Showing posts with label purushartha. Show all posts
Showing posts with label purushartha. Show all posts

Human Well-Being From A Hindu Perspective: Care, Healing, And Wellness


    It is reasonable to conclude that religion and spirituality in general contribute to human life fulfillment and pleasure in all civilizations. 

    Due to the increasing complexity of everyday life, providing care for persons' physical and mental needs has become a growing problem. 

    Indeed, life has become a source of worry, bringing significant challenges to religious thought and spirituality. 

    As a result, care and human well-being are prioritized in modern India, particularly among Hindu civilizations. 

    Hinduism, the world's third biggest religion, is very important to the people of India. It is considered "a way of life" (Chaudhuri 2012: 28). 

    As a result, it's critical to look at how Hindus see care, healing, and human well-being, as well as what their practice includes among their followers in India. 

    The current research begins with an overview of Hinduism as India's major religion. 

    It is descriptive and attempts to elucidate the notions of care, healing, and well-being within Hindu thinking's cultural and religious traditions. 

    The relationship between Hindu thought and how it is operationalized in its rites of passage (also known as "Hindu sacraments"), "goals for meaningful human life," and "five great sacrifices" will be a particular emphasis. 

    Finally, the article discusses care, healing, and well-being in the modern day, with a focus on renascent Hinduism and its ideas on gods and goddesses as its source. 

    Ayurveda as a Hindu science of medicine for holistic well-being, yoga as a path for mental well-being, and asrama-dharma as care and well-being for the elderly within the domain of gem-transcendence will all be discussed to further investigate modern Hinduism's viewpoints. 

    India's primary religion is Hinduism. 

    Hinduism is the most widely practiced religion in India, the world's seventh biggest nation (3.3 million square kilometres). 

    India, which is expected to have a population of 1.42 billion people by 2023, is noted for its religious variety and cultural diversity. 

    Aside from Hinduism, India is home to Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, and a number of other ancient religious traditions. 

    In addition, India is home to a diverse range of faiths, including Semitic religions. 

    According to the 2011 census, Hinduism is followed by 79.8% of the Indian population, 14.2% Islam, 2.3 percent Christianity, 1.72 percent Sikhism, 0.7 percent Buddhism, 0.37 percent Jainism, and 0.66 percent Zoroastrianism. 

    Despite the diversity of religious connections among Indians, the Hindu religious heritage plays a critical part in the country's spiritual, cultural, and social makeup. 

    In terms of Hinduism's texts, deities, and belief systems, the concept of 'unity amid variety' (Sarma 1996: 13-27) may be distinctively recognized. 

    The word 'Hinduism' does not refer to a single, closed religion tradition, but rather to a wide range of faiths, beliefs, doctrines, rituals, and practices linked with a variety of gods, goddesses, and cults found on the Indian subcontinent. 

    Although the name Hinduism refers to a specific religious tradition with a history that spans many centuries, its spiritual foundations date back almost four millennia. 

    Hinduism is considered by its supporters to be a sanatana dharma, or "everlasting religion," since it is founded on the eternal truth enshrined in the Vedas (the primary Hindu scriptures). 

    Hinduism, being one of the world's oldest alive religions, does not honor a single sage or prophet as its creator, nor does it claim a single central authority for its existence. 

    It is, in reality, based on an open canon. 

    It remains an all-encompassing, all-encompassing, and inevitably ever-evolving spiritual tradition in this way. 

    According to Shashi Tharoor (2018: 39), "Hinduism is a characteristically Indian development, a type of 'banyan tree,' as a consequence of its openness and variety. 

    Its branches spread far and wide, sinking back into the ground to take new root in the inviting soil." 

    One of its defining characteristics is the domination of a type of 'religious awareness.' 

    This centripetal perception leads to the domination of a very distinct religious point of view and spiritual sensitivity to all matters of life among Hindu believers (Griswold 1996: 24-26). 

    As expressed in Hindu scriptures, traditional thought, and culture, this complete worldview incorporates a spiritual perspective of care, healing, and human well-being. 

    Hindu themes of care, healing, and well-being are discussed in this paradigmatic context. 

    The themes of caring, healing, and well-being are implicitly ingrained throughout Hindu thought. 

    In Sanskrit (the Hindu tradition's holy language), the term 'care' has many distinct definitions: 

    Raksa Means to guard, look after, save, preserve, or keep away from. 

    Pala(-na) Means to keep an eye on, guard, defend, or govern. 

