form), and the hamsa, or Indian geese, is his animal chariot. 

  • Vishnu floats in the center of the cosmic ocean, resting on the gigantic snake Shesha, according to legend, during the period of cosmic disintegration between world cycles. 
  • When the moment comes for creation, Vishnu's navel grows a lotus, which opens to reveal Brahma within. 
  • Brahma begins the process of creation, and at the conclusion of the world cycle, he returns to the lotus, which is absorbed by Vishnu. 

One of Brahma's titles is Svayambhu ("self-born"), which refers to his spontaneous emergence at the beginning of each cosmic era. 

  • The world is not formed from nothing, according to Judeo-Christian doctrine. 
  • Brahma just organizes the universe's existing components into a cohesive and orderly cosmos. 

Brahma is a significant pantheon character who appears in numerous Hindu mythological stories. 

  • His legendary status obscures the reality that he is never worshipped as a major god. 
  • Throughout fact, at all of India, he has just one temple dedicated to him, in Pushkar. 
  • His absence of devotion has been ascribed by some Hindus to his position as the creator. 

After all, why bother with Brahma, whose job is done, now that creation has been completed? 

  • This lack of devotion is typically attributed to a curse—sometimes by the deity Shiva, but in other tales by the sage Bhrgu—in the puranas, books on Hindu mythology.

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    Yoga is spirituality, esotericism, or mysticism, not religion in the traditional sense. 

    Regardless of whether we are discussing Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, or Sikhism, Yoga is often linked to the cosmologies as well as religious beliefs and practices of these many traditions. 

    • This has proved to be a stumbling barrier for many Western Yoga practitioners, who are either unaware of these traditions or have a strained relationship with their own religious heritage, whether Christianity or Judaism. 
    • They are particularly taken aback by the many deities of the Hindu, Buddhist, and Jaina pantheons, and they are unsure how these deities connect to real Yoga practice and the doctrine of nondualism (advaita) that is common to most varieties of Yoga. 
    • Students who tend toward monotheism may be worried about falling to polytheism, which is regarded a sin in the Judeo-Christian faith. 


    Because the emphasis of this discussion is Hindu Yoga, I propose to begin by introducing the main Hindu Gods and Goddesses who figure in the Sanskrit and vernacular literature of Yoga. 

    Many Hindu deities are also part of the vast Buddhist pantheon, and the Jainas have mostly kept the same deities. 

    The different deities are worshiped and summoned as manifestations or personifications of the ultimate Reality, and each is regarded as the absolute Godhead in the perspective of their worshipers. 

    • For example, worshipers of God Shiva consider Shiva as transcendental, formless, and qualityless (nirgu­ na), yet bestow onto this featureless being the gift of devotion. 
    • Goodness, beauty, strength, and elegance are examples of anthropomorphic characteristics or attributes (guna). 

    All other gods are regarded as lofty beings that inhabit different celestial regions in comparison to Shiva (loka). 

    • They are known as archangels or angels in Christian language. 
    • The scenario is the polar opposite for Vishnu worshippers. 

    Vishnu is the ultimate Godhead for them, while all other gods—including Shiva—are simply devas, or "shining ones," who have a position comparable to angelic beings in Judeo-Christian and Islamic faiths. 

    • The deities were first understood from three perspectives: 

        • material (adhibhautika), 
        • psychological (adhyatmika), 
        • and spiritual (adhidaivika). 

    • The Vedic God Agni, for example, 

        • represents the physical sacrificial fire, 
        • the sacrificer's inner fire (connected to snake power or kundalint-shakti), 
        • and the divine fire or transcendent Light. 

    When considering a god, we must examine all three characteristics. 

    Most academics have concentrated only on the first component, leading them to reject Vedic spirituality as simply "naturalistic." 

    • However, a deeper examination reveals that the Vedic seers and sages were well-versed in symbolism and adept in the use of metaphoric language. 
    • It's our comprehension, not their symbolic communication, that's lacking. 

    India's "theologians" have talked about thirty-three deities since Vedic times, despite the fact that there have long been many more listed in the scriptures. 

    The following discussion will concentrate on only a few deities who are particularly connected with Yoga. 

    To begin, there is Shiva ("Benevolent One"). 

    Shiva is already referenced in the Rig-Veda (1.14; 2.33): Shaivism, or the Shaiva tradition of worship and religion, revolves around him. 

    • He is the god of yogins par excellence, and he is often portrayed as a yogin with long, matted hair, ashes on his body, and a garland of skulls—all indications of his complete sacrifice. 
    • The crescent moon in his hair represents mystical insight and wisdom. 
    • His three eyes, which represent the sun, moon, and fire, show all that has happened in the past, present, and future to him. 
    • The cosmic fire is linked to the central or "third" eye, which is situated on the forehead, and a single look from this eye may incinerate the whole universe. 

