Showing posts with label Indian Philosophy. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Indian Philosophy. Show all posts

Hinduism - What Is Viparitakhyati In Hindu And Indian Philosophy?


Viparitakhyati is a Sanskrit word that means "discrimination in the face of the law". 

Kumarila, a Mimamsa philosopher from the seventh century C.E., proposed a theory of error.


All theories of error seek to explain why people make mistakes in judgment, such as mistaking a silvery flash of seashell for a piece of silver, which is a common example.


Kumarila, like Prabhakara and the Naiyayikas, believes that the simple judgments "that object is silvery" and "silver is silvery" are both correct and unquestionable.

Kumarila also agrees with the Naiyayika that the error stems from a false discrimination.

The Naiyayikas postulate the inherence-relationship as a connecting sub jects and predicates ("silver color" and "silver").

This is where he differs from them.


Kumarila's theory is identity-and-difference (bhedabhada), which states that everything is what it is and not what it isn't.


As a result, the perception (pratyaksha) of a shell on the beach would include its similitudes and differences from silveriness, as well as silver's similitudes and differences from silveriness.

One can make a false judgment by combining similarities, or one can make a true judgment by combining differences.

The root cause of combining similarities rather than differences, as in the Naiyayika theory of error, is karmic dispositions arising from avidya, specifically the desire for silver, which drives us to seek out such valuable items.

For more information, see Bijayananda Kar's The Theories of Error in Indian Philosophy, published in 1978, and Karl H. Potter's Presuppositions of India's Philosophies, published in 1972.


~Kiran Atma


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.


Hinduism - What Is Vipaksha In Hindu And Indian Philosophy?

 


One of the parts of an accepted form of inference in Indian philosophy (anumana).


An inference is made up of three parts: an assertion (pratijna), a reason (hetu), and an example (drshtanta); each of these three has its own set of constituent parts.


The vipaksha is a negative example given to show that the claim made in the initial assertion reflects the action of specific causes.

It is part of the third term, examples.

For instance, in the inference "there is fire on the mountain because there is smoke on the mountain," the vipaksha could be "unlike a lake," because lakes do not have fire or smoke, indicating that these conditions are not universally present (fire is found in mountains, but not in lakes).


An inference, by convention, had to include a positive example, the sapaksha, to demonstrate that similar events occurred in similar circumstances (i.e., that there were other cases in which there was both fire and smoke).


~Kiran Atma


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism - What Is Causation In Indian Philosophy?

 






Causal Chains is a term that refers to a series of events that lead to the ultimate goal of all Indian philosophical systems is to discover and comprehend the causal factors that keep humans trapped in samsara, or the endless cycle of rebirth. 



Indian thinkers tried to accomplish this in a variety of ways, including formulating different chains of cause and effect that detailed the process by which humans became bound by karma. 


They believe that by knowing this process, they would be able to control it, leading to the ultimate emancipation of the soul (moksha).



The Buddha and the Jains were the first to construct causal chains. 


The causal chain in each of these theories is started by avidya, or a lack of true knowledge. 

These causal linkages may be broken in the Buddhist and Jain traditions by a religious discipline that starts with moral action and progresses to meditation and knowledge at higher levels. 

Causal chains in Hindu philosophy have a lot in common with these ideas, especially the idea that avidya is the root of the issue. 



Gautama, a Nyaya philosopher, proposed a five-fold causal chain in the Nyaya Sutras: 

pain, 

birth, 

activity, 

flaw, 

and incorrect idea. 


Each of these components is caused by the one before it, and it is removed when the cause is destroyed. 




This paradigm was also utilized by the Vaisheshika school, which was historically associated with the Nyayas. 




The Samkhya philosophical school's causal chain, as articulated by its founder, Ishvarakrishna, ascribes bondage to the process of development, resulting from a misunderstanding between purusha (conscious soul) and prakrti (unconscious spirit) (primal matter). 


These two fundamental principles, according to Samkhya, are always distinct from one another, yet people may mix them up. 

This paradigm was also utilized by the Yoga school, which was historically associated with the Samkhya. 

The Vishishthadvaita Vedanta school's founder, Ramanuja, offers an evolutionary system similar to Samkhya's, except that instead of dualism, all things develop from a single source, Brahman. 




Advaita Vedanta is the only major Hindu philosophical system without a causal chain. 




The concept of parinamavada is used by all other schools to describe the connection between the Ultimate Reality (in most instances, Brahman) and the perceivable universe. 



This philosophical viewpoint accepts the universe as it is seen, as well as the assumption that changes in the material world entail actual transformation (parinama) of one item into another, which can be explained by cause and effect. 


The Advaita school adheres to a philosophical stance known as monism, which is the idea that all things are simply different manifestations of a single Ultimate Reality. 

This one reality, according to Advaitins, is the formless, unqualified Brahman. 

The appearance of variety and diversity in daily life is explained by Advaitins as an illusory rather than a real change of Brahman, a philosophical perspective known as vivartavada. 

This deceptive metamorphosis is produced by a human mind characteristic that causes the mental superimposition (adhyasa) of an erroneous understanding over the true one. 



The fundamental issue for Advaitins, like for all other schools, is avidya, or erroneous knowledge, which must be replaced with right understanding. 

Whereas all other systems place some emphasis on deeds, Advaitins believe that avidya is the only source of suffering and that removing it is the only cure. 



Karl H. Potter (ed. ), Presuppositions of India's Philosophies, 1972, has further information.