Showing posts with label Doha. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Doha. Show all posts

Hinduism - What Are Poetic Meters In Hindu Poetry And Literature?

 

Indian poetry has well-developed metrical forms that primarily follow two patterns.

The first metric is based on the number of syllables in a single line.

Each line in the second pattern has a specific number of metric beats, which is determined by the distinction between "heavy" and "light" syllables.

A heavy syllable is any syllable with a long vowel or a consonant cluster and is given two metric beats; all other syllables are considered light and counted as one beat.

Sanskrit poetry tends to stress the former pattern, and has codified meters ranging from four to twenty-six syllables per half-line, yet even within these syllabic constraints each meter usually has a prescribed sequence of light and heavy syllables as well.

Two different Sanskrit poetic meters may thus have the same number of syllables, but vary in their syllabic patterns.

Although such subtle differences could generate vast numbers of meters, in practice there were only about a hundred.

The vast majority of Sanskrit texts are written in a single meter, the anushtubh, which has eight syllables per half-line.

Later devotional (bhakti) poetry, particularly in northern India, tend to favor poetic forms based on the number of metric beats.

The most popular forms are the doha, which has twenty-four metric beats in two lines, and the chau pai, which has four lines of sixteen beats each.

Although there are several poetic forms based on the number of syllables in each line, particularly the savaiya and the kavitt, these were used less often.


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Hinduism - What Is A Doha?


 A metrical form used in northern Indian bhakti (devotional) poetry that consists of two lines of twenty-four metric beats that are split irregularly after the thirteenth beat. 

The first line's metric pattern is 6 + 4 + 3, whereas the second line's is 6 + 4 + 1. 

The metric beats are counted using a system that distinguishes between "heavy" and "light" syllables. 

Any syllable with a long vowel or a consonant cluster is considered heavy, and is counted at two metric beats; all other syllables are considered light, and are counted as one. 

Aside from the metric pattern, there are rules about how each half line should end—for example, the three metric beats ending the first line cannot be a heavy syllable (two beats) followed by a light one (one beat)—which means it must either be a light syllable followed by a heavy one, or three light ones—and the line's final syllable must be light. 

These norms provide a lot of room for creativity, and the doha is one of the most significant poetry forms for poets working in Braj Bhasha (Krishna devotional language) and Avadhi (a dialect of medieval Hindi). 

As in the epigrams of the poet-saint Kabir, which have become customary sayings in most of contemporary India, the doha may stand alone at times. 

In the Ramcharitmanas, the doha was frequently utilized in conjunction with verses in various meters. 

The doha normally follows after four lines in the chaupai (four-line) meter in this vernacular rendering of the epic Ramayana, composed by the poet-saint Tulsidas, and helps to summarize what has happened in the previous verses. 



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