    Chinta = to consider a thought via contemplation and introspection,  (Williams 1994; 1976). 

    Raksha Bandhan, a prominent Hindu event, is strongly linked to the pledge of care and the safety of the family. 

    • The sisters tie the rakhi, a kind of amulet, around their brothers' wrists as part of the festival's ceremonial to protect them from negative influences and to pray for their long life and happiness. 
    • The sisters are given a gift at this event. 
    • The ceremony's origins may be traced back to a Hindu folklore in which Draupadi tore a piece of her saree and wrapped it to Krishna's wrist, injuring him accidently. 
    • Its purpose was to halt or prevent bleeding. 
    • As a result, a link was formed between them. 
    • Krishna vowed to safeguard Draupadi in exchange. 

    Furthermore, the Raksha Bandhan celebration serves as an annual ritual. 

    It historically authorized the brothers to take duty for the care of their sisters in order to keep them from being harmed, and it signifies protection and caring among siblings. 

    Sama = balanced; when anything in its original healthy nature is injured, it should be balanced, according to Sanskrit. 

    Svastha is the Sanskrit word for "health" or "being in one's natural condition." • Santhi is a Sanskrit word that means "rest," "quiet," "peace," "tranquility," "bliss," and "comfort" (Williams 1994). 

      • The word svastha in Ayurveda refers to a person's overall health. 
      • It typically refers to a "state of being in which one's body, mind, spirit, and senses are all in happy harmony" (Yogapedia Dictionary 2020). 
      • As a result, health is defined as the physical well-being of a person, as well as mental, emotional, spiritual, and energetic inclinations. 
      • As a result, healing is defined as the comprehensive restoration of health. 
      • Despite this holistic approach, doctors' cures for illnesses are different from the spiritual part of healing. 

    Svasti is a Sanskrit term that means 'well-being.' It might also mean 'benefit.' Well-being refers to a sense of fulfillment and happiness in life, as well as an inner sense of harmony with our surroundings. 

    Meditation, according to Hindu belief, leads to an inner feeling of serenity and tranquility. 

    • It promotes a sense of well-being that is rooted deep inside oneself (Lovato 2019). 
    • Hindus are taught to consider well-being, a feeling of pleasure with life, as vital to a sense of purposefulness, rather than the pursuit of artificial kinds of enjoyment (Menon 2012: 2; 4). 
    • Holi, a full-moon Hindu celebration in which married women celebrate their happiness and the well-being of all family members, is an example of this. 

    Yoga is another aspect of the Hindu tradition's concept of well-being. 

    • It is said to provide people with a feeling of well-being, encouraging a sense of being 'whole.'


    Sources and practices of conceptualization in Hindu thought. 

    The Hindu scriptures and Indian cultural traditions both include notions of care, healing, and well-being. 

    Hinduism is blessed with various texts as one of the world's oldest existing faiths. 

    The benefit is that they all have a canon that is open-ended. 

    There are four Vedas, as well as Sutras, Epics, Codes of Law, and Sacred History, among other sources. 

    Philosophical Manuals and Sectarian Scriptures are also included with the Vedas. 

    In addition to many other literature that Hindu devotees religiously study, all of them are deemed to have either main or secondary scriptural value. 

    Vedangas, or Sutra literature, is taken straight from the Vedas and contains many of Hinduism's theological principles. 

    In Hindu religious thought, the concepts and practices of caring, healing, and well-being are implied in the Grhya and Dharma Sutras

    The former is concerned with household rituals, whereas the latter is concerned with socioreligious rules. 

    Many other Hindu beliefs and practices, such as samskaras, purushartha, paru;amahayajna, and varnaasramadharma, are intertwined with its different elements. 


    Hindu rites of passage: the practice of samskaras. 

    Meaningful life and dying via Hindu rites of passage: the practice of samskaras. 

    The Hindu sacraments, or rites of passage, are known as samskaras (Pandey 2001; Antoine 1996c) and span one's whole life span as well as the world beyond (transcendent dimension), starting with prenatal rituals and ending with post-mortem existence. 

    • According to ancient scholars, three key prenatal rituals lay the way for care to be offered to pregnant women and the unborn child in order to assure health and protection against evil. 
    • Early childhood or infancy samskaras are for the child's intellectual well-being, longevity, safety, and even adornment. 
    • With basic and secondary education, educational samskaras secure an individual's profession outside of the family, preparing them for active citizenship obligations. 
    • The marriage (vivaha) ceremony is the most important sacrament, through which a person fulfills socio-religious and family duties. 
    • The penultimate sacrament, the funeral ritual (antyeshthi), takes into account the needs of both the dead and the living. 
      • This ceremony expresses 'sublime feelings' that make death pleasant for the one who dies, as well as for the society to accept death and dying as an unavoidable occurrence. 