    The snake wrapped around his neck represents Kundalinf's hidden spiritual force. 

    • The Ganga (Ganges) River, which flows from Shiva's crown, is a symbol of continuous cleansing, which is the mechanism behind his gift of spiritual freedom to followers. 
    • His four limbs symbolize his complete mastery over the four cardinal directions, and the tiger hide on which he sits signifies power (shakti). 

    His trident symbolizes Nature's three basic characteristics (guna), tamas, rajas, and sattva. 

    • Shiva's most well-known animal is the bull Nandin ("Delightful"), a symbol of sexual energy that Shiva has harnessed to perfection. 
    • The lion, which is often shown in Shiva pictures, represents desire for food, which he has also subdued. 
    • Shiva has been linked to Rudra ("Howler") from the beginning, a god who is especially associated with the air element and its many expressions (e.g., wind, storm, thunder, and lightning, but also life force and the breath, etc.). 

    Rudra, on the other hand, is said to be a powerful healer, and Shiva's name alludes to the same function. 

    • Shiva became the destructive side of the renowned trinity (lri-murti) in later Hinduism, the other two being Vishnu (representing the principle of preservation) and Brahma (representing the principle of creation) (standing for Hindu Religion, Customs and Manners the principle of ereation). 
    • As a result, Shiva is often referred to as Hara ("Remover"). 

    He is often shown on Mount Kaitasa with his heavenly wife Piirvati ("She who dwells on the mountain"). 

    • He is regarded as the first instructor of esoteric knowledge in several Tantras. 
    • The Shaivas refer to him as Maheshvara ("Great Lord," from mahfi "great" and fsh vara "lord") because he is the ultimate Reality. 
    • Shankara is the name given to him as the source of pleasure or tranquility, and Shambhu is the name given to him as the home of enjoyment. 
    • Pashupati ("Lord of the Beasts"), ishana ("Ruler"), and, last but not least, Mahadeva are some of the other titles given to him ("Great God"). 

    The linga is another symbol that is often associated with Shiva and has various meanings. 

    • The term Shiva-linga is often mistranslated as "phallus," although it really means "sign" and represents the fundamental principle of creation. 
    • The linga (also known as "lingam" in English) is the undivided and causative creative heart of cosmic existence (prakriti). 
    • Its female counterpart is the yoni principle ("womb," "source"). 
    • Both of these concepts work together to create the tapestry of space-time. 

    The shiva-linga is worn as an amulet by certain Shaivas, particularly the Lingayatas, and stone or metal replicas of the linga placed in yoni bowls remind Tantric practitioners of the bipolar nature of all apparent existence: Shiva and Parvati (Shakti), or Consciousness and Energy, play in the world. 

    Among the Vaishnavas, Vishnu ("Pervader") is the object of worship: 

    Vishnu is referenced in the Rig-Veda, thus Vaishnavism has its origins in Vedic times (e.g., 1 .23; 1 54; 8. 1 2; 29). 

    • Hari ("Remover"), Narayana ("Abode of Humans"), and Vasudeva are some of his other notable names ("God of [all] things"). 
    • Vishnu is depicted in mythology as sleeping in a formless condition on the cosmic snake Shesha (or Ananta) floating in the endless ocean of unrnanifest existence between the various eras of world creation. 

    Vishnu, like Shiva, is often shown with four arms, which symbolize his omnipresence and power. 

    • The conch (symbol of creation), the discus (symbolizing the universal mind), the lotus (representing the unity), the bow and arrows (symbolizing the ego sense and the senses), the mace (symbolizing the life force), the lock of golden hair on the left side of his chest (symbolizing the core of Nature), and the chariot (symbolizing the mind as the principle) are among his attributes. 
    • Vishnu is believed to have incarnated many times in order to reestablish the moral order (dharma) on Earth. 

    The following are Vishnu's 10 incarnations (avatira, "de­scent"): 

    1. Matsya ("Fish") incarnated for the sole purpose of rescuing Manu Satyavrata, the founder of the human race, from the flood at the beginning of the current world era. 

    2. Kurma ("Tortoise") emerged from Vishnu's infinity to retrieve numerous riches lost after the flood, most notably the elixir of life. 

    • Using the cosmic snake (Ananta) as a rope and the cosmic mountain Mandara as a churning rod, both the deities (deva or sura) and the counter-deities (asura) cooperated in churning the global ocean. 
    • The rod was pivoted around Kurma. 
    • All of the lost riches were retrieved as a result of their churning, restoring global order and equilibrium. 

