Showing posts with label Dashanami Sanyasis. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Dashanami Sanyasis. Show all posts

Hinduism - Who Are The Suryapraksha Among The Dashanami Sanyasis?

 


("the sun's effulgence") The Mahanirvani Akhara, a subgroup of the Naga class of the Dashanami Sanyasis, is known by the name of the banner that serves as their symbolic insignia.

The Nagas are Shiva followers (bhakta) who are organized into several akharas or regiments, similar to an army.

The Nagas' major vocation until the early nineteenth century was as mercenary troops, while they also had significant commerce interests; both of these have mostly vanished in modern times.

This specific banner—one with strong links to a martial identity—is one of the traits that identify the akhara's organizational identity.


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Hinduism - How Prevalent Was Religious Persecution In India?

 

Religious Persecution is a term used to describe when people are persecuted for their religious beliefs or structures or practices. 

In popular imagination, India is portrayed as a place of ideal religious tolerance, where all schools of thought are free to flourish.

This image is significantly simplified, even though it is accurate in its fundamental form.

Competition between religious groups and schools of thought has a long history, often driven by harsh polemics intended to convince audiences that one was true and the other was wrong.

Acts of violence, on the other hand, have been uncommon in these debates, as has the concept that individuals should be afraid for their lives because of their beliefs.

Language against the Jains has a really hostile tone in the literature of the Nayanar and Lingayat communities—both followers (bhakta) of the deity Shiva—and the Nayanar leader Sambandar has been continuously linked with the impalement of 8,000 Jains in the southern Indian city of Madurai.

Similarly, the northern Indian ruler Sashanka, who was also a Shiva devotee, had a pathological loathing towards Buddhists.

Sashanka is said to have not only persecuted Buddhists, but also attempted to kill the tree at Bodh Gaya where the Buddha is said to have attained enlightenment.

Apart from sectarian rivalry, persons whose religious beliefs has led them to disregard commonly accepted social conventions have faced a lot of criticism.

The stories of the devotional (bhakti) poet-saints are rife with accounts of the difficulties they experienced from traditional morality guards, who are commonly described as brahmins.

There was a long and frequently murderous war between two groups of militant ascetics in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries—the Naga class of the Dashanami Sanyasis and the Bairagi Nagas—although the objectives might just as well have been economic, notably control of commerce in the Ganges valley.

The development of Hindutva in the 1980s provides a last example of religious persecution.

Persecution has all too frequently resulted in actual bloodshed, fueled by rhetorical assaults on Muslims and Christians.


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Hinduism - Who Are The Parvata Dashanami?

 


Parvata Dashanami is one of the ten divisions of the Dashanami Sanyasis, who are renouncers and Shiva worshipers (bhakta).

Shankaracharya, a ninth-century philosopher, is said to have founded the Dashanamis in order to create a corps of erudite men who might assist rejuvenate Hindu life.

Each division is given a separate name, such as parvata ("mountain" in this example).

New members are given this name as a surname to their new ascetic names at the time of initiation, allowing for quick group identification.

These 10 "named" divisions are organized into four broader organizational categories, apart from their unique identities.

Each group has its headquarters at one of the four monastic centers (maths) that Shankaracharya is said to have founded.

The Anandawara sect, which is linked with the Jyotir math in the Himalayan town of Joshimath, is home to the Parvata Dashanamis.


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Hinduism - What Is The Niranjani Akhara?


Niranjani Akhara  is the name of a subgroup of the Dashanami Sanyasis' Naga class; a specific sort of renunciant ascetic.

The Dashanami Sanyasis are Shiva worshippers (bhakta) who are divided into akharas or regiments in the manner of an army.

The Dashanami Sanyasis' major occupation until the beginning of the nineteenth century was as mercenary warriors, while they also had significant trading interests; both of these have virtually vanished in modern times.

The Niranjani Akhara is one of the seven primary Dashanami Sanyasi akharas, and it is one of the most powerful, along with the Mahanirvani Akhara.

Their contrasting positions in the bathing (snana) processions during the Kumbha Mela festivals demonstrate this power: at Haridwar, the Niranjani Akhara goes first, followed by the Mahanirvani; in Allahabad, the sequence is reversed.

The Juna Akhara, rather than being a subsidiary of the Niranjani Akhara, became a distinct procession in 1962.

The Juna Akhara will lead the Sanyasi processions for bathing on the Shivaratri festival, followed by the Niranjani and Mahanirvani Akharas, according to the provisions of the 1962 agreement.

