Showing posts with label Hindu Mythology. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Hindu Mythology. Show all posts

Hinduism - Who Is Vidura In Hindu Mythology?


He is the son of sage Vyasa and Queen Ambika's maid servant.

Vidura, according to tradition, is a partial incarnation of Dharma, the deity who personifies justice.

In his contacts with the Pandavas and Kauravas, the epic's two warring factions, Vidura constantly demonstrates his justice.

As the Kauravas grow more evil, he gravitates toward the Pandavas, whom he serves as a trustworthy and loyal counsel.

Vidura is the one who recognizes the danger in the House of Lac, which is made solely of extremely flammable materials, and makes plans for the Pandavas to flee.

He stays neutral throughout the Mahabharata battle, but once it is finished, he returns to serve as an advisor to King Yudhishthira, the oldest of the Pandavas, and Yudhishthira's siblings.

~Kiran Atma

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Hinduism - Where Are The Vindhya Mountains? What Is The Mythology Of Agastya Muni And The Vindhya?


Central India has a mountain range that runs east to west known as the Vindhya.

Despite their diminutive stature, they have long served as a cultural barrier between northern and southern India.

As per mythological scriptures the Vindhya were long seen as an uncivilized and potentially dangerous place, inhabited by ghosts, demons, and tribal peoples; these dangers were exemplified by Vindhyavasini, the presiding goddess.

The Vindhya Mountains and Agastya Muni 

Agastya Muni's stories may be found in the Vedas, Puranas, and Itihaasa. 

Both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata tell the story of this episode. 

When they visit the tirtha where Agastya Muni once murdered Vatapi in the Mahabharata, Lomasha Rishi informs Yudhishthira about numerous tales from Agastya Muni's life. 

Mount Meru used to be circumambulated by the sun. 

'O Bhaskara!' protested Vindhya, a rival mountain, to Suryadeva. 

Meru is something you constantly go around. 

'In the same manner, circumambulate me.' 'O mountain!' Suryadeva answered to Vindhya, the ruler of the mountains. 

I don't do it because I want to. 

This is the road that the creator of the universe has chosen for me.' 

Vindhya was enraged, and he started to grow taller all of a sudden. 

He desired to prevent the sun, moon, and stars from orbiting Meru. 

Vindhya grew and grew and grew. 

The devas were terrified. 

All the devas gathered with Indra sought to persuade Vindhya to cease growing, but he refused. 

Finally, the devas came to Agastya Muni's hermitage and told him about their dilemma. 

They begged him to intercede, claiming that he was the only one who could stop Vindhya. 

Agastya Muni and Lopamudra, his wife, set off for Vindhya. 

'O greatest among mountains!' said the rishi to the mighty mountain. 

I'd want for you to pave a way for me. 

For some reason, I need to go to the south. 

Indra, king of the mountains! 'Restrain yourself until I return from there, and then you may grow as much as you want.' — p. 

86 (399(102)) of Bibek Debroy's English translation of the Mahabharata. 

Vindhya consented and shrank in size to allow Agastya Muni to pass through. 

While the writings do not go into depth, one may envision the king of the mountains' admiration for Agastya Muni for agreeing to his request while rejecting all of the devas' requests combined. 

It is stated that Agastya Muni and his wife left in the direction of the south and never returned. 

The Vindhya mountains are still present, but at a lower elevation. 

This might be viewed as a simple narrative, a fable attempting to explain a geographical phenomena. 

Or, as a fable about the pitfalls of ego, Vindhya has been duped into waiting for the rishi who will never come, unable to reclaim its beautiful heights for all eternity. 

A more inspiring and constructive view is that when a person possesses shraddha, or respect, for a knowledgeable entity, he or she will be rescued. 

The Vindhya Mountain lives today because to Agastya Muni's protection; if the king of mountains had persisted in his refusal, it would have been destroyed. 

He was rescued because the monarch of the mountains showed homage to the great rishi. 

There's also one more subtle, interesting component to the story. 

In the south, Agastya Muni says he has 'job to do.' He doesn't say what kind of job it is. 

However, a rishi's word, especially that of a renowned rishi like Agastya Muni, who is considered one of the saptarishi in certain ways, should never be taken lightly or discarded. 