    3. Varaha ("Boar") was created with the task of destroying Hiranyaksha ("Golden-Eyed"), the demon who had inundated the whole world. 

    4. Nara-Simha ("Man-Lion") appeared to destroy the e v i l monarch Hiranyakashipu ("Golden Vestment"), who had failed to slay his Reproduced from Hinduson PrahJada, a famous devoVishnu astee of Vishnu. 

    • Hiranyakashipu could not be slain by a god, human being, or beast at any time of day or night, within or beyond the walls of his palace, thanks to a blessing bestowed by God Brahma. 
    • Nara-Simha appeared as a lion-headed person inside a pillar at twilight. 
    • He ripped apart the king's body with his claws, killing him. 

    5. Vamana ("Dwarf") incarnated specifically to kill the evil Bali, who had dethroned the gods and taken control of the world. 

    • He asked Bali for as much land as he could walk across in three paces.
    • The demon emperor was amused by the request and allowed it. 
    • Yamana took two steps to encompass all of creation, then put his foot on Bali's head and pushed him into the infernal regions with his third stride. 
    • Yamana bestowed rulership over the nether regions to Bali since he was not completely devoid of qualities. 
    • The three stages of Vishnu are previously mentioned in the Rig-Veda (e.g., l .23. 1 71 8, 20). 

    6. Parashu-Rama (also known as "Rama with the Ax") was a warlike manifestation of Rama. 

    • He demolished the warrior estate twenty-one times, implying a major conflict between the kshatriyas and the brahmins during the early Vedic period. 

    7. Rama ("Dark one" or "Pleasing one"), also known as Ramacandra, was the righteous king of Ayodhya Nara-Simha and a younger contemporary of Parashu-Rama. 

    • The Ramayana epic tells the tale of his life.
    • Sita ("Furrow"), who is frequently associated with the Goddess Lakshmi ("Good Sign") and represents the principles of marriage faithfulness, love, and devotion, was his wife. 
    • She was abducted by Ravana, a demon king whose realm may have been in Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon), and saved by Hanumat, the monkey-headed demigod who symbolizes the ideal of loyal service. 

    8. Krishna ("Pul ler") was a God-man whose teachings are found throughout the Mahabharata epic, including the Bhagavad-Gfta and many other parts. 

    • The kali-yuga, which began with Krishna's death and will continue for thousands of years, is still in full flow. 

    9. Buddha ("Awakened One") was created to deceive evildoers and demons. 

    • Although some scholars dispute that this relates to Gautama the Buddha, there is little doubt that this was the intention of the brahmins who established the ten incarnation theory. 

    10. The avatara to come is Kalki ("THE BASE ONE"). 

    • He is depicted as riding a white horse and wielding a flaming sword in different Puranas. 
    • His mission will be to put the current world (yuga) to an end and the beginning of the following Golden Age, or Age of Truth (satya-yuga). 

    God Brahma is the most abstract of the Hindu trinity, and as a result, he has failed to captivate the imagination of the brahmins. 

    He is just the world's Creator. He must be distinguished from brahman, the nondual transcendental Reality, with caution. 

    Smartas, or followers of the Smritis (nonrevelato­ ry literature), are frequently characterized as those who do not belong to the major religious groups, such as Shaivism or Vaishnavism. 

    Gan­esha ("Lord of the Hosts")

    The elephant-headed God, is closely connected with God Shiva and is known by several other names, including Ganapati (which has the same meaning) and Vinayaka ("Leader"). 

    Ganesha hit the front pages of the New York Times and other major newspapers across the globe in 1995 for what has become known as the "milk miracle" (kshfra-camatkiira). 

    On September 2nd of that year, a normal Hindu in New Delhi dreamt that Ganesha was hungry for milk. 

    • When the guy awoke, he immediately rushed to the closest temple and, with the priest's permission, gave a scoop of milk to the statue of this god. 
    • The milk disappeared, much to his and the priest's surprise. 
    • The word spread quickly across the nation, and tens of millions of devoted Hindus rushed to the temples. 
    • Apparently, many others, including astonished doubters, saw the miracle in a variety of holy and non-religious places (such as Gane­ sha statues on car dashboards). 
    • The miracle ended as quickly as it had started, within twenty-four hours. 
    • Whatever perspective we take on the occasion, it allows us to consider the symbolism of the milk offering. 

    Milk was often blended with the legendary soma draft before it was given into the holy fire for the deities' pleasure, or it was imbibed by the sacrificial priest to enhance his connection with the deities in early Vedic times. 

