Showing posts sorted by relevance for query Nayanar. Sort by date Show all posts
Showing posts sorted by relevance for query Nayanar. Sort by date Show all posts

Hinduism - Who Were The Nayanar?

 


Between the seventh and ninth centuries, a group of sixty-three Shaiva poet-saints resided in southern India.

The Nayanars, along with their Vaishnava counterparts the Alvars, were instrumental in the renewal of Hindu religion in relation to Buddhists and Jains.

Both the Nayanars and the Alvars placed a strong emphasis on personal devotion (bhakti) to a personal god—Shiva for the Nayanars and Vishnu for the Alvars—and expressed this love via hymns sung in Tamil.

The Nayanars were more openly antagonistic to the Jains than the Jains.

According to mythology, the Nayanar Sambandar was responsible for the imprisonment of 8,000 Jain monks in Madurai.

Appar, Sambandar, and Sundaramurtti, the three most significant Nayanars, composed the Devaram, the most holy of Tamil Shaivite writings.

The Periya Puranam by Cekkilar is a later source that contains hagiographic narratives for all of the Nayanars.

~Kiran Atma


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Hinduism - How Prevalent Was Religious Persecution In India?

 

Religious Persecution is a term used to describe when people are persecuted for their religious beliefs or structures or practices. 

In popular imagination, India is portrayed as a place of ideal religious tolerance, where all schools of thought are free to flourish.

This image is significantly simplified, even though it is accurate in its fundamental form.

Competition between religious groups and schools of thought has a long history, often driven by harsh polemics intended to convince audiences that one was true and the other was wrong.

Acts of violence, on the other hand, have been uncommon in these debates, as has the concept that individuals should be afraid for their lives because of their beliefs.

Language against the Jains has a really hostile tone in the literature of the Nayanar and Lingayat communities—both followers (bhakta) of the deity Shiva—and the Nayanar leader Sambandar has been continuously linked with the impalement of 8,000 Jains in the southern Indian city of Madurai.

Similarly, the northern Indian ruler Sashanka, who was also a Shiva devotee, had a pathological loathing towards Buddhists.

Sashanka is said to have not only persecuted Buddhists, but also attempted to kill the tree at Bodh Gaya where the Buddha is said to have attained enlightenment.

Apart from sectarian rivalry, persons whose religious beliefs has led them to disregard commonly accepted social conventions have faced a lot of criticism.

The stories of the devotional (bhakti) poet-saints are rife with accounts of the difficulties they experienced from traditional morality guards, who are commonly described as brahmins.

There was a long and frequently murderous war between two groups of militant ascetics in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries—the Naga class of the Dashanami Sanyasis and the Bairagi Nagas—although the objectives might just as well have been economic, notably control of commerce in the Ganges valley.

The development of Hindutva in the 1980s provides a last example of religious persecution.

Persecution has all too frequently resulted in actual bloodshed, fueled by rhetorical assaults on Muslims and Christians.


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13 Notable Yogis



1. BRAHMAN SADASIVA

One hundred and twenty years ago, Sri Sadasiva Brahman, a renowned Yogi, lived in Nerur, near Karur, in the Trichinopolly district. He wrote the books "Atma Vilas," "Brahma Sutras," and other works. He was in Samadhi at the time. Floods in the Cauveri river engulfed him, burying him in earth. His body was frozen under the soil for many months. The agriculturists plowed the ground, injuring the Yogi's head. A small amount of blood dripped from the wound. They were completely taken aback. They dug the ground up. Sadasiva Brahman stood up and stepped out from his Samadhi. Any obnoxious people once came to beat him with sticks. They attempted to lift their hands, but they were unable to do so.

They remained as if they were sculptures. When he was walking about as an Avadhuta, he visited the Zenana of a Nawab almost nude. The Nawab became angry and used a large knife to sever his side.

Sadasiva Brahman smiled as he walked away. The guy, according to the Nawab, should be a great Sage. He took the maiden's hand in his and walked after the Sage. “O my Lord!” the Nawab exclaimed on the third day. As a result of my folly, I had to cut off your wrist. Please excuse me.” With the other side, Sadasiva merely touched the cut piece. A new hand appeared. Sadasiva forgave and blessed the Nawab.