For the other two important bathing days, the Niranjanis would be first, followed by the Juna and Mahanirvani Akharas.

The Niranjani Akhara's ability to hold the top spot is mostly due to their local power: the Niranjani Akhara was formerly highly strong in Haridwar, where it still controls major land.

However, the Mahanirvani Akhara was located in Allahabad.

Another indication of the Niranjani Akhara's standing is that it has the Ananda Akhara as a subsidiary organisation.

Each akhara has distinct characteristics that determine its organizational identity, particularly distinctive tutelary deities.

Skanda, the son of Shiva and Parvati and the heavenly general leading Shiva's supernatural army, is the tutelary god of the Niranjani Akhara.

The choice of a heavenly warrior shows the akhara's power and previous military prowess, in addition to functioning as an identifying marking.


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Hinduism - What Is A Math or Mutt?

 

Math or Mutt is a commonly used term for a  "monastery" in India

Ascetics' residential place; generally a big, well-established residence for a group of ascetics belonging to a recognized order.

The philosopher Shankaracharya is said to have founded the four most famous maths: the Jyotir Math in the Himalayan town of Joshimath; the Govardhan Math in the Bay of Bengal city of Puri; the Sharada Math in the Arabian Sea city of Dwaraka; and the Shringeri Math in the southern Indian town of Shringeri.

The four main factions in the Dashanami sect Sanyasis, renunciant ascetics who are worshippers (bhakta) of the deity Shiva, have their headquarters in these mathematics.

Despite the fact that most maths do not have the same prestige as these four, they all function as ascetic and religious places.


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Hinduism - Who Is A Mandaleshvar?


 ("Lord of the Region") is a title given to a person who is in charge of Respect term for the ascetics appointed to lead the Dashanami Sanyasis' Naga class in their disputes with Christian missionaries.

The Dashanami Nagas are renunciant ascetics who are Shiva worshipers (bhakta) who had previously worked as merchants and mercenary troops.

Their improvisational talents made them good soldiers, but they lacked the necessary preparation for formal debate.

The Nagas picked the Mandaleshvars from among the more erudite Paramahamsa ascetics to provide a more cogent and compelling counter-narrative to Christian missionaries.

As a Mandaleshvar, an ascetic serves as the spiritual counsellor and teacher to the Dashanami Naga members of the akhara, who see him as a spiritual preceptor on par with their own gurus.


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Hinduism - Who Are The Mahanirvani Akhara?

 

The Naga class of the Dashanami Sanyasis, a sort of renunciant ascetic, is known by this name.

The Dashanami Nagas are Shiva followers (bhakta) who are divided into akharas or regiments in the manner of an army.

The Nagas' principal vocation until the beginning of the nineteenth century was as mercenary warriors or merchants, both of which have practically vanished in modern times.

This akhara is said to have fought against the Moghul emperor Aurangzeb's armies in 1664, and they are credited with rescuing Benares from being sacked.

One of the seven primary Dashanami Naga akharas, the Mahanirvani Akhara is still one of the most powerful.

The Mahanirvani Akhara's main headquarters are in Allahabad, which hosts the Kumbha Mela, one of the world's biggest and most significant bathing (snana) festivals.

Their power in Allahabad has enabled them to take the most coveted position at the head of the Kumbha Mela bathing procession.

Each akhara has a (guardian) god who determines its organizational character; the Mahanirvani Akhara's tutelary deity is the renowned sage Kapila.


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Hinduism - Who Is A Mahamandaleshvar Among Dashanami Sanyasis' Naga akharas?


 ("The Region's Great Lord") When one of a Mandaleshvar's followers is selected as a Mandaleshvar while the preceptor is still alive, it is referred to as a term of respect.

Mandaleshvars are knowledgeable ascetics who oversee the Dashanami Sanyasis' Naga akharas, a tradition that dates back to the eighteenth century.

The Dashanami Nagas are renounced ascetics who are Shiva worshippers (bhakta) who formerly worked as merchants and mercenary soldiers.

Their toughness made them good fighters, but it left them unprepared for a formal debate with Christian missionaries.

Mandaleshvars were picked from among the most knowledgeable Paramahamsa ascetics in order for the latter to present a more cohesive and telling opposition; he is also the Nagas' teacher and spiritual advisor.

The enshrinement of a Mandaleshvar's student is therefore considered as elevating his teacher's status even higher.



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Hinduism - Who Is Madhusudana Saraswati?

 

(16th century) A well-known member of the Sanyasi society, which consisted of renunciant ascetics who were Shiva worshipers (bhakta).