    • Soma sacrifices were only comprehended and performed metaphorically in later times. 
    • Soma became the nectar of immortality, created by great concentration inside the human body. 
    • Milk, being a product of the holy cow, is steeped with symbolism. 

    Ganesha is especially associated with the sym­bolism of the life force (prana) and the serpent energy (kundalini), which causes the ambrosial liquid to flood the yogin's body after it has completely ascended to the psychospiritual center at the crown of the head. 

    Then we must seek out Durga ("She who is difficult to cross"). 

    Durga who symbolizes the cosmic force of destruction, namely the annihilation of the ego (ahamkara), which stands in the path of spiritual development and ultimate freedom. 

    • She is a loving mother only to those who follow the road of self-transcendence; everyone else is subjected to her anger. 
    • The embodiment of Durga's wrath, Kali ("Dark One"), is one of ten main Goddesses known as the "Great Wisdoms" (mahd-vidya).
    • Tara, Tripura Sundari, Bhuvaneshvari, Chinnamasta, Bhairavi, Dhumavati, BagaJamukhi, Matangi, and Kamala are the other goddesses. 
    • Chinnamasta ("She who has her head chopped off") is particularly significant for Yoga. 

    This ferocious Goddess is usually portrayed naked, with a garland of skulls around her neck stump, from which two streams of blood pour. 

    • In her left hand, she clutches her severed head. 
    • The Goddess chopped off her own head to feed her two attendants, Dakini and Vamini, or Jaya and Vijaya, according to several tales. 
    • This first sacrifice of the holy Mother, according to yogic interpretation, represents the left and right currents-idd and pinga/0, which must be sacrificed in order to induce the free flow of psychospiritual energy via the center channel (sushumno-nodi). 

    In order for enlightenment to occur, the head­ symbol of the mind-must be severed, that is, transcended. 

    • Sushumnasvara Bhasini, the Goddess's other name, suggests this yogic symbolism: "She who glows with the sound of the center channel." 
    • The Goddess Lakshmi, whose name is derived from lakshman ("sign") and meaning "Good Sign" or "Fortune," emphasizes the benevolent side of the Ultimate in its feminine form. 
    • The same element of the Divine is expressed by the South Indian Goddess Lalita Tripura Sundari ("Lovely Beauty of the Triple City"). 

    Rather than frightening (ugra) and horrific (saundarya), she is characterized as kind (saumya) and lovely (saundarya) (ghora). 

    • However, since Lakshmi and Lalita are seen as the ultimate Reality, they must also have a destructive side. 
    • The Divine, from our limited human perspective, is neither solely good nor solely negative, but it transcends all such classifications. 
    • The enormous Devi­ BhdgliJata, a Shakta counterpart of the Vaishnava Bhdgavata-Purona, which has been dated between the seventh and twelfth centuries, is the most significant Hindu book praising the Divine in its feminine form. 

    The great Goddess is presented as the universe's everlasting essence.

    You may also want to read more about Kundalini Yoga here.

    You may also want to read more about Yoga here.

    You may also want to read more about Yoga Asanas and Exercises here.

    You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

    Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.


    The term "Brahmarandhra" refers to the Brahman's hole. It is the human soul's permanent residence.

    Dasamadvara, or the tenth opening or door, is another name for this. The Brahmarandhra is the hollow spot in the crown of the head known as the anterior fontanelle of a newborn infant. Between the parietal and occipital bones is this room. 

    In a baby, this part is very delicate. The growth of the head bones obliterates the child's face as he or she ages. Through this Brahmarandhra, Brahma formed the physical body and entered (Pravishat) it to provide illumination inside. 

    That is how it is mentioned in some Upanishads. This is the most crucial section. It's excellent for Nirguna Dhyana (abstract meditation). 

    When the Yogi splits from his physical body at death, this Brahmarandhra bursts free, allowing Prana to flow out (Kapala Moksha). 

    “There are a hundred and one nerves in the heart. One of them (Sushumna) has pierced the head, and by ascending through it, one attains immortality” (Kathopanishad). 

    The 'brahmarandhra,' or crevice in the crown of the head, is named after Brahman (vara or God), who is thought to have entered this body via this randhra or gap. 

    By creating it, Brahman brought it to life. 

    If a person is able to depart the body at the moment of death, he enters Brahmaloka, or the realm of Brahm, through this randhra. 

    As a result, it is given that name. 

    Only great yogis, those at the pinnacle of spiritual progress, are capable of doing so. 

    This brahmarandhra is described as the upper end of the suumn channel in Hahayoga works. 

