Showing posts with label Drona. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Drona. Show all posts

Hinduism - ACARYA

 



Who Is An Acarya?

A teacher is referred to as Acarya in Sanskrit.

It is derived from acara, 'course,' according to Nirukta 1.4, although Katyayana and maybe also Panini regarded it as 'the one to be approached' (Scharfe 2002: 90f.).

The upanayana in the Veda creates a link between the acarya and the brahmacarin, who resides in the teacher's home (acarya-kula, later called gurukula).

Normally, an acarya had a small number of pupils, although some reports record huge groups, with assisting instructors (Scharfe 2002: 220).

Acarya also refers to a master artisan who instructs a student (Scharfe 2002: 265).

Although the terms guru and acarya are sometimes used interchangeably to refer to the same individual, acarya denotes his authority in his field, whilst guru denotes the respect and adoration owed to him (Hara 1980).

Acarya may be appended to any name, such as Dron-acarya (Drona), Sankaracarya, and so on (Sankara).

Dignaga, a Buddhist logician, is simply known as Acarya by his disciples.

Acarya, or 'minister' in English, is the title given to Brahmo Samaj preachers.


~Kiran Atma


See also: 

Brahmo Samaj, Drona, Guru, Katyayana, Nirukta, Panini, Sankara,Upanayana, Veda


References And Further Reading:

Hara, Minoru. 1980. ‘Hindu Concepts of Teacher: Sanskrit guru and acarya’. In M. Nagaromi, B.K. Matilal, J.M. Masson and E. Dimock, eds, Sanskrit and Buddhist Studies: Essays in Honour of Daniel H.H. Ingalls. Dordrecht: Reidel, 93–118.

Scharfe, Hartmut. 2002. Education in Ancient India. (Handbuch der Orientalistik, Section 2, vol. 16.) Leiden: Brill.


Hinduism - Who Is Virata?

 


Virata is the monarch who shelters the five Pandava brothers, the epic's heroes, during the year they spend incognito after their twelve years of exile in the forest, in the Mahabharata, the later of the two major Hindu epics.

This year is crucial because, according to the pact the Pandavas made with their foe, Duryodhana, if they are found during this year, the cycle of exile and living in secrecy would begin all over again.

Even though Duryodhana has dispatched armies of spies to locate the Pandavas, Virata's care and forethought prevents them from being detected.

He continues to help the Pandavas throughout the Mahabharata battle and is finally murdered by the archery expert Drona.


Kiran Atma


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Hinduism - Who Is Karna In Hindu Mythology?


Karna is the oldest of the Pandava brothers in the Mahabharata, the later of the two major Hindu epics, albeit he is unaware of his actual identity until a few days before his death.

He is born when his mother, Kunti, stares at the sun while repeating a mantra, which grants her the ability to have a son by any deity.

She is quickly visited by a dazzling person who bestows upon her an equally dazzling son.

Distraught and despondent by the birth of this kid, which she believes she will be unable to care for as an unmarried woman, she places him in a box and throws him into the Ganges.

Adhiratha, a charioteer, adopts the boy and raises him as his own son.

Later, Karna visits King Dhrutarashtra's palace, where he befriends the king's son, Duryodhana, the epic's adversary.

Karna starts a lifelong feud with Arjuna, one of the five Pandava brothers, while in court.

Arjuna's remarks concerning Karna's unknown paternity are intended to deprive Karna of the respect he deserves as Arjuna's equal.

Karna practices archery with Drona, the archery teacher, as do all the princes.

When Drona refuses to reveal Karna the secret of the Brahma weapon he intends to employ to assassinate Arjuna, Karna seeks guidance from the sage Parashuram avatar.

Because Parashuram despises the kshatriya (ruling) class and refuses to accept any of them as pupils, he disguises himself as a brahmin.

Karna learns all he needs to know from Parashuram.

Karna, on the other hand, obtains two curses during this time that will ultimately decide his destiny.

