Showing posts with label Indus Valley Civilization. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Indus Valley Civilization. Show all posts

Hinduism - Where Is The Archaeological Site Of Mohenjo-Daro?

 

Archeological site on the Indus River, roughly 200 miles north of Karachi, in contemporary Pakistan.

Mohenjo-Daro is one of the Indus Valley towns, a highly developed urban culture that thrived in the Indus Valley area during the fourth and third millennia BC.

Although archeological work is ongoing in other towns, Harappa and Mohenjo Daro have been the most thoroughly explored.

The similarities between these sites give information about this civilization's material culture.

The "Great Bath," a massive water tank made of brick and sealed with pitch, is one of the attractions of Mohenjo-Daro.

Scholars believe it had something to do with ceremonial purity.



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Hinduism - Where Is The Ancient City Of Lothal In India?

 


Lothal is an ancient city and archeological site in the current state of Gujarat, near the Gulf of Cambay.

Between the fourth and third millennia B.C.E., Lothal was one of the towns of the Indus Valley civilization, a highly developed urban culture that thrived in the Indus Valley area.

Lothal was a harbor city, albeit the current location is considerably inland due to silting.

The harbor's size indicates that it was a significant port.

Archaeological evidence reveals that Lothal flourished for about 500 years after Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, the Indus Valley civilization's two major towns, fell into decline.


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Hinduism - Where Is Kalibangan?


Kalibangan is an archeological site in Rajasthan's western state, a short distance from Pakistan's border.

Kalibangan is one of the Indus Basin Civilization's towns, and it is part of a cluster of settlements in what many archaeologists think was the Saraswati River valley, albeit the river now vanishes into the desert.

The city of Kalibangan is almost as big as Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, and Lothal combined.

The city design is almost similar to the others, illustrating the vastness of this ancient culture's mystery.



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Hinduism - What Was The Observable Religion, Religious Beliefs, Vedic, And Pagan Practices Of The Indus Valley Civilization?

 

Although some academics have made conclusive statements concerning the Indus Valley civilization's religion, it is important to realize that all of these claims are very speculative, since they are based exclusively on the remnants of the cities.

Grains, animal bones, remains of fabric, and building foundations provide a strong foundation for learning about this culture's material life—what people ate, dressed, and the sorts of houses they lived in.

Religion, on the other hand, is a significantly more abstract concept.

Not only is it more difficult to deduce what sorts of religion were practiced from the items discovered, but these same artifacts may also be utilized as evidence for radically disparate conclusions.

The things themselves are deafeningly silent and may be interpreted in a variety of ways.

Nonetheless, there are a few remarkable relics among these items.

Ceramic female figurines with greatly exaggerated feminine characteristics—breasts, buttocks, and genitalia—have been discovered at Indus Valley civilization sites.

These figures are very similar to the "Venus of Willendorf," a Bronze Age European picture connected with the worship of female fertility and procreative power.

Given these parallels, it's possible that the Indus Valley culture had a comparable cult.

The sculptures provide no indication of how prevalent this religion was, or if it was tied to other fertility cults or merely a parallel development.

There is no evidence that this cult served as the foundation for Hindu worship of the Goddess as the highest reality later on.

Such statements, at best, are very speculative; at worst, they are reckless and motivated by a hidden goal.

Seals, of which several hundred have been discovered, are the other remarkable relics from the Indus Valley civilization.

Many of the seals include images of animals or daily things, but three of the Harappa seals have an image of a horned figure sitting cross-legged on a little platform.

Because it bears numerous elements connected with the Hindu deity Shiva—the sitting position is linked with the practice of yoga, and the figure's horns reflect his form as Pashupati, the "Lord of Beasts"—some observers have dubbed it a "Proto-Shiva." Proponents of this hypothesis refer to the Indus Valley civilization as Shiva's origins, correctly pointing out that, although Shiva becomes important in later Hinduism, he is almost completely missing from the Vedic pantheon.

The Shvetashvatara Upanishad, one of the most recent of the mystical books known as the Upanishads, identifies the deity Rudra—later associated with Shiva—as the universe's highest force.

Although it is likely that Shiva worship is rooted in Indus Valley culture, anybody who is not predisposed to accept this at the beginning would find this specific evidence difficult to believe.

There is also cryptic text on the seals, and these connections may become apparent if and when this writing is understood.

Also see Veda.

 


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Hinduism - What Are The Seals Of The Indus Valley?

 


Small square or rectangular-shaped slabs of soapstone, considered to have been official seals for merchants and other persons, are the most perplexing items from the Indus Valley civilization.

More than two thousand of these seals, which typically combine a graphic picture with an inscription, have been discovered by archaeologists.

The majority of the seal pictures depict normal household animals, mainly the bull, although a few depict mythological species like unicorns or even stranger human beings.

One well-known example of the latter depicts a human person strangling a tiger with each hand, maybe a fabled hero.