2. JNANADEV 

Jnaneswar is another name for Sri Jnanadev. He was the world's greatest Yogin of all time. He was born in Alandi, which is about seven miles from Poona. His Samadhi is already there. All suspicions are dispelled if one reads the Gita penned by him by the hand of the Samadhi. Lord Krishna considers him to be an Avatara. He merely touched a buffalo when he was a kid. It was a recitation of the Vedas.

He had complete command of the elements. When he didn't have a vessel to cook in, his sister baked bread on his lap. At the age of 22, he joined Samadhi while still alive. He drew up all of the Prana and surrendered his physical body to the Brahmarandhra. He started writing Gita commentary when he was 14 years old. His Gita commentary is widely regarded as one of the greatest. He was elected President by a large assembly of Sanskrit Pandits in Benares.


3. SWAMI TRILINGA

Sri Trilinga Swami of Benares, who was born in Andhra Pradesh, lived in the 1950s. He existed for a total of 280 years. In Manasarovar, he made his Tapas (Tibet). He was once seen by Ramakrishna Paramahamsa in Benares. When he first came in for Tapas, he took some money with him. He opened a milk shop and gave away free milk to the homeless, Sadhus, and Sannyasins. He used to remain under the Ganga for up to six months at a time. He used to sleep with his foot over the Sivalinga in Kashi Visvanath's Temple. He once snatched the Governor's sword and hurled it into the Ganges. When the Governor ordered it back, he dove into the sea and returned with two knives, which the Governor couldn't spot. Any nefarious characters sprayed lime-water into his mouth. Sang Pachar Kriya immediately pumped it out of his anus.


4. GORAKHNATH 

Sri Gorakhnath, like Sri Jnanadev of Alandi, was a brilliant Yogi. Suraj, a Brahmin, lived in Chandragiri village, on the banks of the Godavari. Sarasvati was the name of his wife. They didn't have any girls. Yogi Matsyendranath went to Suraj's house for Bhiksha. Sarasvati pampered the Yogi with delicious food and Sraddha. She cried in front of him because she didn't have a kid. Yogi Matsyendranath blessed her with a pinch of holy ash and child blessings. She gave birth to a son afterwards. When Matsyendranath was twelve years old, he returned to Sarasvati and took the boy with him. He dispatched the youngster to Badrinarayan to perform Tapas. Apsaras and other Devatas descended upon him to molest him. He remained steadfast and triumphed over all temptations. He possessed incredible Siddhis. Matsyendranath also gave Gorakhnath, his disciple, all of his powers and Vidyas.

Sri Gorakhnath went to Badrinarayan in his 12th year and performed Tapas for 12 years, surviving solely on air. Gorakhnath had incredible Yogic abilities. Gorakhnath took the form of a lady by his Yogic powers and entered the inner apartments of the palace when his Guru Matsyendranath entered the dead body of a Raja (Parakaya Pravesh) to follow the instructions of Sri Hanuman to bear an offspring for a certain Rani (Kamarupa Siddhi). In another case, he created a clay toy child and gave it to the children of a particular village as a playmate. He turned a part of a mountain into gold and then returned it to its original state. On a rock, he urinated. It was transformed into gold. He fed everyone by spreading only leaves in a Kumbhamela on the banks of the Godavari, but he served various rich meals to everyone's taste. In the same Mela, he gradually shrank in size and took the shape of a mosquito (Anima Siddhi). He burned himself to ashes with his own Yogic strength and reverted to his original form. He completed Akasagamanam (walking in the sky). In this way, he was able to do several Siddhis. His disciple was Raja Bhartrihari.


