Showing posts with label Hindu Society. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Hindu Society. Show all posts

Hinduism - How Prevalent Is Witchcraft In Contemporary Hindu Society?

 


Many sectors of contemporary Hindu society, including many "modern" urban Hindus, recognize the reality of witchcraft.

Malevolence, jealousy, and greed are the driving elements of witchcraft, and some individuals use them to hurt others or destroy what they have.

Witches may use spells, the evil eye (nazar), or pronounce curses on people to accomplish their goals.

Pregnant women and small children are supposed to be more vulnerable to their abilities, and these individuals are also thought to be more prone to be cursed, since jealousy over their good fortune is said to arouse a witch's rage.

The suitable countermeasure is to execute numerous rituals of protection, which will shield the individual from harm.

Witchcraft may manifest as an exceptionally prolonged disease or weird behavior in those who are affected; harsher cures are required for these folks.

The language of possession and exorcism may be regarded as a "idiom" (using traditional Indian cultural categories) for what contemporary psychiatrists could term the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness, as Sudhir Kakar skillfully demonstrates.

Sudhir Kakar, Shamans, Mystics, and Doctors, 1991; and David F. Pocock, "The Evil Eye," in T. N. Madan (ed. ), Religion in India, 1991, for further details.


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Hinduism - What Is Purusha Sukta In The Rig Veda?


("Hymn to Primitive Man") The hymn in the Rig Veda (10.90) that recounts the formation of the material and social universe as the outcome of a primal sacrifice is known by this name.

According to the book, there was once a primal man who was sacrificed and mutilated.

The brahmins originated from the primeval man's lips, the kshatriyas from his shoulders, the vaishyas from his thighs (a popular euphemism for the genitals), and the shudras from his feet, as did the four traditional main social groupings (varnas).

This poem is thought to be one of the most recent hymns in the Rig Veda, since it clearly represents the sacrificial paradigm that was so fundamental to subsequent Brahmana literature.

It is also notable for articulating the four varnas for the first time, as well as the symbolic functions associated with each: speech and the authority of the sacred word for brahmins; protection and military valor for kshatriyas; generation and production for vaishyas; and service to others for shudras.


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Hinduism - What Is Jati In A Hindu Society?

 

 (“birth”) In Indian culture, a traditional social grouping.

There were hundreds of these groupings, which were deemed exogamous because there were stringent taboos against marrying outside one's jati—people from various jatis were seen as separate "species" of humans.

The traditional occupation of the Jatis, which they and they alone had the right to practice, was frequently used to designate the subgroup.

The jatis were ordered in society in hierarchical order based on the perceived purity or impurity (ashaucha) of their jobs, and this hierarchy provided the foundation for the caste system, a traditional Hindu social structure.

 


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Hinduism - Who Is Considered A Guru In A Hindu Society?

 

 A guru is a spiritual instructor or religious mentor in the most common sense; in a broader sense, the term may apply to any teacher.

The phrase is often used in the arts, where the master-disciple connection is still an important aspect of learning.

The guru-disciple (shishya) connection is one of Hinduism's most fundamental and lasting aspects, and it is the acknowledged paradigm for the transmission of religious instruction, tradition, and authority.

The guru-disciple connection requires a deep and trusted relationship in addition to delivering knowledge.

Based on an appraisal of the student's skills, inclinations, and abilities, the guru assumes responsibility for the disciple's growth, while the disciple dutifully follows the guru's instructions.

The name "guru" literally means "heavy," implying the tremendous and lasting impact they make on their pupils' lives.

A guru is regarded essential for authentic spiritual attainment as a guiding presence.

This is especially true in hidden traditions like tantra, where the guru's transmission of authority confers the required adhikara or "qualifications" for practice on the pupil.


 


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Hinduism - Who Is A Grhastha In A Hindu Society?

 


 ("householder") is a name for a person who owns a home.

A grhastha is a “householder” in the dharma literature, which instructs on religious practice and obligations.

The grhastha, according to dharma literature, is the second of four phases of life (ashramas) in the life of a man born into one of the three twice-born classes in Indian society—brahmin, kshatriya, or vaishya—who hold the highest religious and social prestige.