His surname indicates that he belonged to the Saraswati sect, one of the most renowned of the ten Dashanami divisions; he is supposed to have spent the most of his life at Benares, the world's biggest religious center at the time.

According to ascetic tradition, Madhusudana was the founder of the Naga Sanyasis, a class of battling ascetics.

Madhusudana, according to legend, developed these fighters in response to the depredations the Sanyasis had undergone at the hands of hostile Muslim faqirs.

Madhusudana wanted to start a military ascetic order committed to safeguarding fellow ascetics after conferring with Birbal, the Moghul emperor Akbar's counsellor.

Recruits came from the shudras' ranks.


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Hinduism - Who Are The Kitawara?

 

One of four major organizational groups of the Dashanami Sanyasis, renunciant ascetics who are devotees (bhakta) of the god Shiva; the other three divisions are Bhuriwara, Bhogawara, and Anandawara.

Each of these organizations is based in one of the four monastic centers (maths) that philosopher Shankaracharya is said to have founded.

Each of the 10 Dashanami divisions is linked to one of the four Vedas, one of the "great utterances" (mahavakyas) conveying the ultimate truth, a specific ascetic trait, and one of the four Vedas.

The Kitawara group is associated with the Sharada math at Dwaraka, and so with India's western quarter.

The Sama Veda is the Veda of the Kitawara.

Their mahavakya is "tattvamasi" ("That thou are"), and their ascetic quality is eating just a little amount of food.

Tirtha and Ashrama are the Dashanami divisions connected with this group. 



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Hinduism - Where Is The Jyotir Math(Mutt) Located? What Are Three Important Maths In India?

 


The Sharada math, Shringeri math, and Govardhan math are the other three maths(mutts) or holy places said to have been built by the renowned scholar Shankaracharya.

The Jyotir math located in the northern quarter, in the town of Joshimath in the state of Uttar Pradesh, high in the Himalaya Mountains, and is related with one of the four geographical corners of the Indian subcontinent.

The Dashanami Sanyasis, the most prominent Hindu ascetic order, is said to have been founded by Shankaracharya.

The Dashanami ("ten names") ascetics are Shiva's worshippers (bhakta) who are divided into 10 divisions, each with its own name.

The 10 divisions are divided into four groups: Anandawara, Bhogawara, Bhuriwara, and Kitawara, each of which contains two or three of the ten divisions and is linked to one of the four holy centers.

The Anandawara group of the Dashanamis is related with the Jyotir math.


 


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Hinduism - What Is The Juna Akhara?

 Juna ("Old") Akhara - One of the seven subgroups of the Dashanami Sanyasis' Naga class of renunciant ascetics who are Shiva worshipers (bhakta).

The subgroups are called as akharas, and they are analogous to army regiments.

The Nagas were largely mercenary soldiers until the early nineteenth century, but they were also involved in mercantile trade; none of these qualities apply now.

The sage Dattatreya is revered as the Juna Akhara's "tutelary god," the principal deity from whom they learn; each of the akharas has a separate tutelary deity.

According to some reports, Bhairava was the Juna Akhara's patron god in the past, which would explain why the organization is also known as the Bhairava Akhara.

The present name's literal meaning and association with Bhairava suggest that it is quite ancient.

It is a vast organization that is only present in northern India nowadays.

It is assigned a low rank in certain regions because it admits members from poorer socioeconomic levels.

The Juna Akhara marched alongside the Niranjani Akhara in the bathing (snana) processions at the Kumbha Mela until the middle of the twentieth century, and was therefore regarded a minor portion of that akhara.

The Junas have been dissatisfied with their subordinate position for much of this century, despite having considerably more members than any other akhara.

The Junas first attempted to earn recognition as a distinct procession in 1903 during the Haridwar Kumbha Mela, but did not get it until 1962.

The akharas decided that the Junas would lead the Sanyasi processions during the Shivaratri bathing during a Haridwar Kumbha Mela.

However, on the other two main bathing days—the new moon in Chaitra and the Kumbha bath on April 14—the Niranjanis would be first.

This system fell apart at the 1998 Kumbha Mela in Haridwar, when the Junas asked that, as the biggest akhara, they be permitted to enter the Chaitra bath first.

This argument erupted into a full-fledged riot between ascetic groups and police on the day of the second bath, in which many people were injured.

The fear was that similar violence might return on the major bathing day, but when the Juna Akhara boycotted the bathing processions, the day passed without incident. 


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