It always contains satyam, or truth. 

Is the true narrative about the humbling of a mountain, or about the trek of a rishi with 'job to do' beyond the Vindhya mountains' range? 

Why did the devas chose Agastya Muni in particular for this task? 

Why did Vindhya choose to rebel at this particular moment?

Were they the circumstances that allowed something else, something more significant, to happen? 

Was this simply the beginning of a larger effort to promote the Dharma? 

This story may have served as a pretext for Agastya Muni to introduce his Dharma teachings to the southern areas, much as Padmasambhava journeyed from India to Tibet to establish Buddhism in Tibet and Bodhidharma brought Buddhism to China. 

A Fascinating Dialogue Begins When Jaimini Rishi Meets The Four Birds Now, let's return to our main narrative. 

Jaimini Rishi visits the Vindhya Mountain and enters a tunnel where the four birds are residing. 

The stone floor of this hallowed hole is wetted by drips from the Narmada River. 

When the rishi sees the four birds, he thinks to himself, 'This is a lovely area.' They have maintained control of their respiration without taking any interruptions. 

These magnificent birds are reciting clearly and flawlessly. 

These sage's sons have now given birth to a new species, and I believe it's fantastic that Sarasvati hasn't abandoned them. 

A person's vast number of relatives and friends, as well as everyone else who is treasured at home, might forsake and leave them. 

But Sarasvati remains.' — Bibek Debroy's English translation of Markandeya Purana, p. 19 

In their position as Panchama Veda, the Itihaasa and Puranas are tasked with instilling vairagya (compassion) and viveka (discrimination between nitya (that which is everlasting, or more accurately, beyond the purview of Time) and anitya (that which is not). 

It does this not just via logical ratiocination, but also through the power of rasa, the development of a field of immersive experience and emotion that we go through when reading or listening to a narrative. 

It is stated that there are three ways to learn that fire burns: being informed that it burns, seeing someone else being burnt, or being burned yourself. 

The uttama adhikara (the most qualified one) is told once and does not need to be told again; the ones of middling adhikara (which most of us can at least aspire to achieve in this lifetime or the next) can learn from others, including through stories; the unfortunate ones (which would be most of us if we do not engage in sadhana and improve ourselves) will have to learn through suffering again and again. 

That is why the Puranas are so important: we may learn knowledge from them without having to go through the same unpleasant experience ourselves. 

When we reflect on the pitiful story of these four birds, who were asked by their father to give up their lives and then cursed by him, who were born on the battlefield and spent the first part of their lives hidden in the darkness of a bell that hung around the neck of a slain elephant, we find that only Sarasvati Devi, only that shining light of vidya through sadhana and study of the shastras, remains with us in the end. 

The birds are introduced to Jaimini Rishi. 

Padya (offering of water to wash his feet) and arghya (offering of food) are two ways they respect him (offering of water to wash his hands). 

They cool him by fanning him with their wings. 

'We have led excellent lives and our births have been successful today,' Jaimini Rishi says, as the birds welcome her. 

We hope that your hermitage's animals, birds, trees, creepers, bushes, bark groves, and grass are all doing well. 

Perhaps by asking this question, we have showed you disrespect. 

'How could those who are with you not be in good health?' — Markandeya Purana English translation by Bibek Debroy, p. 

20 This is the amount of sattva and compassion that our culture embodied. 

When kings and rishis met, or when kings met, they inquired about the well-being of the people in their kingdoms, the status of the treasury, and if the dharma was being kept. 

Even grass blades are being investigated – no living form is left out. 

The sensation of oneness with all existence is referred to as sarvatma bhava. 

The purpose of Jaimini Rishi's visit, he says, is to alleviate his misgivings about the Mahabharata. 

'If it's a topic we're familiar with, we'll make you hear it without hesitation,' the birds say. 

Why won't we tell you what is within our intelligence's scope? 

O lord of the brahmanas! Our intellect can comprehend the four Vedas, the Dharmashastras, all the Angas, and anything else that is in accordance with the Vedas. 

Despite this, we can't make any guarantees. 

So, without hesitating, tell us about your concerns concerning the Bharata. 