    "Brahmarandra and the Sushumna tunnel of Maha Kundalini Sakti, the primary nadi that finishes in the Kundalini chamber, are the entry and fall of the Atman into the phenomenal world through man." Like the lotus, the seed matures through time, passing through impure land, impure and pure land, and eventually pure land and fulfillment. 

    Man is also said to have opened a thousand petal lotus on his head when fully matured and purified, the sahasrara chakra, as depicted in the iconography of Buddha - the awakened one. 

    The growing body of knowledge about the Kundalini phenomenon has elicited a variety of viewpoints on the nature of this mysterious mechanism, its modes of operation, and how it operates in the physical body. 

    Recently, there has been an effort to combine the remnants of ancient knowledge that have come down to us with information gained from the experiences of people who are currently experiencing Kundalini arousal, and to integrate this knowledge with the picture of the body/mind complex presented by modern disciplines such as anatomy, physiology, and psychology. 

    The goal of this talk is to present one aspect of Gopi Krishna's Kundalini process theory, according to which a complete understanding of the process can only be achieved when the activation of the center at the base of the spine is considered in relation to the awakening to activity of an evolving or developing center in the brain. 

    This brain center has been referred to as the Brahma-randhra, or 'Chamber of Brahma,' in some ancient East Indian esoteric treatises on the subject, and was held by Gopi Krishna to be the source of all the higher mental faculties associated with the enhancement of consciousness brought about by Kundalini awakening when fully operative. 

    Many contemporary perspectives on Kundalini focus on the psychological aspects of the process, citing the rising of energy up the spine and the opening of the chakras as the foundation for the various mental transformations (and problems) that can occur. 

    However, in recent years, Western medical science has made significant advances in the field of brain research, indicating that many of what were previously thought to be purely "psychological" disorders or states of mind, such as schizophrenia or manic depressive disorders, are actually the result of chemistry imbalances in the brain at its finer levels. 

    To reconcile the disparities between current medical understanding of brain functioning and more traditional theories of Kundalini awakening, we must first examine ancient Kundalini concepts, which were developed over thousands of years through practical experimentation and from which many modern ideas on the phenomenon have evolved. 

    Prana's Characteristics Many ancient esoteric systems are based on the idea that the human body is pervaded by an intelligent, vital medium, which has been referred to as prana in Indian tradition, chi in Chinese systems, orgone by Wilhelm Reich, and many other names throughout history in various esoteric traditions. 

    This vital element is said to be intimately connected with the manifestation of life and consciousness in the body, and can be thought of as the interface between our non-physical, spiritual self and the gross body of which we are directly aware. 

    Although the ultimate nature of reality was held to be a unity, which was termed Brahman, the nature of creation, as experienced from the limited, sense-bound human perspective, is of a dual form: on the one hand, consciousness, and on the other, mind/matter/energy. 

    These can be thought of as the static and kinetic aspects of creation, as described by Arthur Avalon in The Serpent Power (p 24). 

    The static aspect of the cosmic perspective is what is known as Universal Consciousness, also known as Paramatma or Shiva, and the kinetic aspect is Shakti, the primordial, creative energy that is responsible for the manifestation of this physical universe. 

    The aspects of Shiva and Shakti are said to take the forms of limited human consciousness (jivatma) and vital energy (prana) in the human form, which is said to be a microcosmic reflection of the universal form. 

    When the Kundalini energy is fully arouse, the conscious center in the head, known as sahasrara, or the 'Thousand Petalled Lotus,' opens, allowing the limited human consciousness, or jivatma, to realize its oneness with the paramatma, or Universal Consciousness. 

    In The Serpent Power (Page 246), Arthur Avalon says: Kundalini is the physical manifestation of the great Cosmic Power (Shakti), which is responsible for the creation and maintenance of the universe. 

    When this individual Shakti manifesting as individual consciousness (Jivatma) merges with the Supreme Shiva's consciousness, the world dissolves for that Jiva, and Mukti (liberation) is attained. 

    The Cosmic Creative Energy, or Shakti, manifests life on the physical plane through Prana, which allows a limited form of Universal Consciousness to be expressed in the bodies of living organisms. 

    The amazingly skillful and complex process by which a single fertilized ovum develops into a fully formed human being in just nine short months process that is nothing short of miraculous when studied in detail is the most striking example of this creative activity. 

    The general theory of acupuncture, which posits a set of energy meridians passing through the body that are associated with and affect the functioning of the various internal organs, appears to support the idea of an all-pervasive vital energy in the body. 

    Illness is said to be caused by the blockage of these meridians and the resulting interruption of the flow of vital energy. 