A horned guy appears in two different poses, one standing in front of a table and the other seated in a yoga-like stance.

He is often recognized as an early version of the god Shiva and offered as proof that Shiva's religion originated in the towns of the Indus Valley.

Much less is known about the seal inscriptions since the writing system for these inscriptions has never been decoded, despite several ideas.

One of the reasons for the dispute is a difference of opinion on the Indus Valley culture.

Those who think that the Indus Valley civilization existed before the Aryans arrived and was separate from them search for proof in the Dravidian language family, which is linguistically distinct from the Indo-Aryan language family.

Those who believe in the Indigenous Aryan theory, which links the Indus Valley civilization to that of the Aryans, look for proof in the Vedas, the oldest Sanskrit literature.

None of these explanations have been proven conclusive, and the inscriptions themselves add to the difficulties of understanding this writing.

Linguists have discovered 419 distinct symbols, which seems to be too numerous for the script to be alphabetical yet too few for each sign to stand for a single word, as in Chinese.

Because of the modest size of the seals, the inscriptions are usually quite brief.

Because the text is so short, it is difficult to grasp because it lacks the contextual patterns that a lengthier text would provide.

Linguists are working with a succession of brief and unconnected textual pieces in order to decipher these inscriptions.

The writing could most likely be read conclusively if a bilingual inscription was discovered, but in the absence of such a key, the issues may prove intractable.

F. Raymond Allchin's The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia was published in 1995, while Romila Thapar's Interpreting Early India was published in 1992.

See David Frawley's The Myth of the Aryan Invasion of India (1994) and Vedic Aryans and the Origins of Civilization (1997) for the Indigenous Aryan perspective.

 

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Hinduism - What Was The Indus Valley Civilization?

 

(3000–2000 B.C.E.) Because the first two sites found, Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa, both situated on the Indus River in what is now Pakistan, the civilization is known as Mohenjo-Daro-Harappa.

Other sites along the Indus, as well as a network of settlements reaching east to the upper Ganges valley, south through the present state of Gujarat and into modern Maharashtra, and along the coast of modern Pakistan, have been discovered.

The most concentrated concentration of these communities has been discovered along the banks of the Ghaggar River, a tiny seasonal watercourse that passes across Rajasthan.

Some historians believe it is the ancient Saraswati River's bed.

The evidence suggests that the sites farther south evolved later, but remained important after the cities of the Indus River Valley, notably Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, had faded into obscurity.

The discovery of these sites in the early twentieth century triggered important historical revisions, since it had previously been widely accepted that the Aryans were India's first sophisticated society.

The most notable aspect of these towns is their uniformity—their main city plans were essentially same from place to place (though scale varied), the bricks used in all of them were the same size, and there was a standardized system of weights and measures.

Each city also featured a massive central granary, which housed the grain required to feed such a large population.

Such seeming homogeneity across such great distances points to a powerful and centralized authority, which some experts suggest was religious in character.

A sophisticated sanitation system was another distinguishing aspect of all the cities.

All of the dwellings had water channels, and an intricate network of drains and sewers flowed throughout the city, even in the lowest areas where the houses were the tiniest and the residents were supposedly the poorest.

The archaeologists have named the "Great Bath" a large tank made of brick and covered with pitch at Mohenjo-Daro.

Why was cleanliness and bathing so important to the people who created these cities? According to some academics, this was due to a religious concern for ceremonial purity rather than cleanliness.

Many of the artifacts from these cities have been remarkably well preserved, and they provide us with a fairly complete picture of their material culture, including what they ate (wheat and barley were the primary food grains), what they wore (cotton), which animals they had domesticated (cattle, fowl, goats, sheep, pigs, donkeys, and dogs), and everyday implements.

More than 2,000 miniature seals were discovered during archeological investigations, which are thought to have acted as emblems for merchant families.

Many of the seals have text on them that has never been decoded, as well as realistic drawings of animals and people.

Three of the seals have a horned figure seated on the ground with his upper legs extended and his heels touching.

The image on these seals has been mentioned by some viewers as evidence that the Indus Valley civilization is the ultimate source for the deity Shiva, who does not appear in the Vedas, the earliest Hindu religious books, but subsequently becomes one of the principal Hindu deities.

Similarly, the discovery of a number of sculptures of women with greatly exaggerated feminine characteristics—breasts, buttocks, and genitalia—has led some to speculate that this society was the foundation of the later Hindu religion of the Mother Goddess.

One of the most contentious issues surrounding the Indus Valley civilization is who lived there and if their descendants still reside in India.

A period of interaction between the residents of these towns and a pastoral group of foreigners known as the Aryans is described in the widely accepted idea among Western researchers.

Sanskrit, the Aryan language, has structural similarities with classical European languages and much more so with the Avesta, ancient Iranian holy scriptures.