Who knows about dharma?

Otherwise, there would be a lot of misunderstanding.' ― p. 21 of Bibek Debroy's Markandeya Purana English version Again, notice the humility that lies behind the knowledge. 

Even while the birds concede that they understand all of the shastras, or Vedic wisdom, they cannot absolutely guarantee that they would be able to answer his questions. 

They also hold him in high regard as a dharma expert. 

The first question is how the formless one (Narayana) could take on a human form (Sri Krishna). 

The birds begin by prostrating before Vishnu, Brahma, and Shiva. 

They go on to say that Vishnu is both nirguna (without characteristics) and saguna (with attributes), and that he exists in four different forms: The first kind is undetectable. 

It seems white to those who have studied it. 

Yogis envision someone whose limbs are encircled in flame garlands in this shape. 

It is distant; it is close; it is beyond the gunas, the shape and colour conjured up by the mind. 

Vasudeva is my name. 

Shesha, the serpentine one who supports the ground, is the second form. 

Tamas are a feature of this type. 

Sattva is embodied in the third form. 

This is the form that creates and maintains dharma, as well as caring and safeguarding mortals. 

Vishnu slays asuras and rakshasas in this form before descending into his avatara forms. 

Pradyumna is his name when he descends as the guardian in a form of pure sattva. 

Narayana, lying in the sea on Shesha's back, is the fourth form. 

This shape is continually in the phase of production, steeped in rajas.

~Kiran Atma

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Hinduism - Who Is Yashoda In Hindu Mythology?


Krishna's foster mother in Hindu mythology, who welcomes him the night he is born and raises him until he is old enough to return to Mathura and claim his kingdom.

Yashoda, who loves Krishna as if he were her own child, is a model of unselfish devotion.

Rupa Goswami, a devotee (bhakta) of the god Krishna and a follower of the Bengali saint Chaitanya, has used her mythic example of loving, motherly care as the model for vatsalya bhava, one of the five modes of devotion most prominently articulated by Rupa Goswami, a devotee (bhakta) of the god Krishna and a follower of the Bengali saint Chaitanya Devotees who practice vatsalya consider themselves to be God's parents, lavishing love and care on the god in the same way as a cow does for her calf.

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Hinduism - Who Is Virata?


Virata is the monarch who shelters the five Pandava brothers, the epic's heroes, during the year they spend incognito after their twelve years of exile in the forest, in the Mahabharata, the later of the two major Hindu epics.

This year is crucial because, according to the pact the Pandavas made with their foe, Duryodhana, if they are found during this year, the cycle of exile and living in secrecy would begin all over again.

Even though Duryodhana has dispatched armies of spies to locate the Pandavas, Virata's care and forethought prevents them from being detected.

He continues to help the Pandavas throughout the Mahabharata battle and is finally murdered by the archery expert Drona.

Kiran Atma

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Hinduism - Who Is Virabhadra?


Virabhadra is a powerful being created by the god Shiva to humble the demigod Daksha and destroy Daksha's sacrifice, according to Hindu mythology.

Daksha gives his daughter, Sati, to Shiva to marry, but later feels Shiva has not treated him with respect.

Daksha plans a large sacrifice and invites all the gods except Shiva to it in order to humble Shiva.

When Sati inquires as to why her father has done so, Daksha lashes out at Shiva, calling him worthless and despicable.

Sati, humiliated by these public insults, kills herself—in some versions, by leaping into the sacrificial fire, and in others, by withdrawing into a yogic trance and giving up her life.

When Shiva learns of Sati's death, he is enraged and tears two matted locks (jata) from his head and dashes them to the ground, according to the most popular version of Virabhadra's creation.

One matted lock assumes the form of Virabhadra, while the other assumes the form of Bhadrakali, the Goddess's most powerful and terrifying form.

Bhadrakali represents the Goddess's ferocious and dangerous side, in contrast to the gentle and loyal Sati, just as Virabhadra represents Shiva's destructive side.

The two demolish Daksha's sacrifice on Shiva's orders, scattering the guests and destroying the sacred fires, until Daksha repents and worships Shiva as the supreme deity.

