Showing posts with label Vedanta Dvaitadvaita. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Vedanta Dvaitadvaita. Show all posts

Hinduism - What Is Vedanta Dvaitadvaita?

  

  

 One of the divisions of Vedanta, the philosophical school that claims to have discovered the ultimate (anta) message of the Vedas, the ancient holy books. 

Nimbarka, a sixteenth-century philosopher, was the originator and most prominent person of Dvaitadvaita Vedanta. 

Nimbarka emphasized the adoration of the deity Krishna and his consort Radha as a holy pair, but he was also striving to create a philosophical middle ground between the Advaita Vedanta school's monism and the Dvaita Vedanta school's dualism. 

The former maintained that all things were essentially different manifestations of a single Ultimate Reality called Brahman, which was at the root of everything. 

The latter highlighted the clear separation between God as Ultimate Reality and the world and human souls on the one hand, and God as Ultimate Reality on the other. 

The earth and souls, according to Nimbarka, are reliant on God, in whom they exist and with whom they have a profound link. 

As a result, Nimbarka supported the philosophical philosophy known as parinamavada, which emphasized the divine's true change and human beings' ability to return to their divine state. 

Dvaita ("dual") Vedanta is a kind of Vedanta.

One of the divisions of Vedanta, the philosophical school that claims to have discovered the ultimate (anta) message of the Vedas, the ancient holy books. 

The philosopher Madhva, who lived in southern India in the thirteenth century, was the originator and most prominent figure of Dvaita Vedanta. 

Madhva's primary thesis is that God is completely transcendent, and this belief leads him to propose dualism as a philosophical perspective. 

Dualism maintains a qualitative distinction between God's transcendence and material things' corruptions. 

Even though both derive from God and rely on Him for their continued existence, Madhva believes that God is completely separate from human selves and the material universe. 

Madhva differs significantly from Advaita Vedanta, the largest school of Vedanta, in this dualism. 

The Advaita school believes in monism, or the notion that there is a single Ultimate Reality, termed Brahman, that lies underlying all things, and that all things are only different expressions of this same reality. 

Whereas Advaita combines all things into one, Madhva focuses on keeping the distinctions. 

Madhva's emphasis on dualism led him to elucidate the "fivefold difference": the distinction between God and the Self, God and the universe, individual Selves, Selves and matter, and particular material objects. 

Despite the fact that each Self is thought to possess a portion of God, this fundamental diversity limits the Self's religious ability. 

Because of this restricted strength, complete soul liberation is only possible via the grace of God, who alone has the ability to do so. 

Final emancipation is defined as both the independence from reincarnation and the possibility for the soul to abide in the divine presence eternally. 

Madhva's Dvaita Vedanta has been linked to John Calvin's theology because of its focus on God's absolute transcendence and on grace as the single avenue for redemption. 

Madhva also said that there were three types of creatures in the world: those who were destined for liberation (muktiyogas), those who were destined for endless rebirth (nityasamsarins), and those who were destined for perpetual damnation (nityasamsarins) (tamoyogas). 

Madhva, like Calvin, did not believe that these categories promoted fatalism, but rather that the threat of never obtaining freedom may compel one to have the faith required to live an active religious life. 


See Karl H. Potter's Presuppositions of India's Philosophies, 1972, and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Charles A. Moore's A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy, 1957, for further information. 



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