KIRAN ATMA: Hindu Studies
Showing posts with label Hindu Studies. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Hindu Studies. Show all posts

Hinduism - Where Is Basohli?

 







A town in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, near to the Himachal Pradesh border, west of Jammu. 



Basohli was the capital of a tiny kingdom in the Shiwalik Hills in the seventeenth century, despite its insignificance today. 



  • The earliest appearance of the Pahari style of miniature painting was in Basohli. 
  • Highly defined features, severely flattened perspective, and wide bands of a single strong hue for backdrops distinguish the Basohli variant of that style. 
  • It acts as a bridge between the so-called Rajasthani and the Pahari schools' more evolved methods.



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Hinduism - Who Is Basavanna?

 





(1106–67/68) Basavanna Was A Poet-Saint and Religious Leader of the Lingayat community, a Bhakti (Devotional) Sect/Society that Worships Shiva as the Only Ultimate God and Opposes all Caste Rules. 



The Lingayats originated in the southern Indian state of Karnataka, where they still have a significant presence, and their most important religious scriptures are collections of poetry written in Kannada. 


  • Basavanna was a great devotee (bhakta) of Shiva from his childhood, according to legend, and his piety was so strong that he disregarded all ideas of ceremony and caste. 
  • Basavanna became minister to a monarch called Bijjala after spending most of his childhood as a religious seeker. 
  • Basavanna utilized his riches and power to look after Shiva's traveling followers (jangama), and Bijjala's court attracted a slew of prominent people, including poet and religious leader Allama Prabhu. 



Basavanna's sponsorship was crucial in the formation of the Lingayat community, and the suffix anna ("older brother") was added to his name, Basava, as a mark of his significance. 


  • More traditional groups reacted angrily to the Lingayat community's outspoken resistance to ritual worship and caste differences as the Lingayat community became stronger. 
  • When the nascent Lingayat society allegedly arranged a marriage between an untouchable boy and a brahmin girl, the dispute came to a violent climax. 
    • Traditionalists were so angry that they killed the fathers of the bride and groom. 
  • Basavanna died shortly after the Lingayat community was scattered. 



Speaking of Siva, translated by A. K. Ramanujan, was published in 1973.


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Hinduism - What Is Ekadashi Baruthani?



The eleventh day (ekadashi) of the dark, or waning, half of the lunar month of Baisakh, which falls between April and May, is the festival. 



The festival is devoted to the adoration of Vishnu, particularly in his fifth incarnation, the Vamana avatar. 


  • Most Hindu holidays have specified rituals, which typically include fasting (upavasa) and devotion, and frequently promise particular rewards if they are followed faithfully. 
  • Those who follow this practice should avoid being angry or backbiting, and consume food that has been cooked without salt or oil. 



The word Baruthani means "armored" or "protected," and it is thought that keeping this festival properly observed would shield one from all harm and provide great prosperity. 


  • An ascetic whose foot has been bitten off by a wild beast regains the leg by completing this procedure, according to the founding myth.


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Hinduism - Where Is Barsana?






The birthplace of the deity Krishna's beloved partner, Radha, is a hamlet in the Braj area of the state of Uttar Pradesh.




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Hinduism - What Is A Barat?




Barat is one of the most frequent components of a contemporary northern Indian wedding ritual, in which the groom is accompanied by his (mainly male) family and friends in a procession to the wedding location. 



The barat conjures up images of a regal procession in which the groom, at least for the day, is king. 


  • The groom usually rides a garishly adorned white mare, although any mode of transportation that represents his status is appropriate, from an elephant to a horse-drawn carriage to a garlanded vehicle. 
  • The groom often wears a crown or tinsel decorations in line with regal images. 




The whole procession is typically accompanied by a marching band, who act as heralds and march in front of the royal presence; the band will often halt along the route to perform, and the participants will dance around them. 


  • The groom is typically reserved during the barat for the rest of his friends, in line with the seriousness of the event, but it is a time for joking, laughing, dancing, and celebration right before the wedding. 
  • The barat may also include the drinking of alcohol, however this is frowned upon by many more orthodox Hindus.



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Hinduism - What Is Barahmasa?




Barahmasa  translates to “twelve months”.  Each of a poem's lines, or stanzas, is dedicated to a different month of the year, and the months are handled in chronological sequence. 



This is a completely vernacular genre for which no Sanskrit examples have been found. 



  • Barahmasa poems can be divided into several basic categories, including an enumerative type, which describes appropriate activities for each month, such as farming or religious practice; a narrative form, which recounts a woman's longing (viraha) for her absent lover; and a type describing a young wife's chastity trial as she resists various temptati. 



Charlotte Vaudeville's Barahmasa in Indian Literature, published in 1986, has further material.



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Hinduism - What Is Banking In Hindu Society And Culture?

 



Banking was frequently an extension of a merchant family's economic life in traditional Hindu culture, especially in periods and locations when centralized banking did not exist. 





The majority of these families conducted business using hundis, or letters of credit, which allowed them to do commerce across long distances without the danger of transferring gold and silver bullion. 


  • These hundis had become virtual money in most of India by the early 1800s, since they were sometimes used in twenty or thirty transactions before being returned to the issuing family for cashing. 
  • The creditworthiness of a merchant family became its most precious asset under this arrangement. 
  • The family's hundis were no longer respected once this was gone, and they were unable to do commerce. 



Because a family's credit was frequently based on assumptions about its character, merchant families worked hard to project an image of seriousness, reliability, and thrift. 