Despite the fact that Virabhadra's actions in this story are destructive, he is and remains Shiva's servant, carrying out his divine master's commands, which ultimately uphold the created order.

~Kiran Atma

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Hinduism - Who Is Vinata In Hindu Mythology?


In Hindu mythology, Vinata is the sister of Kadru and the daughter of the holy sage Daksha.

Vinata gives birth to eagles, the most renowned of which is Garuda, while Kadru gives birth to serpents.

Conflict between these two sisters is said to be the source of the traditional animosity between these two species of animals.

One day, the sisters argue over the color of a certain heavenly horse's tail, with Vinata claiming it is white and Kadru claiming it is black.

The argument intensifies until they agree that the one who is incorrect will become a slave to the other.

To assure her win, Kadru convinces a number of her children to hang from the horse's back, making the tail seem black from a distance.

When Vinata sees the black snakes, she acknowledges her loss and is forced to serve Kadru under exceedingly difficult circumstances for many years.

She is eventually saved by her son, Garuda, who, upon discovering what has happened, begins a never-ending campaign of snake extermination.

~Kiran Atma

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Hinduism - What Is Vijaya Dashami?


Vijaya Dashami is a Hindu festival commemorating the Lord's Victory Or Vijaya.("tenth victory")

Vijayadashami marks the culmination of Durga Puja in India's southern, eastern, northeastern, and some northern areas, commemorating goddess Durga's triumph over the buffalo monster Mahishasura to restore and defend dharma.

Lord Rama, Lord Vishnu's eighth avatar, is said to have vanquished the ten-headed monster Ravana in this famed Hindu festival. 

Lord Rama traveled to Ravana's realm with his brother Larkshman and devotee Hanuman to battle him and bring back Sita, Rama's wife.

 The holiday of Dussehra, which occurs on the tenth day of the lunar month, is known by another name.

According to Hindu mythology, Dussehra is celebrated after Navratri because Lord Ram is said to have worshipped Goddess Durga before embarking on his quest to slay Ravana, as advised by Lord Vishnu. 

The event commemorates Lord Ram's triumph over Lankan ruler Ravana (the 10-headed demon).

The festival has two mythological charters, one with the god Rama and the other with the Goddess, and both myths lead to this day as the day when the deity achieves ultimate triumph.

~Kiran Atma

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Hinduism - Who Is Vichitravirya In Hindu Mythology?


Satyavati's and King Shantanu's grand son in Hindu legend. 

King Vichitravirya's wives are Ambika and her sister Ambalika, who died without heirs.

Satyavati, Vichitravirya's mother, asks her son, Vyasa, to sleep with his brother's two wives in a desperate effort to preserve the lineage.

Ambika and Ambalika each recoil from Vyasa on their own, and each of their sons is born with a flaw: 

  • Ambika conceals her eyes, causing her son Dhrtarashtra to be born blind.
  • Ambalika becomes pale, leading her son Pandu to be born with an unusually pale skin.

Ambika is so horrified by Vyasa's looks that she sends her serving maid instead when she is urged to sleep with him again.

In contrast to the two sisters, Ambika's maid happily serves Vyasa and receives a gorgeous son called Vidura as a result.

Vichitravirya dies after marrying Ambika and Ambalika but before fathering any children.

Satyavati only asks her oldest son, Vyasa, to sleep with the two women in order to continue King Shantanu's lineage.

Vyasa sires Pandu and Dhrtarashtra from this marriage, and their descendants become the principal fighting factions in the Mahabharata, the second of the two great Sanskrit epics.

~Kiran Atma

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Hinduism - Who Is Vibhishana In Hindu Mythology?


Vibhishana is the younger brother of Ravana, the demon king of Lanka, in the Ramayana, the earlier of the two major Indian epics.

Vibhishana, Ravana, and their third brother, Kumbhakarna, practiced extreme physical asceticism (tapas) in their youth in order to win boons from the gods.

Unlike his brothers, who have chosen boons to improve their military skill and fame, Vibhishana requests that he stay virtuous in the face of peril, and this trait defines his life.

When Ravana gathers a council of war before fighting Rama's army, Vibhishana is the only one who votes against fighting and instead recommends Ravana to restore Rama's stolen wife, Sita, and seek Rama's forgiveness.

