Showing posts with label Kashmiri. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Kashmiri. Show all posts


(late tenth century) Abhinavagupta was a major thinker in Kashmiri Saivism, and the son of scholar Narasimhagupta, who was his first tutor.

Abhinavagupta wrote forty-one works, commentaries and independent treatises, on the three main branches of Kashmiri Saivism: Krama, Pratyabhijna, and Trika, as well as aesthetics, poetics, and language theory, becoming the most prominent and influential teacher in Abhinavagupta was the one who systematized the Trika doctrine based on a number of older and often obscure texts, most notably in his masterpiece, the Tantra loka (Light on the Tantras), a massive work in thirty-seven ahnika ('day-times,' i.e. chapters) that takes up twelve volumes in the Kashmir Series of Texts and Studies (1918–38) with Jayaratha's commentary.

The Tantra loka was summarized by its author in the Tantrasara (Essence of the Tantras), a widely read book that combines yoga, devotion to the Lord, and nondualism (advaita) in such a manner that it is applicable to a variety of systems.

The Patra trimsika Vivarana is a lengthy commentary on the Tantra Para trimsika's thirty-six pithy stanzas, which elaborates on all elements of Word/speech, whether liturgical, cosmogonic, psychological, epistemological, or metaphysical.

The Ma lin vijaya Varttika and the Isvara pratyabhijn a Vimarsin on Utpala deva's Pratyabhijn a Karika, both major works in the tradition, are two more commentaries worth noting.

All of these writings are significant, and Abhinavgupta's impact beyond not just his own school but also Tamil Nadu, where he was even regarded as an incarnation of Siva.

Not just in the sphere of poetics, with his focus on the primacy of suggestion, but also in the performing arts, particularly theatre, dance, and music, his writings on aesthetics were to be as authoritative and of enduring value.

Kiran Atma

You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

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See also: 

Advaita; Dance; Drama; Kashmiri Saivism; Music; Poetry; Siva; Tantras; Tantrism; Yoga

Hinduism - Who Was Lal, And Lalleshvari? What Is The Lallavakyani?

Lal, is another name for Lalleshvari(14th c.), a devotional (bhakti) poet-saint who is one of Kashmir's most prominent poets.

"Lalla's Sayings" is Lallavakyani. Lalleshvari, a Shiva devotee (bhakta), is credited with this corpus of poetry.

The poems in this book hint to her early life's harsh conditions, as well as the domestic issues that drove her to leave her husband's house.

They also speak of her all-encompassing devotion to Shiva, whom she considers to be the sole genuine source of bliss.

Lalleshvari was a bhakta (devotee) of Shiva, and her songs are about her devotion to him.

She, like many other female religious exemplars, struggled to reconcile her marriage with her devotion to her chosen god.

Her mother-in-law, according to legend, abused her horribly.

Her husband was characterized as a cold guy who did not protest to the beating or console his wife.

She left home after around twelve years of hardship to roam as a religious seeker.

Lalleshvari walked naked to symbolize her rejection of all attachments and worldly ideals, especially feminine modesty.

She created and sung Shiva devotional songs throughout her wanderings, which are still famous today.

These poems have been translated into English, although all of the editions are fairly old: see Sir George Grierson and Lionel D. Barnett, Lalla Vakyani, 1920; and R. C. Temple, Lalla, the Prophetess, 1924.

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