Showing posts with label Kerala. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Kerala. Show all posts

Hinduism - Where Are The The Nilgiri Hills In India?


The Nilgiri Hills are a range of hills created by the confluence of the Western and Eastern Ghats, and are situated in the crossroads of three southern Indian states: Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka.

The hills were formerly inhabited by a tribal group known as the Todas, albeit just a few thousand Todas remain now.

This area is known for its hill stations, such as Ootacamund and Kodaikanal, which are popular holiday places, honeymoon destinations, and filmmaking locations.

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Hinduism - Where Is Kerala In India?


One of four southern Indian states whose people speak a Dravidian language, Malayalam in this instance.

Kerala is located on a short sliver of land between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, in what was formerly known as the Malabar coast.

Kerala is one of the "linguistic" states established after India's independence in 1947 to bring people who spoke the same language and had a same culture under one government.

It was formed from the princely republics of Travancore and Cochin, as well as the Malayalam-speaking portions of the former Madras state.

Kerala has traditionally been a significant commercial hub.

For thousands of years, traders from the Middle East have come to buy its spices and sandalwood.

It is the only Indian state with 100% adult literacy and has had India's first elected communist administration in modern times.

The temple of Aiyappa in Shabari Malai is Kerala's most renowned religious place.

The yearly trip to the place is customarily limited to men and women above the age of childbearing.

See Christine Nivin et al., India. 8th ed., Lonely Planet, 1998, for general information about Kerala and other Indian states.


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Hinduism - What Is The Kathakali?

Kathakali is an Indian classical dance genre that includes Bharatanatyam, Orissi, Kuchipudi, Kathak, and Manipuri, among others.

Classical dances, like much of traditional Indian culture, are associated with certain locations; Kathakali is largely found in Kerala.

Kathakali, unlike many other classical forms, did not evolve in a temple context.

It emerged as a developed form in the seventeenth century, while it has roots in centuries-old folk and religious plays.

The men's version of Kathakali is Mohini Attam, whereas the women's form is Kathakali.

One of the most spectacular shows in Indian arts is a Kathakali performance.

The dancers' training emphasizes controlled facial motion to promote ease and force of expression, which contributes to the drama.

The dancers are dressed in extravagant costumes and headdresses.

The most remarkable aspect is the intricate makeup—the heroes' faces are painted a vibrant green with fluted ridges made of rice paste affixed to their cheeks, while the villains' chins and foreheads are painted green and red with pith knobs attached.

The dance goes between muscular leaps and grand spins stylistically, with religious scriptures serving as the primary source of storytelling.

Kathakali, like many Indian dances, has a well-developed "vocabulary" of gestures and facial expressions that allows the dancers to participate in elaborate storytelling.

Kathakali, like all other classical dances, has evolved throughout the years, driven on by a shift in the venue from temple courtyards to stage performances.

A scheduled stage performance, for example, requires a well-organized "program" and a predetermined time constraint, while Kathakali performances used to continue all night.

Mohan Khokar's Traditions of Indian Classical Dance, published in 1984, has further information. 

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Hinduism - What Is Kathak?

Bharatanatyam, Orissi, Kuchipudi, Kathakali, and Manipuri are some of the other Indian classical dance genres.

Classical dances, like much of traditional Indian culture, are associated with certain locations; Kathak is largely found in northern India.

Kathak is said to have developed from Braj's ras lilas, devotional dances depicting incidents from Krishna's life.

This notion has little historical evidence and may just represent a desire to enshrine religion in all aspects of Indian culture.

Kathak, on the other hand, developed as an art form in the northern Indian monarchs' courts, where it was performed for the amusement of the king and his guests.

Over time, two main Kathak hubs emerged: Jaipur, which is recognized for its spectacular footwork, and Lucknow, which is noted for its emphasis on acting.

Kathak is distinguished stylistically by an erect posture with straight legs.

The dance focuses on quick, rhythmic foot movements, which are enhanced by bell strings worn on the dancer's ankles and accompanied by repeated rotations; the body is kept relatively static.

Kathak, like many other forms of Indian dance, has a well-developed "vocabulary" of facial expressions and arm and hand movements that enable the dancer to communicate a wide variety of emotions to the audience.

Mohan Khokar's Traditions of Indian Classical Dance, published in 1984, has further information. 

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Hinduism - Who Were The Cheras, Or The Chera Rulers Of Kerala?

Chera Dynasty is a historical dynasty in India. 

From the second century B.C.E. until the ninth century C.E., a Hindu dynasty controlled most of what is now Kerala. 