    A person's life is made up of a succession of events. 

    • In this way, the sacraments offer people in society with the care and protection they need. 
    • These sacraments are intended to mold one's personality and connect our humanity to religious significance. 
    • As a result, the concept of life passages was born. 
    • Their purpose is to aid in the expression of pleasure and grief. 
    • The sacraments support an individual's well-being in this manner. 

    Simultaneously, they contribute to an individual's growth as a "full-fledged social person" (Dandekar 1996: 142). 

    As a result, the Samskaras provide a complete vision of what constitutes a healthy life and personal well-being in Hindu traditional culture. 

    All of these rites of passage are described and formulated in the Grhya Sutras, which defines and formulates household or domestic rituals, which were historically performed at home and in which priests had a little part. 

    The relevance of these family ceremonies is eroding as a result of modernization of schooling and changing societal attitudes. 

    Even the practice of samskaras has become fragmented and has lost its uniting effect. 

    However, some of the customs are still followed, such as the singing of Vedic hymns and the offering of ceremonial fire during official ceremonies, as well as at private occasions when no religious person is present (Gengnagel and Husken eds. 2005). 

    In reality, only the most devout Hindu households still follow these samskaras to the letter. 

    Fortunately, despite secularization, most Hindus in modern society are still eager to participate in a number of these samskaras, such as the naming ceremony, the first feeding of the infant, initiation into education, marriage, and burial customs. 

    These rituals are often carried out with the assistance of a priest, albeit not always at the temple. 

    Well-being in the context of the individual-society interaction: Promoting 'Human Life Goals' (Purushartha). 


     The four ideals of purushartha (literally: 'goal' or 'end' of man/human [Antoine 1996a: 155156]), dharma, artha, kama, and moksha form a four-fold network about what life is about and its relationship to the universal human desire for meaning and purpose. 

    Dharma as a life aim encourages people to be virtuous, righteous, and morally and ethically responsible in all aspects of life. 

    • The quest of money and success is the theme of ArthaIt is the source of human life and existence. 

    Kama is a Sanskrit word that means "pleasure" or "enjoyment of life." It denotes the method of procreation and, as a result, humanity's survival. Both artha and kama, or money and pleasure, must be consistent with dharma. 

    Moksha is the Hindu term for emancipation, which is the ultimate purpose of existence. 

    A person who acquires money (artha) and enjoys and fulfills life's wants (kama) via virtuous and righteous ways (dharma) would, in theory, achieve nirvana (moksha). 

    These four life objectives are traditionally taught at the student/learning stage of life (brahmachari) and implemented in the householder stage ( Grhastha )  Purushartha is made up of all of these life objectives. 

    In this way, they establish a set of life objectives that must be met in order to live a meaningful life. 

    Life would be blank and pointless without these objectives. 

    As a result, the purushartha dharma defines an individual's well-being in society and fosters wholeness in the public arena of life, resulting in a healthy society. 


    Affectionate treatment of family members, other people, and other living things: The Great Five Sacrifices Or Yajnas (Panchamahayajnas). 

    Every day, a homeowner is obligated to do the five-fold mandatory sacrifices, or duties: 

    (a) Brahma Yajna, homage to Brahman, is performed by reading scripture; 

    (b) Pitr Yajna, homage to the ancestors, is performed by offering water; 

    (c) Deva Yajna, homage to the gods, is performed by offering homa sacrifices

    (d) Bhuta Yajna, homage to elements or other beings, is performed by feeding animals and birds; and 

    (e) Manusya Yajna (Antoine 1996b: 203). 

    Both Bhuta Yajna and Manu-D-'a Yajna are closely tied to an individual's obligation as a caretaker to fellow human beings, animals, and other species; failing to do so implies failing to do one's major daily required task, which may destroy the prospect of liberation, or moksha (the ultimate goal of life). 

    Pitra Yajna, according to Wilson Paluri (2020), is the 'reverential connection' with parents and elders, which is particularly important for the 'well-being' of family life. 

    In the Hindu family structure, caring for parents and the elderly is both a virtue and an obligation. 

    In Hindu tradition, "may mother be god to you, may father be god to you..., may visitors be god to you"10 is the ultimate state of being. 