5. SWAMI KRISHNA ASHRAM

At Daroli village, 14 miles below Gangotri, the Ganges' source, Swami Krishna Ashram is a living saint. He's been living there for the past eight years, naked in an icy area where an average man would need a woollen coat, a Gothma, and a half-dozen blankets. He was a Siva Bhakta, a devotee of Siva. He threw away all of his Puja vessels and traveled to Varanasi, where he took Sannyasa and stayed for a year. After that, he went to Hardwar and abandoned the Danda to become an Avadhuta. He was also in Uttarkashi. When he was bitten by sharp, large flies and blood was dripping from his body, he would never harass the flies. His stamina was incredible. Once in the Kshetra, an ignorant servant mocked him by pouring very hot Dhal on his hands for not carrying any vessel for Dhal. Swami Krishna Ashram drank the Dhal despite his scalded lips and paws.

Another Swami by the name of Bhuma Ashram lives in Daroli in a naked state. Krishna Ashram considers him a mentor.

Both Sadhakas must possess Titiksha, or the strength of stamina. This is one of Sadhana Chatushtaya's sixfold virtues. Read Chapter II of the Gita, Slokas 14 and l5. Titiksha, you will realize the significance of this virtue.


6. YOGI BHUSUNDA

Among the Yogins, Yogi Bhusunda is one of the Chiranjivis. He was an expert in the art of Pranayama. He is said to have constructed a large nest, resembling a mountain, on the southern branch of the Kalpa Vriksha, near the Mahameru's northern summit. This was Bhusunda's home. He was a Trikala Jnani Trikala Jnani Trikala Jnani Trikala Jnani Tri He could stay in Samadhi for as long as he wanted. He lacked interest.

He had ascended to the level of supreme Santi and Jnana. He was there, blissed out by his own Self, and he is still there as a Chiranjivi. He knew everything there was to know about the five Dharanas. By using the five techniques of concentrating, he had found himself immune to the five elements. It is said that when all twelve Adityas scorch the earth with their fiery rays, he would reach up to the Akasa through his Apas Dharana. He'd be in the Akasa via Agni Dharana as fierce gales shattered the rocks to splinters. When the earth and the Mahameru were submerged, he would float on top of them by Vayu Dharana.



7. TIRUMULA NAYANAR

In Kailas, Tirumula Nayanar was a brilliant Yogi. Through the grace of Nandi, Lord Siva's Vahana, he possessed all eight great Siddhis. He was Agastya Muni's mate. He traveled from Kailas to Varanasi and remained there. He then traveled to Chidambaram, Tiruvavaduturai, and other nearby towns. He went to Tiruvavaduturai's temple to worship Lord Siva and remained there for a while.

He once visited a garden on the Cauveri River's shores. He discovered the remains of a caretaker of a herd of cows there. He found that all of the cows had gathered around the cowherd's body, weeping bitterly. Tirumular's heart was moved by this. He felt terrible for the cows. He left his body in a certain location and joined the cowherd's dead body. Throughout the day, he looked after the cows and returned them to their homes. The cowherd's widow, who was unaware of her husband's death, hosted Tirumular, who was dressed as her husband's actual body. Tirumular turned down the bid. He desired to return to his own body. When he went looking for his body, he didn't find it where he expected it to be. And he realized it was all due to Lord Siva's goodness. He then went to Avaduturai with the cowherd's body and sat underneath an Asvattha tree on the temple's western side, writing a precious book called "Tirumantram" in Tamil. It is a 3000 verse book that contains the Vedas' meaning.


8. MANSOOR

Mansoor was a Brahma-Jnani Sufist. Four hundred years before, he lived in Persia. “Anal-haq! Anal-haq!” he kept chanting. This refers to the Vedantins' "Soham" or "Aham Brahma Asmi." The Badshah received reports that Mansoor was an atheist (Kafir) who was always saying "Anal-haq." The Badshah erupted in frustration. Mansoor was to be cut into sections, he ordered. His commands were carried out. And back then, the flesh fragments were uttering "Anal-haq." Since he was a full-fledged Samadhi Jnani and had complete identification with Brahman, he felt no harm. He was unconcerned with his appearance. The bits of flesh and bones were then thrown into the flames and reduced to ashes. Even back then, the ashes said, "Anal-haq." Throughout his life, he performed several miracles. Even Jnanis have the ability to perform miracles if they so wish and deem it appropriate for the situation. Sadasiva Brahman and the other Jnanis performed miracles. Every day, reflect on the lives of great men. You'll make it on the spiritual journey.


