Showing posts with label Maurya Dynasty. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Maurya Dynasty. Show all posts

Hinduism - What Is The Mudrarakshasa?


 Mudrarakshasa ("The Ring of Rakshasa") - The dramatist Vishakhadatta, who is thought to have lived in the sixth century, wrote the sole extant Sanskrit theater.

Mudrarakshasa is a drama that follows Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Maurya dynasty, and his crafty brahmin minister Chanakya as they climb to power.

The narrative of the drama is convoluted, as is the case with many Sanskrit plays, but the drama's climax occurs when the main protagonists are dramatically saved from execution at the last minute.

Despite the fact that the drama is based on true events, scholars believe Chandragupta Maurya's depiction as a weak monarch is false.

Michael Coulson translated the play into English and released it in the collection Three Sanskrit Plays in 1981.


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Hinduism - Who Were The Maurya Dynasty Of India?

 

The Maurya Dynasty is a family dynasty in India and the first of India's major empires.

Except for the far south, the Maurya dynasty reigned over much of the Indian subcontinent during its peak.

Chandragupta Maurya created the dynasty in the fourth century B.C.E., but it achieved its pinnacle under his grandson Ashoka, who ruled from 269 to 232 B.C.E.

The kingdom was headquartered on the lower Ganges basin, with Pataliputra as its capital, close to the current city of Patna in Bihar.

The Mauryan empire was the first centralized Indian empire to be documented historically, and it was run and maintained by a huge governmental bureaucracy.

The empire was short-lived, despite its size and structure.

After Ashoka's death, it started to deteriorate; fifty years later, it was all but vanished.


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Hinduism - What Is Kharoshthi?

 


 (“ass-lip”) One of the ancient characters employed in the inscriptions of the Maurya dynasty's greatest figure, Emperor Ashoka (r. 269–232 B.C.E.).

Ashoka's empire included the entire Indian subcontinent (with the exception of the deepest areas of southern India) as well as sections of modern-day Afghanistan.

The first notable Indian written records are Ashoka's Rock Edicts and Pillar Edicts, which provide essential information on contemporary social, political, and religious life.

The Kharoshthi script was only employed in Ashoka's empire's northern regions, and it was undoubtedly derived from the Aramaic alphabet of Achaeminid Persia.

The Kharoshti derives its name from the sage who invented it. 

This script like Hebrew, Persian, and other Semitic languages, is written from right to left. 

It was spoken in the region called Kharoshtra, and unlike Brahmi(derived from the God Brahma, the mother language of Sanskrit) the Kharoshthi script died a natural death approximately around the 5th century A.D. 

Despite the fact that the alphabet was altered to fit the sounds of Indian languages, it plainly reflects Persian cultural influence.

It was significantly less prevalent than Brahmi writing, and by the early years of the common period, it had all but vanished from India.

 

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Hinduism - What Is Charaka Samhita?




One of the two main sources for the traditional Indian medical school known as ayurveda, together with the later Sushruta Samhita. 



Despite the fact that it is ascribed to Charaka, given its references to a variety of medical systems and methods, it is more likely a compilation from previous sources. 





The idea of the three body humors—vata (wind), pitta (bile), and kapha (blood)—underpins ayurveda's medical foundation (phlegm). 

Although everyone possesses all three humors, each is made up of distinct components, the quantities of which are used to explain varied body types, metabolic inclinations, and personalities. 

Diseases are produced by an imbalance of these humors, which may be induced by one's environment or personal behaviors, while health is the condition of being in balance. 

The Charaka Samhita has been revised and translated into a number of languages, and it has been used as a source for secondary studies such as Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya's 1977 book Science and Society in Ancient India. 



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Hinduism - Who Was Charaka?

 



(1st–2nd century C.E.?) The Charaka Samhita's ascribed author, along with the somewhat later Sushruta Samhita, is one of the two main sources for ayurveda, a traditional school of Indian medicine. 




Charaka was the royal physician of the city of Takshashila in modern-day Pakistan, according to legend. 



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Hinduism - What Is The Chandrayana?




 ("the route of the moon") A one-month penitential ritual (prayashchitta) in which the penitent's food intake corresponds to the monthly cycle of the moon. 


On the first day of the waning moon, a person who observes this ritual eats fourteen mouthfuls of food, then one fewer mouthful on each subsequent day until the new moon day, when a full fast (upavasa) is observed. 


The penitent consumes one additional mouthful each day during the waxing moon, until he reaches fifteen mouthfuls on the full moon day. 


Given the little food available in the middle of the month, this is a pretty harsh penance. 

This penance was prescribed in the dharma literature as an atonement for certain types of sexual misconduct, such as having sexual relations with a woman from the same gotra (mythic lineage), marrying a woman from one's maternal grandfather's gotra, or marrying the daughter of one's maternal uncle or paternal aunt. 



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Hinduism - Who Was Chandramati?






The long-suffering wife of King Harishchandra in Hindu legend. 


Harishchandra is known for his honesty and integrity, and he is also the model for someone who patiently suffers unjust pain in contemporary Hindu society. 


Harishchandra's misery stems from a rivalry between the sages Vasishtha and Vishvamitra. 

Vasishtha, as his family priest, extols Harishchandra's goodness. 

Vishvamitra is adamant about proving Vasishtha incorrect, so he puts Harishchandra through a series of tests, during which he loses his kingdom, his riches, and is forced to sell himself and his family into slaves. 

Harishchandra maintains his integrity despite the hardships he and Chandramati face. 

They are ultimately returned to their former happy condition, including the resuscitation of their son, after suffering many difficulties, including the loss of their only son. 




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Hinduism - Who Was Chandragupta Maurya?

 












(r. 321–297 B.C.E.) Chandragupta Maurya  is the Maurya dynasty's founder. 



The youthful Chandragupta established his kingdom by deposing the last member of the Nanda dynasty and establishing his capital at Pataliputra, which is now known as Patna in Bihar. 




From there, he seized control of the Ganges River valley, proceeded south into the Narmada River basin, and then turned his attention to northern India, exploiting the power vacuum left by Alexander the Great's previous invasion. 






He defeated Alexander's commander Seleucus Nicator in combat in 303 B.C.E., then consented to a treaty that gave him vast swaths of modern-day Afghanistan. 


Despite the fight, ties between the two seem to have been cordial, since Seleucus Nicator sent Megasthenes, an ambassador to Pataliputra, who stayed there for many years. 


Chandragupta is said to have received advice from a great brahmin minister known as Kautilya or Chanakya, who is credited with writing the Arthashastra. 



Chandragupta abandoned his kingdom to become a Jain monk and died of ceremonial hunger, according to tradition. 






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