Ravana expels his brother from the city as a result of these comments, and Vibhishana joins Rama's army, where he battles courageously throughout the conflict.

Rama appoints Vibhishana king of Lanka after Ravana's death as a reward for his faithfulness and integrity.

In Indian mythology, demons (in this instance, the sort of demons known as rakshasas) are not intrinsically wicked, as Vibhishana exemplifies.

They are formidable creatures who may battle gods and mankind, yet they also possess many qualities.

Vibhishana is shown as a great devotee (bhakta) of Rama in the Ramcharitmanas, a vernacular retelling of the Ramayana authored by the poet-saint Tulsidas (1532–1623? ), in line with Tulsidas' emphasis on devotion above all other types of religious activity.

~Kiran Atma

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Hinduism - What Is A Vetala?


In Hindu mythology, one of the types of hostile spirits that may be classified as demons in general.

Vetalas are known to devour human flesh and are supposed to frequent battlefields in order to get their fill.

~Kiran Atma

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Hinduism - Who Is Vena In Hindu Mythology?


Vena was a cruel monarch in Hindu mythology who forbids all religious ceremonies and gift-giving save those committed to him.

He is eventually slain by a group of enraged sages, who use their magical abilities to convert holy kusha grass blades into spears.

Following Vena's death, the issue of royal succession emerges.

The sages first churn a little, deformed, dark-skinned man called Nishada from his thigh, who is said to be the progenitor of the Nishada tribe.

Nishada takes all of Vena's many faults onto himself, purifying Vena of them.

Following Vena's cleansing, the sages churn his right hand, revealing a dazzling and sparkling youngster named King Prthu.

~Kiran Atma

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Hinduism - What Is A Venu In Indian Music?



("bamboo") In Indian classical music, the bamboo flute is an essential instrument.

It is the signature instrument of the deity Krishna in Hindumythology, who utilized its lovely tones to call his followers (bhakta) to him and spend their evenings dancing on the Yamuna River's banks.

~Kiran Atma

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Hinduism - Who Is Vayu In The Hindu Pantheon?


In Hindu mythology, the wind-personified god.

Vayu is a minor god and one of the eight Guardians of the Directions, with the north west as his direction.

Vayu is considered to be pre-sent within the body, in the five "vital winds" (prana) via which all physiological processes are said to occur.

Vayu is a minor god, but two of his sons are immensely important.

Bhima, his son, is one of the five Pandava brothers who appear in the Mahabharata, the second of the two major Sanskrit epics.

Bhima is known for his power and stature, as well as his earthy cravings, which mirror the wind's raw, untamed nature.

Hanuman, Vayu's second famous son, is a monkey deity.

Despite the fact that Hanuman is most known for his devotion and dedication to the deity Rama in mythology, he is one of the most popular and extensively adored deities in northern India in reality.

Hanuman's popularity may arise from his middle station; as a servant, he is less distant and magnificent than Rama, making him more approachable to human requests.

Another key consideration is that this accessibility is accompanied with strength and the capacity to defend people who seek his assistance.

~Kiran Atma

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Hinduism - What Is The Mythology Of Vishvamitra, Vasishtha, And Kamadhenu?


Vishvamitra is a king who visits the brahmin Vasishtha's woodland ashram with a contingent of retainers.

When Vishvamitra asks for food, he is astounded by Vasishtha's cow, the Kamadhenu's capacity to feed everyone.

Vishvamitra attempts to purchase the Kamadhenu first, then tries to seize it by force, but his henchmen are thwarted by Vasishtha's tapas' magical abilities (ascetic practices).

Vishvamitra ultimately accepts defeat and undertakes ascetic practices in order to generate his own strength.

Two of their most famous battles are over King Trishanku and his son, Harishchandra; in each instance, the actual problem is the sages' mutual hatred.

Epic Destinies of Mythical but Real Warriors.


The poet argues that a land devoid of legends is destined to die of ice, and this might well be true. A people without myths, on the other hand, is still extinct. The role of myths is to articulate dramatically the philosophy under which a society lives; not only to hold out to its conscience the beliefs it recognizes and the ideals it pursues from generation to generation, but also to express its own being and nature, the components, relations, balances, and conflicts that compose it.