The brahmacharin or celibate student comes before the householder stage, which is followed by the vanaprastha or woodland dweller, and the sanyasi or wandering ascetic.

In practical terms, the householder stage is the end stage of life for most men since they do not choose to go beyond it.

Marriage initiates the householder stage, which leads to the upbringing and maintenance of a family.

This is a busy and productive period of life, and the householder is essential to society since his labors and resources sustain people in the other three phases.

Because the overall fruitfulness of this stage of life is manifested via procreation, it is also the only stage of life in which sexual intercourse is not officially outlawed.

A householder may pursue three conventional life goals (purushartha): money (artha), desire (kama), and religious obligation (purushartha) (dharma).

Given the complexity and richness of the householder's life, it's understandable that many men are hesitant to go to the other two phases.

The term given to works that define proper procedures for domestic religious ceremonies, in particular the daily rituals related with the home holy fire and the life-cycle rites known as the samskaras.


 

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Hinduism - What Are The Four Great Crimes In A Hindu Society?


The  Four Great Crimes  are a series of four major sins or societal misconducts committed by people. 

Four behaviors are considered such severe transgressions in the dharma literature that the individual who does them becomes an outcast from society. 


  • Murdering a brahmin (brahmahatya), 
  • stealing a brahmin's wealth (steya), 
  • consuming liquor (surapana), 
  • and adultery with one's guru's wife are the four acts (gurutalpaga). 

Aside from exile from society, another indicator of the seriousness of these offenses was that the punishments were so severe that they almost always resulted in death, and in certain instances, death was directly prescribed. 

The dharma literature not only specified such penalties for the real violators, but also expulsion for everyone who knowingly socialized with such persons for more than a year. 



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Hinduism - What Is The Attitude Towards Drugs In Hindu Culture?

 



The attitude toward drugs in Hindu culture exemplifies the Hindu religion's enormous diversity. 

In general, drug usage, as well as everything that may lead to a loss of control, is vehemently criticized by “respectable” individuals. 

However, in Hindu mythology, the deity Shiva is depicted as habitually consuming intoxicants, notably bhang, a marijuana-based compound, and datura, a genus of plants containing dangerous alkaloids. 

Some Shiva's worshippers (bhakta) follow this mythological example in a variety of religious practices. 

Many ascetics smoke hashish (charas) combined with tobacco throughout the day, however this is not necessarily considered standard ascetic practice. 

Even among "regular" individuals, there are some times and locations where drug use is more acceptable. 

Bhang consumption is a popular part of various festival celebrations, such as Shivaratri ("Night of Shiva") and Holi (the festival of reversal). 

It is also sometimes drunk by pilgrims, and government-regulated bhang stalls can be found at many prominent pilgrimage sites (tirtha), including Benares, Puri, and Haridwar. 

Despite the fact that drugs are increasingly widely used in certain specialized situations, many individuals refuse to consume drugs under any conditions and would never contemplate doing so. 

Such adamant denial is merely one facet of the "orthodox" image, which encompasses a wide range of viewpoints. 



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Hinduism - What Is The Attitude Towards Divorce In A Hindu Society?


Formal divorce did not exist in traditional Hindu culture until the nineteenth century. 

This omission was certainly due to the Hindu viewpoint on marriage. 

Marriage was seen as a lifelong bond between husband and wife (or, more specifically, assimilation of her identity into his), preventing the marriage from dissolving while both members were still alive. 

When a woman is unable to have children, the husband may marry a second wife, but the original marriage is preserved. 

Husbands and wives might easily desert their marriages for other relationships among the lower social strata, who were frequently less concerned with maintaining group status via appropriate conduct, but this was severely banned among “respectable” individuals. 

In contemporary India, divorce is legal, yet societal and cultural reasons continue to work against it. 

Many women in unhappy marriages are hesitant to file for divorce due to a variety of factors, including a lack of support from their natal families, who are often more interested in attempting to save the marriage; inability to earn a living on their own; and the near certainty that their husband's family will be awarded custody of their children, if they have any. 

Although attitudes are steadily improving, divorced women still find it difficult to remarry. 



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