Showing posts with label Kashmir. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Kashmir. Show all posts

Hinduism - What Is The Rajatarangini?

 

"River of Kings" is # Rajatarangini.

Kalhana, a Kashmiri poet, wrote a historical chronicle of the rulers of Kashmir in poetry.

The Rajatarangini is an extraordinarily detailed and accurate history of Kashmir and its political, social, and religious institutions; the text's sole flaw is that it ignores the outside world.

The Rajatarangini is one of the few indigenous Indian histories, and Kalhana's historical focus is rare for Indian authors.


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Hinduism - Who Was Lal, And Lalleshvari? What Is The Lallavakyani?


Lal, is another name for Lalleshvari(14th c.), a devotional (bhakti) poet-saint who is one of Kashmir's most prominent poets.

"Lalla's Sayings" is Lallavakyani. Lalleshvari, a Shiva devotee (bhakta), is credited with this corpus of poetry.

The poems in this book hint to her early life's harsh conditions, as well as the domestic issues that drove her to leave her husband's house.

They also speak of her all-encompassing devotion to Shiva, whom she considers to be the sole genuine source of bliss.


Lalleshvari was a bhakta (devotee) of Shiva, and her songs are about her devotion to him.

She, like many other female religious exemplars, struggled to reconcile her marriage with her devotion to her chosen god.

Her mother-in-law, according to legend, abused her horribly.

Her husband was characterized as a cold guy who did not protest to the beating or console his wife.

She left home after around twelve years of hardship to roam as a religious seeker.

Lalleshvari walked naked to symbolize her rejection of all attachments and worldly ideals, especially feminine modesty.

She created and sung Shiva devotional songs throughout her wanderings, which are still famous today.



These poems have been translated into English, although all of the editions are fairly old: see Sir George Grierson and Lionel D. Barnett, Lalla Vakyani, 1920; and R. C. Temple, Lalla, the Prophetess, 1924.



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Hinduism - Who Is Kalhana? What Is The Rajatarangini?

 

Kalhana  (12th c.) - Rajatarangini ("River of Monarchs"), a lyrical history of Kashmir's kings, was written by a Kashmiri poet.

Kalhana's history of Kashmir and its political, social, and religious institutions is extraordinarily vivid and precise.

The sole flaw in the writing is that it pays little attention to the outer world.

Kalhana's focus on history is unique among Indian authors, and his chronicle is one of the few indigenous Indian histories.


 


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.




Hinduism - Where Is Kashmir? Do Kashmiris Still Continue To Have A Shared History, Language, Culture, And Identity?


 Along with Jammu and Ladakh, it is one of the three different cultural zones of the contemporary Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

Jammu and Kashmir was formerly a princely realm controlled by Hindu Dogra monarchs who also reigned over the mostly Muslim Kashmiris and predominantly Buddhist Ladakhis.

Since India's independence in 1947, ethnic and religious divisions have been a cause of strife, particularly in Kashmir.

Pakistan sought to capture the territory by force after independence and claimed a chunk of Kashmir.

Since then, India and Pakistan have fought multiple battles over it; Pakistan claims it based on their common faith of Islam, while India claims it based on a document signed by Maharaja Hari Singh, the last of the country's monarchs.

Kashmiris have been trapped in the middle of this regional conflict, and their requests for greater self-determination have mostly gone unheeded.

Tensions in Kashmir reached a peak during the widely acknowledged fraudulent state elections of 1986.

Since 1990, the tension has escalated into a full-fledged revolt, aided by secret Pakistani assistance.

During medieval times, the majority of Kashmiris converted to Islam.

Previously, the region was a Hindu cultural hotspot.

The sun temple at Martand, a temple to the deity Shiva at Pandrenthan, and the Shiva shrine at Amarnath cave, which is still a significant pilgrimage destination, are all remarkable examples of early Hindu architecture.

Kashmir is also home to a Hindu minority known as Kashmiri Pandits.

Many of them have moved south to other areas of India as a result of recent problems.

Despite their differing religious views, these two populations share a shared language and sense of Kashmiri identity and culture.

See Christine Nivin et al., India, 8th ed., Lonely Planet, 1998, for general information about Kashmir and other Indian locations.


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Hinduism - Where Is Jammu In India?

 

One of the three different cultural zones in the current Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir; the other two are western Kashmir and Ladakh.

The Dogras, a tiny regional dynasty, historically controlled Jammu and Kashmir, a former princely state.

Despite being Hindus, the Dogra rulers reigned over the minority populations of largely Muslim Kashmiris and mostly Buddhist Ladakhis; this ethnic and religious separation persists today.

The Jammu region is located in the northern Indian plain, and the neighboring areas south of the Shiwalik Hills are mostly Hindu.

Jammu, on the other hand, is adjacent to Punjab, the heartland of Sikhism, a monotheistic faith that mixes aspects of Hinduism and Islam; as a result, Jammu has a sizable Sikh community.

The temple devoted to Vaishno Devi, a goddess who is said to fulfill all of one's requests, is by far the most well-known in the Jammu area.

Jammu was also a hub for the Pahari art of miniature painting in the eighteenth and nineteenth century.

Jammu is the name of the area, as well as the major city in the region and the state's historic winter capital. Christine Nivin et al., India.

8th ed., Lonely Planet, 1998, provides an accessible resource for general information on Jammu and all of India's regions. 


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.