These myths may come in a variety of forms. Others are literary fictions incarnating important concepts of the philosophy in certain personages and translating the relationships between these concepts into the connections between various figures. Others are set beyond the narrow limits and few millennia of national history, adorning a distant past or future and inaccessible zones where gods, giants, goblins, and demons have their sport; some are happy with common citizens, familiar locations, and plausible ages. However, both tales have the same reason for existence.

The comparative study of the earliest Indo-European civilizations, which has been ongoing for decades, has had to consider both the myths' pragmatic unity and the diversity of mythic forms. In fact, it became obvious almost instantly that the Romans are not, at all, a people without mythology—as textbooks now love to depict them—but rather that mythology, and in particular a very old mythology inherited in large part from Indo-European times, has thrived under the framework of history, despite having been ruined at the level of theology.

The narratives and types of personages, as well as the very structures of the traditions surrounding these personages, which were ascribed to the divine world by the Indians and Germans, either completely or in their essential features, have been rediscovered in the Roman setting, with the same structure and lesson, but ascribed exclusively to men, and to men with typical Roman names, be it.

On one level, a theology, neat and simple in any field of which we have some knowledge, describing abstractly, ordering a hierarchy, and, according to these definitions, setting up groups of powerful gods, but gods without adventures. On the other hand, a tradition of beginnings tracing the major deeds of men who, in character and purpose, are analogous to these gods.

Consider the core motif of Indo-European ideology: the assumption that the world and culture will only exist in equilibrium if the three stratified roles of authority, force, and fecundity operate together harmoniously.

This creation is articulated in India in both religious and human words, in a theological and epic ensemble; moreover, the gods, like the characters, are represented as having colorful experiences, or at the very least as executing deeds or activities that express their essences, roles, and relationships.

The two main sovereign gods, Varuna, the all-powerful magician, and Mitra, the contract personified, have created and organized the worlds, with their plan and overall mechanisms, at the first level of Vedic theology; at the second level, Indra, the physically powerful god, is engaged in a number of magnificent duels, conquests, and victories; and at the third level, the twins  are the heroes of short well described scenes.

A contrast can be seen in the epic material from the Mahabharata, which was developed only later but has been seen to have continued a very old and partly pre-Vedic tradition; Pandu and his five putative sons evolve the same philosophy of the three roles through their character, acts, and adventures.

Pandu and the eldest Pandava, Yudhisthira, both kings in contrast from the others, incarnate the two facets of authority, Varunian and Mitrian; the second and third Pandavas, Bhima and Arjuna, incarnate the two aspects of the warrior's power, being violent and chivalrous, which the Rig Veda puts together in the solitary Indra. The fourth and fifth sons, the twins Nakula and Sahadeva, embody many of the divine twins' virtues, including benevolence, modesty, readiness to lead, and expertise in cattle and horse breeding.

In the exploits of her gods and heroes, India thus offers a double mythical manifestation of the trifunctional philosophy. The analysis of the relations between these two mythologies is still in its early stages, but they do intersect, at least in part.

In 1954, it was discovered that one of the Vedic exploits of the warrior god Indra, his duel with the Sun god, has an exact analogue in one of the epic exploits of the warrior hero Arjuna: just as Indra is triumphant in the duel because he detaches or pushes down one of the solar chariot's wheels, Arjuna is victorious because he detaches or pushes down one of the solar chariot's wheels. In the eighth book of the Mahabharata, Arjuna, the son of Indra, defeats Karna, the son of the Sun, only when one of the latter's chariot wheels miraculously falls into the earth.

Five years later, the sovereignty was equally recognized as Yudhisthira, his father, and two uncles. Another tableau, a documentation in a different kind, emerges in the Roman sense. The gods of the pre-Capitoline triad, those of the great flamens, are well expressed and patronized, in their hierarchy, by the three roles.

However, having noted that Jupiter and his variant Dius Fidius embody the two facets of authority, strength, and law, that Mars is a dominant warrior deity, and that Quirinus communicates and guarantees some essential aspects of the third role (social mass and vigilant peace; agricultural prosperity) directly or through his flamen, one has exhausted what can be said about these divinities. Their relation can be found in their hierarchy, and their entire being can be found in their meanings, which leave no room for narrative accounts.