  • The only place where extravagant spending was allowed in this culture was for religious endowments, which bolstered the family's devout image and therefore increased their creditworthiness. 
  • These families would typically invest some of their excess cash in moneylending as a means to enhance their fortune; the wealthiest families regularly loaned money to royalty, which gave them even more prestige. 



C. A. Bayly's Rulers, Townsmen, and Bazaars, 1983, is a superb depiction of the merchant family culture in northern India.


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Hinduism - Who Are The Banjara?

 



A collection of endogamous subgroups known as jatis ("birth") served as the basis for old Indian society. 


The group's hereditary occupation structured the jatis (and defined their social standing). 



  • The Banjaras were a jati whose ancestral profession was driving pack animals, either as peddlers selling retail items to people in more distant areas or as transporters transporting commodities from one vendor to another, in old northern Indian culture. 
  • They occur as a symbol of human heedlessness or as a person who never stops traveling to reflect on where he has been in poetry by several of the bhakti (devotional) poets, especially Ravidas.



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Hinduism - Who Are The Bania Or Baniya?

 



Bania is a variant of the term Baniya. A merchant or shopkeeper in traditional northern Indian society who belongs to the vaishya varna, which is the third of four social classes in Hindu culture. 



Aside from their commercial operations, the wealthier ones often participated in moneylending, sometimes at exorbitant interest rates, to supplement their cash. 


  • Banias are often depicted in folklore as ruthless and avaricious individuals who only care about their wealth. 



Banias, despite their reputation as parasites, were an important component of the ancient agricultural economy since they provided farmers with commodities on loan that could be returned after the harvest. 


  • They also gave farmers loans to help them get back on their feet after a poor crop. 
  • The farmers relied on the banias for capital, while the banias relied on the farmers for continued consumption and patronage. 



C. A. Bayly, Rulers, Townsmen, and Bazaars, 1983, is a superb recreation of the ethos of a northern Indian merchant family, in which Hindu religiosity was an essential part.


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Hinduism - What Is A Bana Linga?





An egg-shaped stone that is said to be Shiva's svayambhu ("self-manifested") form. 





The bana linga, like other svayambhu pictures, is regarded exceptional since the deity has spontaneously shown himself in it. 



  • Bana lingas are only found in a few locations, most notably in the Chambal River in Madhya Pradesh, where they may be found in great quantities. 


They come in a variety of colors and sizes, ranging from a few feet broad to several feet wide, but most are smaller. 



  • The smaller ones are moveable and may even be carried as portable objects of devotion by traveling ascetics. 
  • The bigger ones are generally exclusively seen in temples, not only because of the restrictions on movement caused by their larger size, but also because they are thought to be so strong that they should be kept in a well-kept environment.


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Hinduism - Who Was Bana?

 

Bana (7th c. C.E.) was a poet and author who lived during the reign of northern Indian monarch Harsha (r. 606–647) and was a prominent member of his court. 




  • Based on his two greatest works, the Harshacharita, a panegyric chronicle of Harsha's exploits, and Kadambari, a romance left incomplete at his death, Bana is generally regarded as one of the great Sanskrit authors. 

  • He is particularly known for his Chandishataka, a compilation of one hundred poetry about the Goddess in various forms.



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Hinduism - What Is Bana?



Bana is a Sanskrit word that means "arrow." 


  • One of the most distinctive items in Hindu iconography, it is connected with a number of deities—the Goddess, Shiva, and Vishnu—and therefore serves as a symbol for none of them. 
  • It's often seen in pictures when the person is holding a bow (dhanus).


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Hinduism - Where Is Bali?







The last remaining relic of the Hindu Buddhist civilization that dominated the area after the early years of the common period is Bali, an island in Indonesia. 



  • Traders and merchants introduced Indian religions to Bali, and inscriptions show that the Balinese monarchs patronized a range of Hindu and Buddhist groups. 
  • Over time, holy geography from India was transported and translated to Bali, local deities were progressively incorporated into the pantheon, and all rival sects were eventually merged into the new entity known as Balinese religion.



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Hinduism - Who Is Bali?






Bali is a demon who is deceived by Vishnu into giving the deity three paces of land of his own in Hindu mythology. 



  • Because Vishnu has taken the appearance of a dwarf, Bali performs this without much thinking (vamana). 
  • When Vishnu receives the gift, he becomes very big and claims the whole cosmos, banishing Bali to the Patala underworld.




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Hinduism - Who Is Balarama?






Krishna's elder brother, Balarama. 


Balarama is said to be a partial avatar, or incarnation, of Shesha, a snake on which the deity Vishnu reclines like a sofa. 


  • To defeat the wicked monarch Kamsa, Shesha assumes human form as Balarama and Vishnu takes human form as Krishna. 
  • Kamsa has imprisoned their parents, Vasudeva and Devaki, since a disembodied voice predicted that Devaki's eighth child will murder Kamsa on their wedding day. 
  • Devaki's first six children are killed at birth by Kamsa by throwing them onto stones, but Balarama is spared when the baby in Devaki's womb is miraculously transferred into Vasudeva's second wife, Rohini's womb. 


Balarama is also known as Sankarshana because of the unique circumstances surrounding his conception ("dragging away"). 


  • Balaram is Krishna's cousin and grows up with him in Nanda and Yashoda's home, where he participates in many of Krishna's adventures, including the killing of Kamsa.



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