Karna kills a brahmin's cow, and the brahmin curses him, saying that his chariot wheel would stuck in the mud and he will be murdered by his opponent while riding on it.

Parashuram is the source of the second curse.

A beetle bores into Karna's thigh, which is a metaphor for the genitals in the epic, one day as Parashuram sleeps with his head on Karna's lap.

Despite the agony and blood, Karna maintains still so as not to wake his master.

When Parashuram wakes up, he recognizes that Karna's endurance for suffering indicates that he is a kshatriya, and that Karna has learned under false pretenses.

Parashuram curses Karna, saying that he would forget all he has learnt at the crucial time.

Both curses are finally fulfilled; although fighting valiantly in the Mahabharata battle, Karna is slain by Arjuna when his chariot's wheel becomes stuck in the mud.

Karna's mother, Kunti, comes to him on the eve of the great battle and reveals his actual identity, pleading with him to return and fight with his brothers.

Karna refuses, claiming that things have progressed too far for such drastic measures, but he promises Kunti that he will not harm any of his brothers except Arjuna, whom he has sworn to kill.

Karna's decision is also influenced by his devotion to Duryodhana, whose companionship and support he has enjoyed for many years above any commitment to a family he has just recently discovered.

Karna survives as one of the Mahabharata's tragic heroes because he is prepared to stick by his friends and convictions, even if the cause is faulty. 


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Hinduism - Who Is Drona?


Drona steals part of Drupada's kingdom when Drupada is vanquished, and Drupada vows vengeance. 

He makes a significant sacrifice in order to give birth to a son who would assassinate Drona. 

Dhrshtadyumna, who finally kills Drona, and Draupadi, who becomes the wife of all five Pandavas, are the two offspring that emerge from the sacrifice fire. 

During the Mahabharata battle, Drupada fights with his sons-in-law, the Pandavas. 

Drona finally kills him in combat, but his son Dhrshtadyumna avenges him by killing Drona. 



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Hinduism - Who Is Drona In The Mahabharata?



Drona is a renowned instructor of all the skills of battle, but especially archery, in the Mahabharata, the second of the two major Hindu epics. 

He is the martial instructor of both the Pandavas and the Kauravas, the two royal factions at the center of the Mahabharata's power struggle. 

Drona is the son of the sage Bharadvaja, who was born when the sage saw a heavenly nymph and had an involuntary seminal discharge (apsara). 

Drona's weapon talents come from the deity Vishnu's incarnation, Parashuram, who bestows both his weapons and abilities to Drona as a blessing. 

Drona's archery proficiency is legendary, as is his ability to teach archery. 

He has a special liking for Arjuna (a Pandava sibling), who demonstrates such dedication and focus that Drona tells Arjuna that he will become the world's best archer. 

The tale of Ekalavya, a tribal kid whom Drona refuses to educate because of his low position, but who becomes Arjuna's equal as an archer by worshiping a clay figure of Drona, exemplifies this support for Arjuna. 

When Drona learns of this, he insists that Ekalavya hand up his right thumb as a preceptor's fee, ensuring that no one would be able to compete with Arjuna. 

Drona battles heroically on the side of Duryodhana (Dhrtarashtra's oldest son) during the Mahabharata war, but is eventually murdered by King Drupada's son Dhrshtadyumna. 

Drupada and Drona have a lengthy history of feuding throughout the epic. 

They lived together as students, but after their studies are through, Drupada ascends to the throne of Panchala, whilst Drona is so destitute that he cannot support his family. 

When Drona begs Drupada for charity, Drupada upbraids him in the most offensive way possible. 

Drona swears vengeance, and after teaching the Pandavas and Kauravas the skills of battle, he demands Drupada's kingdom as a teacher's fee (dakshina) from his pupils. 

Drona steals part of Drupada's kingdom after he defeats him, and Drupada swears to avenge him. 

Drupada then undertakes a massive fire sacrifice in order to have a son who would slay Drona. 

Two radiant children emerge from the flames, one of them is Dhrshtadyumna and the other his sister, Draupadi. 



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