Showing posts with label Varuna. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Varuna. Show all posts

Hinduism - ADITI



Who Is Aditi?

'Firm, not falling'; 'unrestrained' Mother of the Adityas and a heavenly mother-goddess (Varuna, Mitra, Aryaman, Bhaga, Daksa, Amsa and possibly Tvastra).

Aditi depicts the sky as a vast expanse of space rather than a dazzling gleam.

She is an early personification of primordial darkness, yet she is actually an infinite abstraction.

While Aditi is often mistaken with Ushas or even Prithiv (Rigveda 1.72.9), she is a cosmic anti-mother who rejects her eighth son, Martanda/ Vivasvat the sun (10.72.8f), in favor of the Adityas, the supreme asuras.

Aditi and her progeny are preoccupied with sin and punishment, unlike the devas, who are embodiments of nature.

However, with the arrival of the devas, Aditi's powers are curtailed, and she becomes Diti, the mother of the post-rigvedic demons known as the Daityas.

~Kiran Atma

See also: 

Aryaman, Asuras, Deities, Mitra,Prthivı, Samhita, Tvastr, Usas, Varuna,Vedic pantheon

Hinduism - Who Is Varuna In The Hindu Pantheon?


Varuna with his consort Varunani

Who Is The Indo-Aryan Deity Varuna?

Statue of Varuna at the National Museum in Delhi

In the Vedas, the oldest and most authoritative religious texts, Varuna is a deity associated with the sky, with waters, with justice, and with truth.

Statue of Varuna - Lord of knowledge

Varuna belongs to the earliest layer of the Indo-Aryan deities; this is clearly shown by comparisons with the Avesta, an ancient Iranian sacred text that shows many parallels with the Vedas, and with even older epigraphic sources.

As portrayed in the Vedas, however, Varuna’s influence has clearly declined—there are far fewer hymns addressed to him than to deities such as Indra, Agni, and Soma, and he seems to have played a far less important role than these other deities in Vedic religion.

In the Vedas, Varuna is portrayed as the guardian of rta, the cosmic order through which the world proceeds.

Varuna Riding Naga

As the deity associated with the high heaven, he also watches over the deeds of human beings and punishes them for any transgressions.

The best known hymn to Varuna, Rig Veda 7.86, shows Varuna’s connection with justice, moral order, and the waters.

The hymn is the lament of a person who has committed some offense against Varuna and whose sin has become visible through being afflicted with dropsy, in which the body retains its fluids and swells.

USS Varuna

The speaker begs Varuna to reveal the forbidden act, “committed under the influence of liquor, anger, or heedlessness,” so that Varuna may be propitiated and the sufferer healed.

Despite his virtual eclipse early in the tradition, in the later tradition, Varuna retains his association as the god presiding over the waters.

He is also considered to be one of the eight Guardians of the Directions, each of which is associated with one of eight points on the compass.

Varuna presides over the western direction.

~Kiran Atma

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Hinduism - What Is Rta In Hindu Cosmology?

Rta is the cosmic order and regularity that allows the rhythms of time and seasons to occur in orderly succession, according to the Vedas (the oldest and most authoritative Hindu texts).

According to the texts, rta had a moral dimension to it, which humans were obligated to support.

One such moral dimension was truth, which was seen as upholding the cosmos, while its polar opposite, anrta, came to be associated with deception.

Varuna, the Vedic god who was both the guardian of rta and the deity who punished untruth, usually by affliction with dropsy, was the link between the natural and moral worlds.

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Hinduism - What Is The Rig Veda?


Rg Veda is a Hindu scripture.

The most ancient and authoritative Hindu holy writings, and the oldest and most significant of the four Vedas.

The Rig Veda is a collection of 1,028 hymns in 10 books.

The hymns were definitely written over a lengthy period of time based on their substance, but the exact dates are a point of contention.

Traditional Hindus believe that the Vedas were not written by God or humans, but rather by ancient sages who heard them via their enhanced abilities of perception and passed them down orally from generation to generation.

The Vedas are therefore classified as shruti ("heard") holy scriptures because of their origin.

The Vedas were started in the early second millennium B.C.E., maybe 1800–1500 B.C.E., and ended towards the end of the second millennium B.C.E., perhaps 1200–900 B.C.E., according to scholarly agreement.

All of these dates are very speculative, since the hymns themselves have no internal evidence to support precise dating, which has instead been relied mostly on a comparative analysis of changes in the language of the Vedas.

Some hymns, for example, are regarded to have been written later than others, both because their vocabulary is less archaic and closer to classical Sanskrit, and because the places referenced in them cover a larger geographical range.

The Rig Veda's hymns are mostly devoted to a single god.

Indra, Agni, and Soma are the primary deities, however Varuna is mentioned in the oldest hymns.

The hymns were sung during sacrifices to summon these deities, according to popular belief.

According to the hymns, these sacrifices were massive public ceremonies that frequently included the murder of animals, which were then burnt on a sacrificial fire, as well as the preparation and consumption of the enigmatic beverage soma.

The Vedic hymns represent a corpus of holy knowledge that is only known to a restricted number of religious specialists in this environment.

Since a result, these songs were never intended for widespread public dissemination, as everyone save twice-born males were prohibited from hearing them.

The tenth and last book of the Rig Veda varies significantly from the others.

Its language is more akin to traditional Sanskrit, and its subject is significantly more speculative than the preceding volumes, implying a significant conceptual leap.

The renowned Creation Hymn (10.129) is included in this book, in which the poet speculates on how the universe came to be, only to conclude that even the creator may not know the answer.

The Purusha Sukta (10.90) is another famous hymn in this collection, which views both the world and human civilization as the result of a primal sacrifice.

The theological and cosmic speculation contained in the Upanishads is foreshadowed in the previous song.

The latter is distinguished as predicting later dharma literature because it provides the earliest known articulation of the four primary social groupings (varnas) and their symbolic purposes.

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Hinduism - What Is The House of Clay In Hindu Theology? Why Do Wicked Souls Inhabit This House?

In a line from the Rg Veda (7.89), the oldest Hindu sacred literature, a realm of retribution is depicted.

The House of Clay, as stated in this passage, is a location where evildoers—particularly those who lie—will be sent by the deity Varuna, who is regarded the protector of righteousness and cosmic order (rta).

The House of Clay, as its name suggests, is a bleak and depressing place.

The absence of any idea of rebirth (samsara) in the original stanza is remarkable, since it eventually became a major Indian premise.

It was thought to be an unpleasant and permanent condition after death at the time. 

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Hinduism - What Is Dropsy In Relation To The Hindu Deity Varuna?




Swelling is a bodily condition in which the body holds extra water and expands as a result. 

Dropsy is depicted as the penalty meted out by the deity Varuna for telling lies in various hymns in the Vedas, the earliest Hindu holy literature. 

Varuna was envisioned as the keeper of cosmic order (rta), and purposely misleading speech was seen as the model of anrta, the destructive energy opposing rta's organizing force. 

The penalty was considered as suiting the offense in this instance, as if one had been figuratively inflated by the falsehoods made. 

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