    Bhuta Yajna, or the offering of food to all creatures, decreases egomaniacal tendencies in humans and cultivates the practice of giving one's assets for the benefit of all sentient beings in need (Dandekar 1996: 139). 

    Hindu traditional societies reflect these mahayajnas. 

    They place a premium on caring for parents and seniors, respecting visitors, offering hospitality to everyone, and defining the pursuit of human well-being. 

    Troublesome Issues to Consider 

    Without mentioning its limits, a discussion of care, healing, and well-being in Hindu thinking and traditional practices would be insufficient. 

    The majority of traditional customs are geared at men and the upper caste. 

    Many people from the disenfranchised, so-called lower caste populations, have been denied access to Vedic traditions because they had to settle for a 'lower religion.' Early Vedic religion is supposed to be simple yet deep, promoting society and gender equality. 

    It has generated hierarchical structures and inequalities throughout its history in order to serve the entrenched interests of rich groups. 

    The most exploited victims of such a discriminatory practice are women and members of indigenous groups (Tribals, adivasis, Dalits) (Devi 2000: 15). 

    Although the dynamic position of people from disadvantaged groups and women in general can be traced throughout Hindu history, the society adopted hierarchical and patriarchal structures (Krishnan 2020a). 

    Current Hindu cultures, on the other hand, are not static, but are subject to social development, which has an impact on the dynamic position of women and indigenous people in religion and society.

    Kiran Atma

    References And Further Reading.

    Antoine, R. 1996a. "Hindu Ethics: 1. General Ethics." In Religious Hinduism, edited by R. DeSrnet and J. Neuner, pp. 149-158. Murnbai: St. Pauls. 

    Antoine, R. 1996b. "Rituals and Worship". In Religious Hinduism, edited by R. DeSrnet and J. Neuner, pp. 200-209. Murnbai: St. Pauls. 

    Antoine, R. 1996c. "The Hindu Saril.skaras." In Religious Hinduism, edited by R. DeSrnet and J. Neuner, pp. 210-219. Murnbai: St. Pauls. 

    Arulsamy, S. 2000. Religion for a New Society. Delhi: ISPCK. 

    Bowker, John. (ed.) 1997. The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

    Braam, Arjan W., et al. 2006. "Cosmic Transcendence and Framework of Meaning in Life: Patterns Among Older Adults in The Netherlands." The Journals of Gerontology- Series B 61 (3),pp. 121-128. DOl: 10.1093/geronb/61.3.Sl21. 

    Capistrant, B.D., et al. 2015. "Culture and Caregiving for Older Adults in India: A Qualitative Study," The Gerontologist 5(2), p.ll2. DOl: 10.1093/geront/gnv504.06. 

    Chaudhuri, Nirad C. 2012. Hinduism: A Religion to Live By [1st edition 1979]. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. 

    Dandekar, R.N. 1996. ''The Role of Man in Hinduism." In The Religion of the Hindus, edited by Kenneth M organ [first published 19 53], pp. 11 7-153. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas. 

    Dasgupta, Surendranath. 1975. A History of Indian Philosophy, Vol. II [Cambridge Edition 1922], Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas. 

    Datta, Sukurnar. 2001. "Monasticisrn in India." In The Cultural Heritage of India, Vol. II, pp.582-593. Calcutta: The Rarnakrishna Mission Institute of Culture. 

    Devi, K.Urna. 2000. Women's Equality in India: A Myth or Reality? New Delhi: Discovering Publishing House. 

    Gautamananda, Swami. 2019. "Holistic Health." In Healthy Mind, Healthy Body: New Thoughts on Health [first published 1997] Chennai: Sri Ramakrishna Math, pp. 1-8. 

    Gengnagel, Jorg and Ute Hiisken (eds.) 2005. Words and Deeds: Hindu and Buddhist Rituals in 

    SouthAsia. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. 

    Griffith R. T. ( ed.) 1899. The Texts of the White Y ajurveda. (accessed 13 Sept 2020). 

    Griswold, Harvey De Witt. 1996. Insights into Modern Hinduism. New Delhi: Aryan Books International. 

    Hall, C. Margaret. 1985. "Religion and Aging." Journal of Religion and Health 24(1 ), pp. 70-78. 

    Hinduscriptures. corn. 2021. "Hindu Samskaras." https://www.hinduscriptures.corn/vedic-culture/rituals/sixteen-sanskara/hindu-samskaras/11992/ (accessed 29 Sep 2021). 

