Showing posts with label Padmapada. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Padmapada. Show all posts

Hinduism - What Is Vivarana Advaita?

 


Vivarana Advaita  is a Sanskrit phrase that means "to live in the present moment."

Shankaracharya was the greatest figure in one of the later Advaita Vedanta schools, a philosophical school.

The Advaita school adheres to the philosophical position of monism, which is the belief in a single impersonal Ultimate Reality, which they refer to as Brahman.

Despite the appearance of difference and diversity in the perceptible world, Advaita proponents believe that reality is "nondual" (advaita), that is, all things are nothing but the formless Brahman.

This assumption of diversity is a manifestation of avidya for Advaitins, who believe it is a fundamental mental misunderstanding of the ultimate nature of things.

Although frequently translated as "ignorance," avidya refers to a lack of genuine understanding that leads to karmic bonds, reincarnation (samsara), and suffering.

Because the Advaitins' real problem is this erroneous understanding, realization (jnana) was the most effective spiritual path for achieving ultimate liberation (moksha).

The Vivarana Advaita school is based on the ideas of Padmapada (9th century), one of Shankaracharya's disciples, but takes its name from a commentary written by Prakashatman in the thirteenth century.

Traditionally, the latter was a Padmapada disciple, but this appears to be problematic.

The Vivarana school, like the Bhamati school, took firm positions on a number of issues where Shankaracharya had been silent.

One of these was on the locus of ignorance, described by the Vivarana school as being in Brahman.

The Vivarana Advaitins use the theory of reflectionism to explain the apparent difference between Brahman and the Self, despite the fact that the Selves are identical with Brahman, because it appears to compromise the integrity of Brahman.

Their position appears to be based on an unwavering affirmation of Brahman as the sole "reality," to which everything that exists must belong.


Kiran Atma


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Hinduism - Who Was Sureshvara In Hindu Philosophy?

 

 

Advaita Vedanta philosopher, one of two documented pupils of Shankaracharya (788–820? ), the other being Padmapada.

The Advaita school believes in monism, which is the concept that there is a single Ultimate Reality that lies underlying all things, and that all things are only different expressions of that reality.

Advaita proponents exhibit this idea by claiming that reality is nondual (advaita), that is, that all things are nothing but the formless, unqualified Brahman, despite the appearance of diversity and variety.

The idea that the universe is actual as seen is a basic misunderstanding of the ultimate essence of things, according to Advaita proponents, and an evidence of avidya.

Although typically interpreted as "ignorance," avidya refers to a lack of genuine insight that leads to karmic bonds, rebirth (samsara), and pain.

Sureshvara is the sole explicit proponent of jump philosophy in Hindu thinking, however aspects of it may be seen in other Advaita Vedanta thinkers, notably in his instructor.

The leap philosophy asserts that complete freedom from bondage, which is defined in the Indian context as the end of rebirth and full release of the soul (moksha), may be attained, but that such freedom cannot be attained by a perfectly determined sequence of causes and consequences.

Since the ultimate issue arises from one's erroneous understanding, the only solution, according to Sureshvara, is pure, accurate knowledge.

Sureshvara's approach, such as it is, is to utilize a negative dialectic to clearly define what the Self is not, and then to obtain a flash of mystic insight by hearing one of the mahavakyas ("great utterances") that connect the Self with Brahman once one's mind has been pre pared.

Sureshvara asserts that actions have no place in this process since action is inextricably linked to the world and is tainted by ignorance.

For further detail, see A. J. Alston's translation of Sri Suresvara's Naiskarmya Siddhi, published in 1959, and Karl H. Potter's ed. of Advaita Vedanta up to Samkara and His Pupils, published in 1981.


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Hinduism - Who Is Padmapada?

 

Padmapada is the founder of the Vivarana school of Advaita Vedanta, and one of Shankaracharya's two confirmed pupils (the other being Sureshvara).

The Advaita school adheres to a philo sophical stance known as monism, which believes that all things are essentially different manifestations of a single Ultimate Reality, Brahman.

Advaita adherents believe that reality is nondual (advaita), meaning that, despite appearances of distinction and diversity, everything is nothing more than the formless, unqualified Brahman.

The assumption of variety, according to Advaitins, is a fundamental misunderstanding of the ultimate essence of things, as well as a sign of avidya (lack of genuine understanding).

Padmapada's Vivarana school is distinguished by the fact that he puts the location of ignorance in Brahman, as opposed to the Bhamati school, which finds it in the person.

The Vivarana Advaitins use Reflectionism to explain how Brahman might be the source of ignorance: Human selves are equal to Brahman, yet seem to be distinct, just as an image in a mirror is based on the original but different from it.

Padmapada's perspective is based on a deep belief in Brahman as the one "reality" to which all that exists must belong.

Karl H. Potter (ed. ), Advaita Vedanta up to Samkara and His Pupils, 1981; and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Charles A. Moore (eds. ), A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy, 1957, for further details.

~Kiran Atma


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