This dramatic unfolding of character, which the gods ignore, forms the very foundation of epic, of an epic—accepted as historical by Titus Livius and Plutarch, the former with trepidation and the latter with devotion—the history of Rome's first kings. We have a chronological history here, but unlike the Mahabharata, Roman mythology has not grouped its trifunctional heroes into a community of contemporaries, of brothers hierarchized so that the first alone is king and the others his specialized auxiliaries.

As seems to have been the case in the Iranian epic as well, Roman history has spread them in time, in a series of kings, each of whom communicates and contributes to the collective undertaking one of the roles, or an aspect of one of the functions, important to the wellbeing of the community, through his character, founding acts, and whole life.

While the importance of the first reigns' character and arrangement has been discussed many times in the last thirty years, it is worth revisiting here since one of those reigns, Tullus', would be the subject of our current study. But let us first note — and we cannot emphasize this enough — that the scheme devised by the first kings of Rome was not devised by us; the Romans understood, explained, appreciated, and saw in it the influence of divine benevolence: all we had to do was pay attention to their sentiment.

Thus, Rome's origins, the pre-Etruscan years, were concentrated as a revolutionary creation in many stages, with the gods' caressing each time a different style of ruler, builder of new institutions, in tune with the needs of the time.

These phases have been seen to correlate to the Varunian component of the role of sovereignty—creative and awful strength, organizing and benevolent authority—, the function of martial force, and some aspects of the dynamic third function.

The following are the kings: 

Romulus, the demigod of enigmatic birth and youth, the city's founder, the redoubtable king armed with spears, poles, and bonds.

Numa, the intelligent, religious, and fully human creator of cults, priesthoods, and laws

Tullus Hostilius, the purely warlike king, aggressive, who bestows control on R o m e by military means.

Ancus Marcius, the king who saw a significant rise in the Roman plebes and economic opulence, and who only went to war when forced to defend Rome.

For the first three founding kings, this practical explanation has been universally accepted: the clearly intentional antithesis between Romulus and Numa, remembering the two opposite but important facets of the first feature, and Tullus' wholly warlike character need little debate.

For the fourth king, Ancus Marcitis, things were different. Despite the long-recognized anachronisms in his work, one cannot help but feel that it is with Ancus Marcitis that historical accuracy starts to bear some weight in the traditions; that he portrays, in the sequence of kings, the stage at which a strictly fictional history, intended merely to justify, is welded to a history.

This sort of bringing down to earth of a people's or dynasty's past speculations is still a delicate point for the critic: What ordinal word, for example, must the human mantle be put first in the sequence of Ynglingar—those descendants of the god Freyr who gradually became the very real kings of the Swedish Upland, then of southern Norway?

The issue is still being discussed, and there is a wide range of viewpoints. As a result, one hesitates—and many do—to remember, either in one part of his history or a part of his identity, a final fragment of a pseudohistory of mystical origin only meant to explain the successive appearances of the three roles.

Whatever the epic expression of the third function may be, which is still complex and enigmatic since it is multiform, the understanding of the first two functions and their members, the two leaders Romulus and N u m a, and their immediate successor Tullus, is certain. That will suffice for the dilemma we'll be discussing now. The military work of king Tullus has been followed in depth, in his character, in his structures, and in his profession, in a small book that has been lauded by some and condemned by others as outrageous, but which has endured more than a quarter-century of self-criticism.

Tullus replaced Numa Pompilius, who was given the throne gladly as a mark of gratitude for his bravery. Both military discipline and the art of warfare were created by him. So, having wondrously educated Rome's soldiers [iuuentus], he ventured to defy the Albans, an important and for a long-time leading citizen. The king himself is depicted as a traditional iuuenis: Not only was this king unlike the previous [the pacific Numa], but he was even more warlike [ferocior] than Romulus. Aside from his youth and courage, he was also motivated by his grandfather's glory [the most prestigious of Romulus' companions].

