Showing posts with label Manu Smrti. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Manu Smrti. Show all posts

Hinduism - Who Are The Vishvedevas In Hindu Mythology?


Based on the literal meaning of the word ("all the gods"), this name might be interpreted as referring to all gods, or it can refer to a group of deities known as the sons of Vishva, the celestial sage Daksha's daughter.

The number of sons varies across manuscripts and is either 10 or thirteen.

Although the Manu Smrti, one of the most important scriptures in the dharma literature, requires daily gifts to the Vishvedevas, they are especially venerated during memorial services for the deceased known as shraddhas.

They are claimed to have received these daily offerings as a reward for performing exceptionally severe asceticism.

Kiran Atma

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Hinduism - Who Is Medhatithi In Hindu Philosophy?


Medhatithi is a Sanskrit word that means "to ponder (mid-9th c.) 

Medhatithi  is also the name of the writer of the authoritative commentary on the Manu Smrti, popularly known as the "Laws of Manu," was written by him.

Medhatithi was taught textual interpretation techniques developed by the Purva Mimamsa school, one of Hindu philosophy's six schools.

His commentary immediately became the acknowledged standard because of his interpretative ability.

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Hinduism - What Is Manu Smrti?


("Manu's Laws") One of the smrtis, or "remembered" texts, a subset of shrutis, or "heard" scriptures, that is considered significant but not authoritative.

This smrti is attributed to the sage Manu and is an example of one of the Dharma Shastras, which are texts that prescribe principles for proper human conduct and ideal societal behavior.

The Dharma Shastras are often attributed to mythological sages, bolstering their authority.

Manu's treatise is by far the most important of the Dharma Shastras, and it is thought to have been written just before the Common Era began.

Manu's book clearly distinguishes the Dharma Sutras from the Dharma Shastras, since it is clearly designed as a model for a whole society rather than a collection of rules for a specific brah min sect.

The first chapter describes the formation of the world and the social order that resulted; the chapter concludes by summarizing the remainder of the volume's contents.

The following five chapters use material from the Dharma Sutras to discuss the four primary social groupings (varnas) and the four phases of life (ashramas).

In chapters seven through nine, Manu's topics dramatically deviate from earlier sources.

The responsibilities of a king are defined in Chapter 7.

Chapters eight and nine deal with a variety of legal issues that may be brought before the monarch for decision.

Manu tries to categorize everything into eighteen categories.

These chapters cover a wide range of criminal and civil law, from assault and theft to contract law and marriage obligations, putting forth a legal foundation for society's stable government.

The subsequent chapters are a little less unique.

The tenth chapter examines the many occupations that members of various varnas might engage in during times of suffering (apaddharma), when conventional social norms are no longer applicable.

The eleventh chapter discusses donations to brahmins and expiation ceremonies (prayashchitta), as well as being true to the Dharma Sutras.

The last chapter of Manu's book is more abstract and theoretical, focused on the workings of karma and discussing the effects of different good and wicked deeds.

Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty and Brian K. Smith, The Laws of Manu, 1991, are two translations of the text.

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Hinduism - Who Was Sir William Jones?


Sir William Jones (1746–1794) is one of the pioneers of modern Indology and the founder of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.

Jones arrived in Calcutta from England in 1783 as a Supreme Court judge under Warren Hastings' governorship, which is regarded as one of the founding fathers of the British Empire in India.

He worked for the East India Company, which gained political influence over portions of India in the pursuit of commerce and profit.

Jones began studying Sanskrit right once, partly to learn more about old Hindu law, since the East India Company's overall policy was to let diverse religious groups to be regulated by their own customary laws.

Jones was a linguist who was fluent in modern and classical European languages, as well as Persian.

He immediately identified Sanskrit as a distant cousin of Greek and Latin, and the serious study of Sanskrit writings started as a result of his influence.

His most significant achievement from a legal standpoint was a translation of Manu's laws (Manu Smrti).

This was one of the most important writings in the dharma canon, including ideal principles and laws for all types of human behavior.

This translation was meant to offer the British a concept of traditional Hindu law, but they overlooked the fact that this document was written as a guide to devotional living rather than a legal treatise.

Jones died of a liver illness at the age of forty-eight.

His translation was released after his death.

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