9. MILAREPA

Milarepa had been deeply impressed since his childhood by the impermanence and transience of all circumstances of earthly life, as well as the sufferings and wretchedness in which all beings were submerged. To him, life resembled a massive furnace in which all living things were roasting. This filled his heart with such piercing anguish that he was unable to feel even a fraction of the divine bliss experienced by Brahma and Indra in their heavens, let alone the earthly joys and delights afforded by a life of worldly glory.

In the other hand, he was so enthralled by the vision of immaculate purity, by the chaste beauty in the description of the state of perfect freedom and omniscience associated with the attainment of Nirvana, that he didn't care if he died in the search for which he had set out, endowed as he was with full faith, keen intellect, and a heart overflowing with all-pervading awe.

He was able to demonstrate transcendental knowledge in the control of the ethereal and spiritual nature of the mind by soaring across the sky, walking, sitting, and sleeping on the air until obtaining transcendental knowledge in the control of the ethereal and spiritual nature of the mind. He could also create fires of fire and springs of water from his body, as well as convert his body into whatever entity he wished, persuading nonbelievers and leading them to religious pursuits.

He was flawless in the four stages of meditation, and as a result, he was able to project his subtle body and be present as the presiding Yogi in twenty-four holy places where gods and angels congregate like clouds for divine communion.

He had the ability to direct gods to elementals and have them carry out his orders instantly, in order to complete all tasks. He was a master of spiritual abilities. He was able to traverse and frequent all of the Buddhas' myriad holy paradises and heavens, where the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas reigning therein favored him with Dharma discourses and listened to his in exchange, such that his travels and sojourns there sanctified the heaven-worlds.


12. BONAPARTE, NAPOLEON

Napoleon Bonaparte was a highly focused person. His popularity was entirely due to his ability to concentrate. He had a variety of illnesses, including epileptic episodes, Brady cardia, and so on. He would have been much more effective if not for these afflictions. He was free to sleep wherever he wanted. He'd start snoring as soon as he got into bed. He'd wake up at the same second the alarm clock went off.

It's a form of Siddhi. He didn't have any Vikshepa or shilly-shallying on him. He possessed a Yogi's highly evolved Ekagrata. He could pull any single idea from the brain pigeon-hole, focus on it for as long as he wanted, and then push it back until he was done. In the middle of a busy war, he will sleep soundly at night and never worry. This was all due to his ability to focus.

Concentration has the ability to do something. Nothing can be accomplished without mental focus.

Mr. and Mrs. Gladstone and Balfour possessed a high level of mental acuity. They will fall asleep as soon as they went to bed. Make a mental note of the phrase "at this very moment." They'd never throw a ball.


As in the case of worldly people, for perhaps 15 to 20 minutes in bed. Consider how tough it is to fall asleep quickly after lying down. They had complete say of their sleeping patterns. They could even get out of bed whenever they wanted without the use of an alarm clock. Sleeping and waking up at the same time is only one indication of the influence of focus to a certain extent. Some people can fall asleep immediately after a long day's work, but they are unable to rise at the prescribed time. This is also an example of a very common occurrence. Concentration allows us to do miracles.


11. KABIR'S TEACHINGS

Kabir once tied a large pig to the front post of his house's verandah. Kabir invited an orthodox Brahmin Pundit to his home to discuss a philosophical problem. In front of the building, he saw a pig. He was agitated, impatient, and frustrated. “Dear Sir, how is it that you have tied a nasty animal that eats human excreta so close to your house?” he asked Kabir. You \shave no Achara. You are a scumbag. You are unfamiliar with the Shastras. You are illiterate.” “O Shastriji, you are dirtier than I am,” Kabir answered. I've bound the pig to the front post of my building, but you've tied the pig to your mind.” The Brahmin was irritated and left without saying anything. “If the mind is pure, you will find the Ganges in the cup,” says Man changa katorie me ganga. The value of mental purification cannot be overstated. Nothing will be accomplished on the spiritual journey without it.


