Showing posts with label Dharma Sutras. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Dharma Sutras. Show all posts

Hinduism - What Are The Kalpa Sutras?

 

The Kalpa Sutras are a collection of Hindu scriptures. ("Sacred Law Aphorisms") A crucial kind of smrti, or "remembered [literature]." Around the sixth century B.C.E., the Kalpa Sutras were first authored.

The sutras were compiled in order to provide a unified religious and legal perspective.

The idea utilized to correlate these sutras, according to academic opinion, placed an illusion of conceptual order on what was more likely an organic growth of Hindu religious law.

All of the Kalpa Sutras are credited to well-known sages.

In principle, each Kalpa Sutra is divided into three sections: prescriptions for Vedic rituals (Shrauta Sutras), prescriptions for household rites (Grhya Sutras), and prescriptions for proper human conduct (Kalpa Sutras) (Dharma Sutras).

Because just three sutras include all three elements and are assigned to a single author, the true picture is significantly more complicated.

The three surviving Kalpa Sutras are credited to the sages Apastamba, Baudhayana, and Hiranyakeshin, and are all part of the Black Yajur Veda school.

Many other collections have one or more of these components, but not all three.

Each of the Kalpa Sutras is considered to be linked to one of the four Vedas, the oldest Hindu sacred books.

However, it's possible that this claim was created to give the collection authorship.

 


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Hinduism - What Are The Dharma Sutras?



("dharma aphorisms") The first works particularly dedicated to dharma—moral responsibilities, rights, and obligations for distinct social groupings. 

These were produced between the seventh and second centuries B.C.E. as collections of aphorisms, some of which are so concise that they almost demand interpretation. 

The Dharma Sutras, according to hypothesis, were the third and last section of a Kalpa Sutra (complete manual of religious practice) that also included instructions for Vedic rituals (Shrauta Sutras) and household ceremonies (Grhya Sutras). 

Each Kalpa Sutra was theoretically linked to one of the four Vedas, the earliest Hindu sacred writings, and hence belonged to the brahmins (priests) associated with that Veda. 

A certain Dharma Sutra was identified with a specific set of brahmins and served largely as a behavior handbook for them. 

Since more than twenty collections of Dharma Sutras have been unearthed, the true picture is significantly more complicated, albeit the most important are attributed to sages and authors Apastamba, Gautama, Vasishtha, Baudhayana, and the divinity Vishnu. 

These Dharma Sutras attempted to offer an orderly way of life by defining each person's rights and responsibilities in relation to his or her social standing (varna) and life stage (ashrama). 

Later Dharma Shastras (treatises on religious obligation) were based on these works, which enlarged the sutras, placed them into poetry, and were meant to serve as a real rule of law for the community's members. 



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Hinduism - Who Is Dharma, The Deity? What Are The Dharma Sutras?


A god who is seen as the embodiment of dharma, or religious responsibility. 

The five Pandava brothers, who are the epic's protagonists, all have heavenly fathers in the Mahabharata, the later of the two major Hindu epics, and the oldest brother Yudhishthira is the son of Dharma. 

Yudhishthira and his brothers are from a kingly (kshatriya) family, yet Yudhishthira cares much about truth, morality, and compassion. 

None of these are traditional kshatriya attributes, which emphasize bravery and martial valor, and Yudhishthira's qualities are generally explained by evoking his heavenly father's influence. 

In medieval Bengal, a new kind of Dharma cult evolved from the blending of Buddhist, Muslim, and Hindu concepts. 

Dharma was worshiped as a formless one ultimate Lord in this religion (perhaps reflecting Islamic influence), yet the worship of Dharma had many parallels to Bengali Hindu rites. 

Obscure Religious Cults, by Shashibhushan B. Dasgupta, was published in 1962. 

Dharma Literature is a term that refers to the study of the Buddha's teachings.

Many books address the issue of dharma, or religious responsibility, either openly or implicitly. 

The Vedas are the earliest Hindu holy books, and they are said to define the eternal (sanatana) dharma. 

The Dharma Sutras, composed in an aphoristic (sutra) style between the seventeenth and second centuries B.C.E., are the earliest important works specifically dedicated to dharma. 

The Dharma Sutras were all associated with certain Vedic schools, and were therefore mainly meant as a behavior handbook for members of that school alone, at least in principle. 

The Dharma Sutras were followed by the Dharma Shastras, which enlarged and placed into verse the information in the Dharma Sutras; these writings provided instructions for all members of society and were therefore meant to be "legal" in their significance. 

The Manava Dharma Shastra (Manu Smrti), written around the turn of the common period, was one of the first. 

Although the most notable works were written by the sixteenth century, the process of reconsidering and developing this legal heritage via commentary has persisted till now. 



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