So, thinking that the country was decrepit from inaction, he found reasons also'- where for stirring up war Tullus is such a professional of war, and more especially of military life and creation, that even when Rome was afflicted with a pestilence, the warlike king who believed, besides, that the young men [iuuenes] were heaving, no respite from service was permitted by the warlike king who believed, besides, that.

Finally, his entire eulogy is composed of a single phrase: magna gloria belli regnauit annos duos et Iriginta. Four centuries later, the Christian Orosius, giving a bird's-eye view of world history, was to echo this persistent practice in three words: Tulius Hostilius, miiitaris rei instilutor.

On the basis of this practical description of the third king of Rome, we attempted to understand the most famous episode in Tullus' reign—the duel between Horace and the Curiaces—in the light of a comparative analysis of the myths, legends, and practices synonymous with the same role, that of the warrior, among other Indo-European peoples, in the book described above, published in 1942.

This little drama in three scenes seemed to us to be—the duel between the three brothers, from which one of the three Roman champions emerges alone but victorious; the cruel scene in which the knight, intoxicated and exuberant with victory, murders his sister before the city gates for her crime of exposing the feminine vulnerability of a lover's sorrow.

Finally, the Roman adaptation, reduced to the usual categories of experience, emptied of its mysterious causality, and colored in accordance with Roman morality, of a series of scenes readily comparable to that in an Ulster legend which constitutes the story of the Black Prince—is but the Roman adaptation, reduced to the usual categories of experience, emptied of its mysterious causality, and colored in accordance with Roman morality, of a series of scenes readily comparable to that in an Ulster legend which constitutes the story.

Cuchulainn, still a boy, travels to his country's border, provokes, and defeats the three sons of Nechta, the Ulates' constant foes. Then, outside himself, in a terrifying and deadly state of magical fury born of battle, he returns to the capital, where a lady, the queen, attempts to calm him down with the crudest of sexual propositions. Cuchulainn rejects the deal, but the Ulates seize him and submerge him in enormous vats of freezing water, effectively killing him.

He will now keep this talent, which makes him immortal and is the priceless product of his initiation, in reserve to re-energize himself when war requires it and to avoid endangering his own people.

The topic of a 1942 research is a contrast of the Irish account and the ceremonial realities it retains with Horace's strictly literary work. There, is proposed an evolutionary model to explain the transition from one style to the next: once the savage ideal and grand manner of the Italic warriors of prehistory (as it remained of the warriors of Celtic and Germanic epic) 'had been depreciated for the sake of legionary discipline, the scenes of the narrative, while retaining their order, were depreciated for the sake of legionary discipline.

The confrontation of aggressive virility with unleashed femininity abandoned the troubled regions of sex and took the form of a mystical force; a justified and almost rational rage, provoked from without and after the exploit, was substituted for the physical and spontaneous exaltation of the whole being during the exploit; and, above all, the confrontation of aggressive virility with unleashed femininity abandoned the troubled regions of sex and took the form of a mystical force.

Cuchulainn's and Horace's exploits are two versions, or rather two neighboring forms of the same version, of a ceremonial or legendary exploit known from other examples in the literatures of many Indo-European peoples: the risky battle of a deity or hero against an opponent blessed with some sort of triplicity. Significantly, the Indo-Iranian tradition knows of other expressions of the same theme of similar intent: on the one hand, Indra's duel with a tricephalic being, or the duel of a hero he is defending, and on the other, Oraetaona's fight with another creature created from the same mold.

It is also true that the Irish version, which is compassionate and pseudo-historical like the Latin, is best suited to explaining certain key facts, especially anything that relates to, or has related to, the concept of furor in the story's likely prehistoric nature. However, those correspondences between the defeat of the Indian Tricephal and that of the Curiaces, which illuminate them in a more metaphysical light and open insights on the warrior role that are much simpler than those revealed by the legend of Cuchulainn, are less striking at first sight because they are less vivid.

Moreover, almost the entire legend of King Tullus Hostilius has, from one stage to the next, found its parallel in the most famous exploits of the god Indra. Thus, between Rome and India, that remarkable and profound identity—first observed at the level of Romulus and Varuna, Numa Pompilius and Mitra—will extend itself to the second cosmic and social level, both in the ideology and in its mythical expression.