Kalaripayattu Training and Natural Spa Service Hotels / Restaurants |  Casacolonica Resort, Wayanad

The Cheras were always at odds with the Pandyas and Cholas, the two major kingdoms in the deep south, and were ultimately annexed by the Cholas in the ninth century C.E. 

Who is the Chera dynasty's founder? 

Cheral Athan Uthiyan From Tamil literature, Uthiyan Cheral Athan is widely regarded as the first known king of the Chera line (and the possible hero of the lost first decad of Pathitrupattu). 

"Vanavaramban" was another name for Uthiyan Cheral (Purananuru).  His base of operations was at Kuzhumur (Akananuru). 

Chera Script 

Inscription of Irumporai Cheras from Pugalur

Perum Kadungon 
Ko Athan Chel (Cheral)
Ilam Kadungo

Early Cheras epigraphic and numismatic evidence has been discovered through archaeology. 

Three generations of Chera kings of the Irumporai dynasty are described in two almost similar inscriptions found at Pugalur (near Karur) during the 1st and 2nd centuries CE. 

On the occasion of the investiture of Ilam Kadungo, son of Perum Kadungo and grandson of Ko Athan Cheral Irumporai, they chronicle the building of a rock shelter for Jains.

At Edakkal in the Western Ghats, a brief Tamil-Brahmi inscription with the word Chera ("Kadummi Pudha Chera") was discovered.

Recent archaeological finds are confirming Karur's status as a historic south Indian political, economic, and cultural center. 

Huge numbers of copper coinage with Chera emblems like as the bow and arrow, Roman amphorae, and Roman coins were discovered during excavations at Karur. 

With the aid of archaeological evidence, an old route may be traced from Kerala's harbours (such as Muchiri, or Muziris, or Thondi) across the Palghat Gap to Karur in interior Tamil Nadu. 

Historians have yet to pinpoint Muziris, also known as "Muchiri" in Tamil, as a Chera kings' base. 

Excavations at Pattanam (near Cochin) have shown a compelling case of identification with the site. 

Over time, significant quantities of Roman coins have been found in central Kerala and the Coimbatore-Karur area (from locations such as Kottayam-Kannur, Valluvally, Iyyal, Vellalur and Kattankanni).

What is the location of the Chera dynasty? 

Cera dynasty, sometimes spelt Chera, rulers of a historic kingdom in what is now Kerala state in southern India, also known as Keralaputra. 

Cera was one of the three main kingdoms of southern India that made up Tamilkam (Territory of the Tamils), with its capital on the Malabar Coast and its hinterland. 

Who is the most powerful king of the Chera dynasty? 



According to Chera legend, Sengutturan was the greatest monarch of the Chera dynasty. 

The Chola and Pandya rulers had been vanquished by him. 

At the close of the third century A.D., the Chera's authority began to wane. In the eighth century A.D., they regained power. 

What Was The Chera Coinage?

A handful of coins thought to be Cheras, mainly discovered in Tamil Nadu's Amaravati riverbed, are a significant source of early Chera history. 

A number of punch-marked coins were found in the Amaravati riverbed. Copper and its alloys, as well as silver square coins, have been found. 

On the obverse, most of these early square coins had a bow and arrow, the Cheras' traditional symbol, with or without a legend. 

There have been reports of silver-punch stamped coins with a Chera bow on the reverse, which are a replica of the Maurya coins. 

Hundreds of Chera copper coins have been found in Pattanam, Kerala's central district. 

In a riverbank in Karur, bronze dies for minting punch marked coins were found.

A coin with a portrait and the Brahmi inscription "Mak-kotai" above it, as well as another with a picture and the legend "Kuttuvan Kotai" above it, were also discovered. 

Both impure silver pieces are thought to be from the first century CE or later. Both coins have a blank back side. 

Karur also produced impure silver coins with Brahmi legends "Kollippurai", "Kollipporai", "Kol-Irumporai" and "Sa Irumporai". 

In general, portrait coins are thought to be imitations of Roman coinage. 

On the reverse, all legends were written in Tamil-Brahmi characters, which were believed to represent the names of Chera kings. 

The bow and arrow emblem was often seen on the reverse. 

A joint coin with the Chola tiger on the obverse and the Chera bow and arrow on the reverse demonstrates the Cholas' partnership. 

Karur has also yielded Lakshmi-type coins with a probable Sri Lankan provenance.

The macro study of the Mak-kotai coin reveals striking resemblances to modern Roman silver coins. 

In Karur's Amaravati riverbed, a silver coin with a picture of a person wearing a Roman-style bristled-crown helmet was also found. 