    Ketchell, A., L. Pyles, and E. Canda. 2013. World Religious Views of Health and Healing."/o20Health%20and%20Healing.pdf (accessed 10 Nov 2020). 

    Kimble, Melvin A., et al. (eds.) 1995. Aging, Spirituality and Religion: A Handbook. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. 

    Krishnan, Giri. 2020a. "Discovering the Dynamic Status ofWomen in Hindu Tradition: Re-reading of the Narratives of Hindu Women towards Gender Justice." UBS Journal (Union Biblical Seminary, Pune, India) 14(1), pp. 53-70. 

    Krishnan, Giri. 2020b. "Viinaprastha-Sannyiisa Schemes of Life as Gerotranscendence: An Appraisal of a Hindu Perspective of Ageing." In Ageing: Perspectival Explorations Towards Theo-Gerontology, edited by Songram Basurnatary, pp. 125-139. Chennai: Gurukul Publication. 

    Lamb, Sarah. 2005. "Cultural and Moral Values Surrounding Care and (In)Dependence in Late Life: Reflections from India in an Era of Global Modernity." Care Management Journals 6(2), pp. 80-89. 

    Lamb, Sarah. 2007. "Lives Outside the Family: Gender and the Rise of Elderly Residences in India." International Journal of Sociology of the Family 33(1), pp. 43-61. 

    Lamb, Sarah. 2019. "Hinduism Teachings and Aging." In Encyclopedia of Gerontology and Population Aging, edited by D. Gu and M. Dupre. DO I: 1 0.1007/978-3-319-69892-2~144-1. 

    Lovato, Chris. 2019. "Well-Being and Spirituality." In Healthy Mind, Healthy Body: New Thoughts on Health [first published 1997], pp. 147-151. Chennai: Sri Rarnakrishna Math. 

    Menon, Usha. 2012. "Hinduism, Happiness and Wellbeing: A Case Study of Adulthood in an Oriya Hindu Temple Town." In Happiness Across Cultures: Views of Happiness and Quality of Life in Non-Western Cultures, edited by H. Selin and G. Davey, pp. 417-434. Dordrecht: Springer. Manuscript with differing pagination online at (accessed 25 Sep 2020), quoted from this online source. 

    Paluri, Wilson. 2020. "Familial and Community Care in Vrddhavastha: Socio-Religious Jarasastra from Classical Hinduism." In Ageing: P erspectival Explorations towards Theo-Gerontology, edited by S. Basurnatary, pp. 141-153. Chennai: Gurukul Publication. 

    Pandey, R.B. 2001. "The Hindu Sacraments (Sarhskaras)." In The Cultural Heritage of India, Vol. II, edited by S. Radhakrishnan [2nd edition 1962], pp. 390-413. Calcutta: Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture. 

    Pandya, Samta P. 2016. "Aging Spiritually: Pitamaha Sadans in India." Cogent Social Sciences 2(1 ). DO I: 10.1080/23311886.2016.1219212. 

    Pathshala. 2020. Overview of Hindu Healing Traditions. (accessed 10 Nov 2020). 

    Premsagar, P. Victor. 1994. "Vanaprasthasrama Dharrna: A Programme of Renewal and Religion as Realisation for Retired People." Bangalore Theological Forum 26(3&4), pp. 15-24. 

    Radhakrishnan, S. 2009. The Hindu View of Life [1st edition 1927]. Noida: Harper Collins Publishers. 

    Rajan, K. V. Soundara. 2001. Concise Classified Dictionary of Hinduism, Vol. I. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. 

    Roy, Mira. 1986. "Ayurveda." In The Cultural Heritage of India, Vol. VI: Science and Technology, edited by P. Ray and S.N. Sen, pp. 152-176. Calcutta: Rarnakrishna Mission Institute of Culture. 

    Sarrna, D. S. 1966. Renascent Hinduism. Murnbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. 

    Sarrna, D.S. 1996. "The Nature and History of Hinduism." In The Religion of the Hindus, edited by Kenneth Morgan [first published 1953], pp. 3-47. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. 

    Sarrna, D.S. 2000. Hinduism Through the Ages [1st edition 1956]. Murnbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. 

    Sharma, Arvind. 2002. The Hindu Tradition: Religious Beliefs and Healthcare Decisions. Illinois: The Park Ridge Center. 

    Sri Sathya 2021. "Sri Sathya Sai International Organization." 

    Tharoor, Shashi. 2018. Why I am a Hindu. New Delhi: Aleph Book Company. 