12. A FRAUDULENT LATIN SCHOLARSHIP

To learn Latin, a certain man went to a Latin teacher. He spent a week with the instructor.

He found that the majority of the terms had a ‘o' at the top. He believed he needed to add the letter 'o' to the end of every word. He was fluent in English. He assured the teacher that he learned Latin and, with the teacher's permission, he returned to his hometown. He arrived at his home and tapped the handle, saying, "O, dear-o, wife-o, open-o, door-o." He assumed it was all in Latin.

Many scholars in Yoga and Vedanta are close to the learned Latin scholar mentioned above. They remain in the Ram Ashram Library or with Sadhus for a few days, learning the names Kundalini, Mula Chakra, Nadi, Pranayama, Maya, or Pratibimbavada, and then moving from place to place. Yoga and Vedanta are philosophies that can be practiced for 12 years under the guidance of a Guru. Then only one person would be able to master the subjects. Yoga and Vedanta can never be seen as a source of income. One need not mix with worldly people after learning a few words about Yoga and Vedanta. Perfection of Yoga needs a lot of practice time under the guidance of a great teacher.


13. AN ASPIRANT'S STORY

An aspirant approached a Gorakhnath Panth Mahant. Those who worship Gorakhnath wear large black celluloid or glass earrings. The Mahant pierced the aspirant's head, installed large earrings, and bestowed upon him the lovely name Yogi Ishvarananda. For three months, he stayed in the Ashram. He didn't make any moral strides. “This is not the proper path,” he thought to himself. Let me take a different route.” He then left the Ashram, wandered through dense jungles, and approached a Fakir, begging for initiation. The Fakir circumcised him, gave him a Mantra, and sent him on his way.


I requested that he grow a long beard. This did not please him either. Take a look at this bad aspirant's pitiful state. The ulcers in the ears have not yet recovered. He was in a lot of discomfort due to septic inflammation. There was a lot of pus coming out. He was still in a disturbed state of mind, and this situation further added to his fears. He commented thoughtfully that this was not the way to find the Guru. He made the clear decision that he would not wander, that he would stay in one solitary location and practice Tapas with continuous prayers to God. He chose a location and performed Tapas with honesty. This cleansed him and prepared him for the next stage. After a two-year time, a Guru emerged in front of him and introduced him into the profound mysteries of Yoga. Aspirants today are doing the same thing, hopping from place to place in search of a Guru. It's pointless. They must purify themselves in order to live a Yogic life. And if they come into touch with an Avatara by accident, they would not gain much if they do not have a solid base for a Yogic existence.


OTHER YOGINS

The yogi maintains mental power over the organs and functions of the body through different activities. He sculpts his body as though it were concrete. In front of the King, a Swami in London demonstrated how to stop his heart. A large number of capable doctors were present at the time and treated him. Desabandhu halted the radial and temporal pulses on both sides at will in 1926, as well as the heart's beatings for a brief while. 

In the Bombay Medical Union, he staged a protest. Hatha Yogi Hari Das, who buried himself underneath the earth for forty days after closely closing his nose, lips, ears, and eyes with wax, came back alive in Maharajah Ranjit Singh's Court in Lahore. Gunangudi Mastan, a Mohammedan Yogi, was buried in Madras.

Any Yogins are able to glide. Khechari Mudra is to blame for this.

Yogi Pratap was doing Viparitakarani Mudra at the time. Onlookers were asked to cover his head with mud on both directions. He stayed in that spot for the whole two hours. In Varanasi, German traveller Paul Deussen observed this firsthand. Varanasi's Sri Swami Vishuddhananda once brought a dead sparrow back to life. 


For a true Yogi, nothing is unlikely.







Hinduism - How Prevalent Was Execution Via Impalement And Mass Impalement In Ancient And Feudal India?

 


One of the most popular methods of execution, which appears to have been especially popular in ancient southern India.