The Chera family's traditional emblem is a bow and arrow, which is shown on the reverse side of the coin.

Who is the final Chera dynasty king? 

Kulasekhara Rama Rama Kulasekhara (late 11th century CE) was the final king of medieval Kerala's Chera Perumal dynasty. 

Chera rulers belong to what Hindu Caste? 

The Villavars of Chera Kingdom, were the Illavas or Ezhavas with roots in Sri Lanka, and this clan also branched out to the Karnataka Billavas. 

The Rajput Kshatriya clans of Bhil Meenas of Rajastan, Meenas of Rajastan, and Bhils of North India belong to the same Kshatriya Warrior Caste lineage.

What Constituted The Chera Economy?

Trade in spices.

Spice Routes (Blue) and Silk Road (Red)

The Chera chiefdom's trade connections with the Graeco-Roman world's merchants, the "Yavanas," and with north India supplied significant economic impetus. 

The main economic activity was trade over the Indian Ocean. 

When it comes to the nature of the "spice trade" in ancient Chera land, there is considerable disagreement. 

Given the presence of seemingly uneven governmental structures in south India, it is debatable if the Tamil merchants conducted this "trade" with the Mediterranean world on equal terms. 

Because it occurred between the Roman Empire and South India with unequal chiefdoms, some more recent scholars claim that the "trade" was a "severe imbalance" transaction.

The Cheras became a major power in ancient southern India due to geographical advantages such as favorable Monsoon winds that carried ships directly from Arabia to south India, as well as an abundance of exotic spices in the interior Ghat mountains (and the presence of a large number of rivers connecting the Ghats to the Arabian Sea). 

Spice trade between Middle Eastern and Mediterranean (Graeco-Roman) navigators dates from before the Common Era and was mostly cemented throughout the Common Era's early years. 

The Romans conquered Egypt in the first century CE, which helped them gain supremacy in the Indian Ocean spice trade. 

Pliny the Elder in the first century CE, Periplus Maris Erythraei in the first century CE, and Claudius Ptolemy in the second century CE are the first Graeco-Roman descriptions of the Cheras. 

The Periplus Maris Erythraei depicts the "commerce" in Keprobotras' area in great detail. 

Muziris was the most significant city on the Malabar Coast, which "abounded with great ships of Romans, Arabs, and Greeks," according to the Periplus. 

Spices in bulk, ivory, wood, pearls, and jewels were "exported" from Chera to Middle Eastern and Mediterranean countries.

The Romans are reported to have brought large quantities of gold in exchange for black pepper. 

The discovery of Roman coin hoards in different areas of Kerala and Tamil Nadu attests to this. 

Pliny the Elder laments the loss of Roman money to India and China in exchange for luxuries such as spices, silk, and muslin in the first century CE. 

The fall of the Roman empire in the 3rd and 4th century CE slowed the spice trade across the Indian Ocean. 

With the Mediterranean's departure from the spice trade, Chinese and Arab navigators stepped in to fill the void.

Trade In Wootz Steel

The wootz crucible steel from medieval south India and Sri Lanka was used to create the renowned damascus blades. 

High carbon Indian steel is mentioned in ancient Tamil, Greek, Chinese, and Roman literature. 

The crucible steel production process began in the 6th century BC at the production sites of Kodumanal in Tamil Nadu, Golconda in Telangana, Karnataka, and Sri Lanka, and was exported globally; by 500 BC, the Chera Dynasty had produced what was referred to as the finest steel in the world, i.e. 

Seric Iron, which was sold to the Romans, Egyptians, Chinese, and Arabs. 

Steel was shipped in the form of steely iron cakes known as "Wootz." 

Wootz steel from India has a high carbon content.

To fully remove slag, black magnetite ore was heated in the presence of carbon in a sealed clay crucible within a charcoal furnace. 

Smelting the ore first to make wrought iron, then heating and hammering it to remove the slag was another option. 

Bamboo and leaves from plants like Avrai provided the carbon supply. 

By the 5th century BC, the Chinese and natives in Sri Lanka had acquired the Cheras' wootz steel manufacturing techniques. 

This early steel-making technique in Sri Lanka used a unique wind furnace powered by monsoon winds. 

Antiquity-era production sites, as well as imported relics of old iron and steel from Kodumanal, have been discovered in locations like Anuradhapura, Tissamaharama, and Samanalawewa. 

Some of the first iron and steel artifacts and manufacturing techniques from the classical era were introduced to Sri Lanka by a 200 BC Tamil trading guild at Tissamaharama, in the south east.

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