    Tilak, Shrinivas. 1989. Religion and Aging in the Indian Tradition. Albany: State University of New York Press. 

    Tiwari, S.C., and N.M. Pandey. 2013. "The Indian Concepts of Lifestyle and Mental Health in Old Age." Indian Journal of Psychiatry (January), pp. 288-292. 

    Valiathan, M.S. 2015. "Healing in the Ramakrishna Tradition." In Total Human Development in the Light ofRamakrishna-Vivekananda Tradition, pp. 109-116. Kolkata: Ramakrishna Institute of Culture. 

    Williams, Monier. 1976. A Dictionary English and Sanskrit [4th Indian edition 1899]. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. 

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    WorldBookEncyclopedia. 1981. Vol. 21. Chicago: World Book, Inc. 

    Yogapedia Dictionary. 2020. "Svastha." (accessed 10 Nov 2020). 

    Hinduism - Who Was Vatsyayana(Kama Sutra)?


     Vatsyayana is the author of the Kama Sutra, according to legend.

    This work is sometimes associated with a comprehensive list of sexual positions and pleasures, which it does include, but it extends well beyond that.

    Vatsyayana was fascinated with desire in all of its forms, thus the work opens with a discussion of the four purposes of life (purushartha): 

    1. worldly things (artha), 
    2. desire (kama), 
    3. religious obligation (dharma), 
    4. and soul liberation (moksha).

    Because desire was one of the established objectives ofhuman existence, Vatsyayana reasoned that pursuing it was a desirable thing as long as it did not interfere with the other ends.

    After establishing the legality of desire, Vatsyayana discusses how to nurture it.

    The second book of the Kama Sutra comprises the text's most well-known material: 

    • A description and classification of many sorts of sexual connection.
    • It starts by defining several varieties of sexual endowment, both male and female. 
    • Before moving on to discuss various types of embracing, kissing, scratching, and biting as symbols of passion, sexual positions, and oral sex.
    • This is followed by chapters on finding a bride, courtesans, and general observations on attraction (which the book opposes, save in circumstances when one's affection is "extremely intense").

    The book serves as a guide to all aspects of sensual life, demonstrating how sex may be developed into a vehicle for both aesthetic and sheer carnal pleasure.

    ~Kiran Atma

    You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

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    Hinduism - What Is The Raghuvamsha?


    ("Raghu's Family Tree") One of Kalidasa's major poetry works.

    Kalidasa is widely regarded as the best classical Sanskrit poet.

    The Raghuvamsha is a nineteen-canto quasi-historical epic dedicated to the Solar Line's rulers, notably its most prominent member, the god-king Rama.

    Although Kalidasa presents Rama as an avatar or heavenly incarnation in a manner that Valmiki does not, the tale of Rama in Kalidasa's poetry is very comparable to that of the epic Ramayana.

    The Solar Line rulers are also used in Kalidasa's poetry as examples of dedication to the four purposes of life (purushartha): riches (artha), pleasure (kama), religious duty (dharma), and release (release) (moksha).

    The rulers at the end of the line, according to Kalidasa, are entirely immoral and just interested in pleasure.

    The line is destroyed as a result of their flagrant disregard for their obligation to govern justly, and the poem's audience learns a valuable lesson.

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    Hinduism - What Is Purushartha In Hindu Culture?

     The four aims of life are: worldly prosperity and power (artha), pleasure (kama), religious obligation (dharma), and ultimate liberation (moksha).

    In traditional Hindu culture, all of these were considered respectable aspirations.

    Also look up Hindu 'Aims of Life'.

    You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

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    Hinduism - How Prevalent And Accepted Has Homosexuality Been In Hindu Society?

    Although homosexuality is not unheard of in Indian society, it has never been widely accepted.

    The Kama Sutra includes a short description of gay oral intercourse and the kinds of men who engaged in it, although it is just a fleeting remark.

    In current times, male transvestites known as hijras are often used as gay prostitutes, and they have a well-accepted albeit minor presence in Indian society.

    Although the pursuit of pleasure (of any type) is a goal of life (purushartha) according to the prevalent Hindu ethos, other circumstances have steered the expression of sexual desire in different areas, particularly toward conventional marriage.

    One is the universal desire for children, especially males; another is the idea of the family as the core social unit.

    Furthermore, the traditional male fear of losing vitality as a result of seminal ejection is a motivation to avoid sexual intercourse.

    Finally, the cultural belief that ultimate enlightenment occurs only when one has relinquished all impulses would have influenced all forms of sexual desire.


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