Showing posts with label Sambandar. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Sambandar. Show all posts

Hinduism - Who Was Sundaramurtti Among The Nayanars?



 (8th century) The last of the Nayanars, a group of sixty-three poet-saints from southern India who were Shiva worshippers (bhakta).

The Nayanars, along with their contemporaries the Alvars, who were Vishnu worshipers, drove the revival of Hindu religion by their fervent devotion (bhakti) to a personal deity, which they expressed through songs sung in Tamil.

Sundaramurtti, like his forefathers Appar and Sambandar, actively opposed the heterodox sects of the time, particularly the Jains, whom he despises in his poems.

The Devaram, the most sacred of the Tamil Shaivite texts, is composed of the hymns of the three most important Nayanars—Appar, Sambandar, and Sundaramurtti.

Sundaramurtti's inventory of the sixty-three Nayanars is significant since it is the earliest written source for Tamil Shaivite hagiography.

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Hinduism - How Prevalent Was Religious Persecution In India?


Religious Persecution is a term used to describe when people are persecuted for their religious beliefs or structures or practices. 

In popular imagination, India is portrayed as a place of ideal religious tolerance, where all schools of thought are free to flourish.

This image is significantly simplified, even though it is accurate in its fundamental form.

Competition between religious groups and schools of thought has a long history, often driven by harsh polemics intended to convince audiences that one was true and the other was wrong.

Acts of violence, on the other hand, have been uncommon in these debates, as has the concept that individuals should be afraid for their lives because of their beliefs.

Language against the Jains has a really hostile tone in the literature of the Nayanar and Lingayat communities—both followers (bhakta) of the deity Shiva—and the Nayanar leader Sambandar has been continuously linked with the impalement of 8,000 Jains in the southern Indian city of Madurai.

Similarly, the northern Indian ruler Sashanka, who was also a Shiva devotee, had a pathological loathing towards Buddhists.

Sashanka is said to have not only persecuted Buddhists, but also attempted to kill the tree at Bodh Gaya where the Buddha is said to have attained enlightenment.

Apart from sectarian rivalry, persons whose religious beliefs has led them to disregard commonly accepted social conventions have faced a lot of criticism.

The stories of the devotional (bhakti) poet-saints are rife with accounts of the difficulties they experienced from traditional morality guards, who are commonly described as brahmins.

There was a long and frequently murderous war between two groups of militant ascetics in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries—the Naga class of the Dashanami Sanyasis and the Bairagi Nagas—although the objectives might just as well have been economic, notably control of commerce in the Ganges valley.

The development of Hindutva in the 1980s provides a last example of religious persecution.

Persecution has all too frequently resulted in actual bloodshed, fueled by rhetorical assaults on Muslims and Christians.

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Hinduism - How Prevalent Was Execution Via Impalement And Mass Impalement In Ancient And Feudal India?


One of the most popular methods of execution, which appears to have been especially popular in ancient southern India.

Impaling someone means piercing them with a sharp spike and killing them.

The most spectacular incident is said to have occurred at Madurai, when 8,000 Jain ascetics were impaled by one of the Pandya dynasties' rulers after the latter had left Jainism to become a Shaiva, or a Shiva devotee (bhakta).

The Nayanar saint Sambandar, who had converted the monarch and whose surviving poetry displays a great animus towards the Jains, is said to bear ultimate culpability for this, according to legend.

If this claim is accurate, it also reveals one of the few examples of religious persecution in Hindu India, which has been very accepting of other religious practices on the whole.

Murals created in the Minakshi temple in Madurai—whose construction predates the supposed event—as well as popular art of many types depict depictions of this mass impalement.


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