    Both the Taittiriyaka Upanishad (VII:2) and the Prasna Upanishad (III:3-10) refer to five different types of prana in the body: prana, apana, udana, samana, and vyana, which appear to be different aspects of the energy that carry out respiration, digestion, assimilation, circulation, elimination, and other functions that keep the body alive and healthy. 

    Pranayama, one of Yoga's eight limbs, is directly concerned with the intake and control of this vital principle. 

    It achieves this primarily through control of the breath, implying that prana is a component of the surrounding environment. 

    Because oxygen is the active principle that is absorbed and carried by the bloodstream to every part of the body, vivifying all tissues and cells, it is possible, as Gopi Krishna has suggested, that this element is intimately connected with the physical operation of prana. 

    Gopi Krishna writes about Kundalini in his book Living with Kundalini: Prana is divided into two types. 

    The individual's prana is one. 

    The second is universal prana, which pervades all of creation, from matter's energy fields to galaxies. 

    It is a fundamental component of every atom and molecule, occupying vast swaths of empty space between sub-nuclear particles and the billions upon billions of stars and planets that make up our universe. 

    Individual prana, or, to be more precise, undifferentiated universal prana with an extremely subtle biochemical sheath through which it acts on all of the organism's cells and tissues, is the vehicle through which universal prana operates in a living body. 

    It is not accurate to say that the pranic body, also known as prana-kosha in India, is entirely ethereal or unsubstantial. 

    The reality is that it is so subtle and fine that it has yet to be detected experimentally or fully determined. 

    This vital essence... circulates in the organism as motor impulse and sensation, conducting all of the body's organic functions, permeated and worked by the super-intelligent cosmic life energy, or (universal) prana, by which it is constantly affected, much like the sensitive chemical layer on a photographic plate is affected by light. 

    The rare organic essence undergoes chemical changes as soon as the body dies, ceasing to serve as a channel for the former (universal prana) in the previous capacity. 

    He also believes that the gross form of this essence is extracted from the body's cells and tissues and converted into the bioenergy that powers the brain and nervous system through a transmutation process. 

    This extraction occurs on a very limited basis by a limited set of nerves in people who are not engaged in Kundalini activity

    He theorized that in those who are, as well as in people with high levels of creativity and genius, this extraction is enhanced, resulting in an increase in both the quality and quantity of energy sent to the brain. 

    He outlines the process in relation to this latter class as follows: There are special nerves connecting the reproductive system with the various organs in the body, as far as I've been able to determine. 

    The essence travels to the erotic zone after being extracted by vast networks of nerves, where it mingles with that arriving from other organs and parts of the body, eventually forming an ingredient of the human seed. 

    The essence of the brain travels down the spinal cord in a mysterious way, eventually converging with the other nerve channels that serve the same purpose. 

    Although it may appear on the surface that something descends from the head to the reproductive system is a stretch, recent genetic research is beginning to suggest that such a link does exist. 

    Recent research has discovered that the brain can produce hormones that can modify the genetic code via protein triggers via the pituitary gland, implying a direct link between the brain and the reproductive system. 

    Similar statements about the nature of sexual energy have been made by Arthur Avalon in The Serpent Power (p 199). 

    He declares, "Semen (Sukra) is said to exist in a subtle form throughout the entire body in Hindu beliefs. 

    It is withdrawn and elaborated into a gross form in the sexual organs under the influence of sexual desire... 

    If the substance, which under the influence of sexual desire develops into gross seed, is made to flow upward (Urdhva-retas), control over Manas and Prana is gained." "This Shakti is the supreme Shakti, in the human body, employing all powers and assuming all forms," he says elsewhere (page 224). 

    As a result, the sexual force is one of these powers that is used. 

    Rather than descending into gross seminal fluid, it is preserved as a form of subtle energy and ascends to Shiva with Prana." According to Gopi Krishna, this collected substance is sublimated or converted at the base of the spine into a more refined form, which is then sent up the spinal canal to the brain during Kundalini arousal. 

    As he described his own awakening process: With the intensely pleasurable sensation I was experiencing, two distinct entities moved up the spine side by side. 

    One was a type of radiation that was initially orange in color but later changed to silver with a slightly golden hue. 

    The second was an organic essence that entered the brain simultaneously with the radiation. 

    The fact that some people with significant Kundalini activity experience orgasmic sensations, even orgasms, at various points in the spinal cord and/or a sucking sensation drawing secretions upward from the sexual organs would seem to corroborate this close connection between the brain and the reproductive organs via the spinal axis. 

    The goal of this process appears to be to send a very potent form of vital energy to the brain, where it will eventually arrive at the sahasrara, or evolving conscious center, or Brahmarandhra. 

