Showing posts with label Kumarila. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Kumarila. Show all posts

Hinduism - What Is The Purva ("Earlier") Mimamsa In Indian Philosophy?

 


Purva Mimamsa is one of the six classic Hindu philosophical schools, most often known as Mimamsa ("investigation").

It was given the name Purva Mimamsa to differentiate it from the Uttara ("Later") Mimamsa school, better known as Vedanta.

The name Mimamsa is suitable since it emphasizes the study of dharma ("good behavior"), notably as revealed in the Vedas, the oldest and most authoritative Hindu religious literature.

Mimamsas thought that the Vedas were the source of perfect knowledge, and that the Vedas were not created by God or humans, but rather were simply heard by ancient sages via their great abilities of perception, and then passed down orally from generation to generation.

The Mimamsas created sophisticated rules for textual interpretation to determine these since they considered the Vedas as the major source of authority and claimed that the Vedas included norms and prescriptions related to dharma.

It is for these rules that they are most known.

Mimamsas believed in the presence of the soul and in the necessity of deeds and their effects, as embodied in the concept of karma, both of which are supported by the Vedas.

The Mimamsas believed that the effect of an action existed as an invisible force called apurva in circumstances when the result came some time after the deed.

This power would dependably produce the desired outcome, thereby preserving the Vedic truth.

The Mimamsas were less united in their belief in God's existence.

The author of the Mimamsa Sutras and the school's founder, Jaimini (4th century B.C.E. ), seemed to disregard the subject entirely, whereas Kumarila, a 1,000-year-old Mimamsa luminary, argued against the presence of God.

Mimamsas made contributions to logic and epistemology in addition to establishing strategies for reading the Vedas.

One of their most noteworthy contributions was the formulation of two new pramanas, or ways for humans to attain real and exact knowledge.


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Hinduism - What Is Pratyaksha Or Perception In Hindu Philosophy?

 

Perception (pratyaksha) was acknowledged as a pramana by all philosophical systems, and most also accepted inference (anu mana) and authoritative testimony (shabda).

"Presumption" (arthapatti) and "knowledge from absence" were the two new modes developed by the Mimamsas (abhava).

These additions were justified by the Mimamsas, who claimed that they accounted for knowledge that could not be assimilated under the existing pramanas.

Arthapatti is a kind of inference from circumstance in which a decision is formed regarding one instance only on the basis of comparable situations.

Consider the assumption that a passenger arrived at his or her destination after the train's scheduled arrival time had passed.

This is not a genuine inference, according to Indian philosophy, since the latter must always be verified by direct perception.

Similarly, abhava, or the experience of any absence (for example, the absence of any thing before one), could not be explained by any of the existing pramanas, necessitating the creation of this new one.

Aside from Jaimini, the Mimamsas' most notable individuals are Kumarila and Prabhakara, both of whom lived in the seventh century.

Karl H. Potter's Presuppositions of India's Philosophies was published in 1972, and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Charles A. Moore (eds.) published A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy in 1957.



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Hinduism - What Is The Mimamsa Sutras?

 


Mimamsa Sutras is the founding text of the Purva Mimamsa school, one of the six schools of traditional Hindu philosophy.

The Mimamsa Sutras are traditionally attributed to the sage Jaimini, who is believed to have lived in the fourth century B.C.E.

The Mimamsa school was most concerned with the investigation of dharma (“righteous action”), believed to be revealed in the Vedas, the earliest Hindu religious texts.

Much of Mimamsa thought is concerned with principles and methods for textual interpretation, to discover and interpret the instructions contained in the Vedas.

The Mimamsa Sutras were elaborated in numerous commentaries, the most famous of which were written by Kumarila and Prabhakara in the seventh century.

For further information and text, see Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Charles A. Moore (eds.), A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy, 1957.


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Hinduism - What Is The Kumarila?

 


One of the two major commentators of Mimamsa philosophy, one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy, in the seventh century; the other notable commentator was Prabhakara.

The Mimamsa school was particularly concerned with the investigation and pursuit of dharma ("good deed"), for which followers felt the Vedas, the earliest Hindu religious books, offered all required teachings.

As a result, much of Mimamsa thinking is focused with textual interpretation principles and strategies for uncovering and interpreting Vedic instructions.

Despite the fact that both Kumarila and Prabhakara were dedicated to discovering the bounds of dharma through reading the Vedas, there are significant philosophical differences between them, which are most evident in their views of mistake.

Prabhakara starts with the assumption that there is a relatively weak correlation between an object and its characteristics, comparable to the Nyaya idea of inherence (samavaya).

A good example of this is the association of the color red with a certain ball, resulting in the ball being referred to as red.

False beliefs are the product of akhyati ("nondiscrimination," according to Prabhakara).

When a person sees two different items with the same qualities and decides that they are the same, this is what happens.

Kumarila is more in line with the bhedabhada ("identity and difference") philosophical stance, which asserts that everything has both identity and distinction with everything else.

Kumarila defines error as viparitakhyati ("contrary perception"), which occurs when a person incorrectly associates two objects' similarities rather than their differences.

For example, a person may wrongly assume that a silvery-colored shell is really a piece of silver because he or she chooses to concentrate on the similarities rather than the distinctions between the shell and silver.

People are compelled to make these decisions by karmic forces, such as silver greed.


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