Scholars have inferred that all of these languages came from a common mother language, and that people speaking this parent language originated in central Asia, somewhere near the Caspian Sea, based on an analysis of the relationships between these languages and the rate at which these languages have changed.

From there, some traveled west to Europe, some southwest to Turkey, and yet others south to Iran and then India.

This hypothesis is therefore almost entirely predicated on observable linguistic similarities and assumptions about the pace of language development, some of which are unavoidably arbitrary.

The skeletons of horses discovered at Indus Valley sites provide the only piece of tangible support for this idea.

According to references based on Aryan religious texts, the Vedas, the horse was an established part of Aryan life, whereas it appears to have been absent from the Indus Valley cities—it is not depicted on any of the carved seals, which show many other animals, and the only bones recovered from the Indus Valley cities are found in the most recent archeological strata.

This idea portrays a time of contact and maybe war between the Aryans and the peoples of the Indus Valley, following which Aryan culture and religion became the dominating force in Indian society.

Until they were excavated in the early twentieth century, the Indus Valley towns were completely forgotten.

Although the Aryan migration idea explains the spread of numerous languages, it is not widely accepted.

Many contemporary Indians believe in the Indigenous Aryan (IA) idea, which claims that the Aryans were India's first occupants and cites relics from the Indus Valley civilization as evidence.

Some followers of the IA are responding to what they see to be a colonialist bias in the Aryan migration theory, which was devised by Europeans and implies that the dominant populations in contemporary India must have arrived from outside.

Hindutva supporters, who associate being Hindu with being Indian, are also supporters.

The IA thesis enables Hindutva supporters to assert that all Indians, regardless of their religious views, are "really" Hindus and hence form one social group.

In contemporary India, where Christians and Muslims are not simply religious groups, but also social and political ones, this argument has significant political ramifications.

Hindutva supporters marginalize Christians and Muslims as outsiders by connecting Hindu identity with good Indian citizenship.

Although such assertions are fascinating, there is little evidence to support them.

The fact is that researchers have retrieved a large number of tangible items, but it is unclear what these objects imply.

We know, at the very least, that this society thrived for over a thousand years.

Its ultimate collapse occurred approximately 2000 B.C.E., according to one idea, due to a severe drought.

Walter Ashlin Fairservis, The Roots of Ancient India, 1975, is a good source of knowledge.


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Hinduism - What Is The Indigenous Aryan Theory?

 

The idea that the Aryans were natives of the Indian subcontinent rather than immigrants from other countries is postulated and argued within the "The Indigenous Aryan Theory".

There is increasing evidence to suggest that historic populations inhabiting the Indo-European regions across Eastern Europe, Eurasia, Iran, And India may have been in cultural contact across millennia resulting in admixtures that contain DNA belonging to the Yamnaya peoples among other native Neolithic Indo-Iranian Agro-pastoral peoples.

There is reason to argue and theorize that these networks of Human tribes could have originated in the Indian sub continent or the Indo-Iranian plateau rather than the other way round. 

An eventual migration into Western Europe might have occurred after this event.

A lack of archaeological and genetic evidence, perhaps yet to be discovered, is not sufficient grounds to rule out the theory, or to conclusively/widely accept another based solely on circumstantial genetic forensic studies and instances of scattered artifacts.

The individuals who wrote the Vedas, the first Hindu religious writings, gave themselves the moniker Arya, which means "noble." The structural relationships between Sanskrit and classical European languages were uncovered by nineteenth-century European scholars, who theorized that all of these languages had a common ancestor.

These researchers speculated that individuals speaking this parent language originated in central Asia, maybe around the Caspian Sea, based on additional investigation.

From there, some traveled west to Europe, some southwest to Turkey, and yet others south to Iran and then India.

Comparisons between the Avesta and the Veda, Iranian and Indian religious writings, led to the conclusion that these Indian pilgrims came from Iran.

These writings have a lot of grammatical similarities, suggesting that the people who spoke the languages were connected.

Thus, the whole hypothesis is based purely on observable linguistic commonalities and hypotheses about how they developed.

Supporters of the indigenous Aryan idea dispute this assertion, claiming that the Aryans were the first occupants of India, citing artifacts discovered in the Indus Valley civilization, an ancient urban network in northeastern India, as evidence.

Both of these assertions are flimsy at best, and they ignore the philological data that supports the original Aryan idea.

Political consequences have aided in the establishment of the Indigenous Aryan idea.

Some supporters are responding to what they consider to be a colonialist bias in the Aryan migration hypothesis, which was devised by Europeans and implies that the dominant populations in contemporary India must have arrived from outside.

Hindutva proponents, for example, argue that all Indians are “truly” Hindus, and hence belong to the same social group, regardless of their religious views.

In contemporary India, where Christians and Muslims are not simply religious communities, but also social and political ones, this assertion has significant political implications.

Hindutva supporters marginalize Christians and Muslims as outsiders by equating Hindu identification with good Indian citizenship.

 


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.