    In the following passage, Avalon (p 243) emphasizes the significance of the sahasrara in the Kundalini awakening process: Kundalini does not stay in Sahasrara for long at first. 

    The length of stay is determined by the Yogi's level of practice. 

    Kundalini has a natural tendency (Samskara) to return at this point. 

    The Yogi will exert every effort at his disposal to keep Her above, because the longer he does so, the closer he gets to the time when she can be permanently retained there. 

    For it should be noted that merely leading Kundalini to the Sahasrara, and even less so stirring it up in the Muladhara, or fixing it in any of the lower centers, does not result in liberation. 

    Kundalini attains liberation only when she takes up her permanent residence in the Sahasrara, and only then by the sadhaka's will. 

    "This force is raised from its latent potential state to one of activity, and there reunited with Itself in its other aspect as the Static Light which shines in the cerebral center," says Avalon, emphasizing that the Kundalini process is not complete until this union occurs. 

    The ultimate goal of the Kundalini process, as stated in these statements, is to enhance mental faculties by stimulating the activity of certain areas of the brain with a more enhanced form of vital energy. 

    As a result, Kundalini is a bipolar phenomenon, with two poles: the energy center at the base of the spine and the conscious center in the brain at the top of the spinal cord. 

    "There is a direct and immediate connection between the basic mechanism close to the genitals, and Brahma-randhra in the brain," Gopi Krishna writes in Living with Kundalini about the relationship between these two centers. 

    "What arouses one also arouses the other." We can see that the Indian esoteric systems are not incompatible with modern Western concepts about the brain by making the ultimate goal of Kundalini arousal the enhancement of mental faculties through stimulation of certain areas of the cerebral cortex. 

    The brain is the primary center of consciousness from a Western perspective, and the evidence is overwhelming that the brain is intimately connected with the control of all physiological processes that occur in the body. 

    It exerts control over the various nervous systems, including the central, sympathetic, and parasympathetic nervous systems, as well as the endocrine and glandular systems. 

    Although electricity is currently thought to be the primary energy used by the brain and nervous system in their functioning, the introduction of the concept of a new form of life energy in the body into this picture would bring modern ideas much more in line with ancient ones. 

    Hopefully, science will develop instrumentation with the required level of subtlety before this new factor can be quantified in the near future. 

    As a result, some current Kundalini theories will need to be revised in order to align with modern scientific models, taking into account both the brain's role and the biological aspect of the vital energy. 

    Perhaps the lack of recent cases of Kundalini awakening in which the energy rises in an unending or continuous stream and the brain's center becomes fully or perennially active explains why the brain's importance has not been recognized. 

    The Kundalini Process and Brahma-Randhra So, where exactly is the Brahmarandhra in terms of physical location? Gopi Krishna has made a number of statements worth considering in this regard. 

    It's 'directly above the palate and below the crown of the head,' according to him. 

    In his book The Secret of Yoga (page 162) he mentions it and says, "It is the point where the canal from the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain meet. 

    The cerebrospinal fluid, which is a blood derivative and similar to plasma, fills this cavity and those adjacent to it." Arthur Avalon places it "above the foramen of Monro and the middle commissure" in The Serpent Power (p 258). 

    Subjects have described a specific sensation occurring in the brain, above the palate, and below the crown of the head in a number of recent case histories of Kundalini awakening. 

    Some people believe that this seventh center is actually the pineal body. 

    "The soul has its principal seat in the little gland which exists in the middle of the brain, from which it radiates forth through all the remainder of the body by means of the animal spirits, nerves, and even the blood," wrote Rene Descartes in i>The Passions of the Soul/i>. 

    Although the function of this mysterious body is still unknown, it is known to produce the hormone melatonin and to be linked to sexual maturation and possibly sleep. 

    The way the Brahma-randhra appears to work suggests that, while the pineal is most likely involved in its functioning, it may not be sufficient to account for the wide range of mental faculties affected by a full awakening. 

    The pituitary gland, which is often associated with the sixth chakra and regulates hormone balances in the body, is also in close proximity to the general location of the new conscious center. 

    Both the pineal and pituitary are likely to play a role in the new center's operation. 

    Another aspect of Kundalini awakening that appears to be linked to the brain's center is the sensation of a nectar-like substance flowing from the area above the roof of the mouth. 

    Various sensations of this nature have been reported by a number of people in recent Kundalini awakening case studies. 

     "13 definitions for Brahmarandhra, Brahman-randhra, Brahma-randhra, and Brahmaramdhra Rasashastra is a Hindu scripture (chemistry and alchemy) The name Brahmarandhra  refers to an Ayurvedic recipe described in the fourth volume of the Rasajalanidhi (chapter 2, dealing with jvara: fever). 