Impaling someone means piercing them with a sharp spike and killing them.

The most spectacular incident is said to have occurred at Madurai, when 8,000 Jain ascetics were impaled by one of the Pandya dynasties' rulers after the latter had left Jainism to become a Shaiva, or a Shiva devotee (bhakta).

The Nayanar saint Sambandar, who had converted the monarch and whose surviving poetry displays a great animus towards the Jains, is said to bear ultimate culpability for this, according to legend.

If this claim is accurate, it also reveals one of the few examples of religious persecution in Hindu India, which has been very accepting of other religious practices on the whole.

Murals created in the Minakshi temple in Madurai—whose construction predates the supposed event—as well as popular art of many types depict depictions of this mass impalement.


 

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Hinduism - Who Was Manikkavachakar?

 

(9th c.) Tamil poet-saint and creator of the Tiruvachakam ("holy words"), who was a devotee (bhakta) of the deity Shiva.

Along with the Nayanar poet saints, Appar, Sambandar, and Sundaramurtti, he is regarded the fourth major figure in the Tamil Shaivite tradition.

Manikkavachakar's songs are viewed as the climax of the older devotional (bhakti) tradition and provide testament to the depth of his own religious experience.

These hymns also served as the foundation for the Shaiva Siddhanta philosophical school's development, making him a key figure in southern Indian Shaivism.

Glenn Yocum's Hymns to the Dancing Siva, published in 1982, has further material.


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Hinduism - Who Was Cekkilar, The Nayanar?

 



The Periya Puranam, a hagiographical chronicle of the sixty-three Nayanars, was written by Cekkilar (12th c. C .E .). 



Between the seventh and ninth centuries, the Nayanars were a group of sixty-three Shaiva poetsaints who lived in southern India. 


In contrast to Buddhists and Jains, the Nayanars, together with their Vaishnava counterparts, the Alvars, led the revival of Hindu religion. 

Both the Nayanars and the Alvars placed a strong emphasis on ardent devotion (bhakti) to a personal god—Shiva for the Nayanars, Vishnu for the Alvars—and expressed this love via Tamil hymns. 





Cekkilar was a minister in the court of the Chola dynasty's monarch Kullottunga II (r. 1130–1150 C.E.), according to legend. 


Cekkilar was irritated by the king's love for a Jain epic poem, so he wrote his own to divert the king's attention. 

The Nayanars are portrayed in his book as examples of Shiva devotion, despite their sometimes harsh acts. 

In every instance, however, the devotion between the devotee (bhakta) and the god shows itself in daily life, bringing the saints to ultimate freedom. 




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Hinduism - Who Are The Lingayats?

 

Lingayats are a Kannada-speaking religious group who are devotees (bhakta) of the deity Shiva and dwell mostly in the southern Indian state of Karnataka.

Lingayat origins may be traced back to the Nayanar poet-saints of Tamil Nadu, who migrated northward in the seventh century.

Basavanna, a poet saint, founded the group, together with Allama Prabhu and Mahadeviyakka.

The original members of the society were motivated by a desire to know God and were impatient with anything that went in the way, whether it was image worship, caste distinctions, or the obligations of family life.

Lingayat culture has been shaped by these early influences.

The Lingayats do not worship with pictures.

The linga of Shiva, which all Lingayats wear as a token of membership in the community, is their sole emblem.

The Lingayats have generally adhered to the egalitarian beliefs of their forefathers.

Although there are no caste divisions in the society, there are higher-status priestly families known as jangamas from whom the celibate monks known as viraktas are often chosen.

In fact, this egalitarian focus has turned the whole Lingayat community into a jati, one of the endogamous social groupings that make up broader Indian society; the difference being that the Lingayats are defined by their religious affiliation rather than their employment.

In contemporary Karnataka, the Lingayats are the most powerful group, both in terms of historic landholding patterns and political power.

A. K. Ramanujan's Speaking of Siva was published in 1973, and Sivalingayya Channabasavayya Nandimath's A Handbook of Virasaivism was published in 1979.


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