    These treatments are classified as Iatrochemistry and are based on the ancient Indian science of Rasastra (medical alchemy). 

    As an ayurvedic treatment, however, it should be used with caution and in accordance with the rules outlined in the texts. 

    When using such recipes (for example, brahmarandhra-rasa), "the minerals (uparasa), poisons (via), and other drugs (except herbs), referred to as ingredients of medicines, are to be duly purified and incinerated, as the case may be, in accordance with the processes laid out in the texts." (See the section on Iatrochemical Medicines for more information.) 

    Shaktism is a type of Hinduism that is (Shakta philosophy) According to the rmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjik cult, Brahmarandhra  refers to the "cavity of Brahm." As a result, Bhairava says, "I will tell (you) in brief about the Command [i.e., j] that gives bliss." (First the Command) is envisioned as a lightning flash in the Triangle's center (in the End of the Twelve). 

    Then (the teacher) should cause it to be felt in the other body (that of the disciple), which enters through Brahm's Cavity [i.e. brahmarandhra]. 

    The piercing (of the Wheels in the body) occurs in a split second as a result of this visualization practice. [...]”. 

    In his 11th-century aradtilaka, Lakmaadeika explains Brahmarandhra using the concept of kualinyoga. 

    — The body is described from the "bulb" (kanda), which is located between the anus and the penis (28–9) and is where the subtle channels (n) originate. 

    I (left), pigal (right), and suum (middle) are the three main channels (in the centre of the spine and the head). 

    Citr, a channel inside the suum that connects to the brahmarandhra (30–4) on the top of the skull, is present. 

    Note: The brahmarandhra, or "brahman opening," is a small opening near the fontanel on the top of the skull; its name comes from a belief expressed in the older Upaniads that it is a place where the tman can leave the body to unite with the soul. 

    Shaivism is a religion that is based on (Shaiva philosophy) According to the Netratantra, Brahmarandhra (, "cranial apperture") is one of the sixteen types of "locus" or "support" (dhra). 

    These dhras are named after the fact that they "support" or "localize" the self and are frequently identified as places where breath can be held. 

    They are taught in two ways: tantraprakriy and kulaprakriy, respectively. 

    The latter system includes Brahmarandhra. 

    According to the Jyotsn 3.73 (Cf. Gorakaataka 14 and Svtmrma's Hahapradpik 3.72), Brahmarandhra  refers to one of the sixteen vital centers of the body (i.e., dhra). 

    — Dhra refers to a vital point of the body, a seat of vital function in Hahayoga. 

    The dhras are listed as [e.g., brahmarandhra,...] in Jyotsn verse 3.73, according to a passage attributed to Goraka. 

    The Hahapradpik mentions sixteen dhras without naming or explaining what they are. 

    The Gorakaataka also mentions sixteen dhras as being something the Yogi should be aware of, but it does not name them. 

    According to the commentary on the Kuika-upaniad verse 28, the Vedanta (school of philosophy) Brahmarandhra refers to the "crown of the head." — The worshippers of the attributeless Brahman (abala-brahma) enter the world of Brahma (brahmaloka), that is, the sphere of Hirayagarbha, by exiting from the crown of the head (brahma-randhra) through the suum canal, following the path of the Sun (sryamrga, or uttaryaa-mrga), and remain there until the end of the kalp (till pralaya, or great dissolution, takes place). 

    They eventually merge with Brahman on the attenuation of their subtle desires and attractions (vsan-kaya) after having lived there for such a long time. 

    They never return to the plane of relative existence after that. 

    This is the gradual liberation (krama-mukti) that Brahman-knowers with attributes (saviea brahmajn) achieve. 

    The knowers of the attributeless, absolute Brahman (nirviea brahmajn), on the other hand, will achieve direct, instant liberation (sadyo-mukti) right now (ihaiva). 

    Vedanta (, vednta) is a Hindu school of orthodox philosophy (astika) that draws its subject matter from the Upanishads. 

    Vedanta has a number of sub-schools, but they all expound on the basic teachings of the ultimate reality (brahman) and individual soul liberation (moksha) (atman). 

    Related Terms: 

    Murdhajyotis, Mudramarga, Shunyapadavi, Sushumna, Dashamadvara, Shmashana, Brahmya, Badariyashrama, Mahapatha, Krama, Uttarayanamarga, Brahmajnanin, Dhumragni, Nadi, Vasana, Shabala, Pralaya, Kramamukti, Mukti Brahmarandhra, 

    Kiran Atma

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