Hinduism - ABORTION

 





Abortion is certainly on the rise in India, which is owing to the country's specific social and cultural issues.


Traditional viewpoints hold this practice in high regard, yet there are occasions when it may be justified, such as when the mother's life is at jeopardy, as with all things when seen through the lens of dharma.

With the principles of compassion, karma, and ahim, the fundamental hegemonic tenet driving the condemnation is that every life is sacrosanct. sa (ahimsa: nonviolence) came in second place.

Life is seen to begin at conception, and any attempt to hinder the development of the fetus, a potential child, is considered murder.

Ancient writings, written in a society that valued big families, are passionately opposed to abortion, depicting retribution and eternal consequences for mothers who terminate their unborn children.


The jiva (soul) has lessons to learn and teach others karmically.



It is consequently improper to obstruct a child's karmic advancement, even if the youngster is handicapped.

Humans have no right to steal someone else's life for their own convenience after it has been entrusted to them during conception.


The important Socio-Scientific fact remains, 

Determining the critical moment when:

1. The child is considered to cease to exist as co-dependent inside the Mother and 

2. It exists as an individual with its own Human rights, and without impacting the health, well being and well fare of the Mother, given her own existential and socio-economic circumstances.


If a couple engages in sexual activity with the main goal of reproduction and fertilization, it is their moral obligation to accept responsibility for their acts and the life they have now produced.


Thus, it may be claimed that only sexual interaction between husband and wife is dharmic in this aspect.


In India, population control entails abstinence (unless children are planned), abortion, or contraception.


The first is the answer advocated by some, however it is very utopian.

Many people would find abortion for unintended pregnancies unacceptable.


Abortion is often practiced illegally as female feticide once the gender of the unborn child has been identified via ultra sound scans.


Thus, contraception, despite some opposition, would be the practical solution, at least in the form of a barrier or the rhythm method rather than emergency contraception as a type of abortion.

With the advancement of medical science, many Indians may now determine the gender of their unborn child and choose whether to retain it if it is a boy or terminate it if it is a girl.



Those in poverty who are unable to do so murder the infant girl as soon as she is born.

While all of this may seem unacceptable to Westerners, the parents frequently face 'dharma dilemmas,' in which they argue that allowing their daughter to die is preferable to allowing her to live a life of misery in a society where dowry demands exist and where boys, not girls, are often seen as the breadwinners.

As a result, some families see daughters as a financial burden who cause issues for everyone, including themselves.


Kiran Atma


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



See also: 


Ahimsa; Celibacy; Contraception; Dharma; Dowry; Feticide; Infanticide; Jıva; Karma; Samskaras


References And Further Reading:


Coward, Harold G., Julius J. Lipner and Katherine K. Young. 1991. Hindu Ethics. Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications.

Crawford, S. Cromwell. 2003. Hindu Bioethics for the Twenty-First Century. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Jackson, Robert and Dermot Killingly. 1991. Moral Issues in the Hindu Tradition. Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books Limited.

Menski, Werner. 2001. ‘Hinduism’. In Peggy Morgan and Clive Lawton, eds, Ethical Issues in Six Religious Traditions. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1–54.



Hinduism - ABHISEKA

 



One of the most prevalent daily practices at temples and shrines is abhiseka, or consecration, during which the image or murti of a deity is ritually cleansed.


The ceremonial consecrating of a temple might vary from a modest washing of a deity in water or milk to the ritual consecrating of an entire building.

This temple abhiseka, also known as kumbhabhiseka, is carried out every twelve years by temples that can afford to renovate or restore their structures.


The abhiseka is then said to rejuvenate the deities' strength inside.


The deity may be ritually washed with a number of things ranging from turmeric water, which is said to be cooling and cleansing, to honey, fruit, and curds in the more complicated abhiseka rites done in bigger temples.

It's rare to discover written texts that explain why different substances are employed, although a little brochure in one temple in Tamil Nadu said that sugar cane juice is presented for health, sandalwood oil may bring happiness, and rice-flour powder may be offered to remove debt (Foulston 2002: 125–26).


The amount of components utilized in an abhiseka ritual is determined by what is provided by worshippers or the temple's budget.

The abhiseka rites in Tamil Nadu tend to be more elaborate at the bigger temples, where flowers, turmeric, and sandal paste appear to be more widely accessible and less expensive.

Showering a god with flowers, water, or milk, on the other hand, is a profoundly intimate gesture that strengthens the link between deity and devotee.

The abhiseka ceremony is usually followed by arti and the deity's adornment.

In South India, this usually entails transforming a simple black stone picture into a feast for the eyes and nose using deep yellow sandal paste, flowers, and highly embellished silk clothes.


Kiran Atma


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



See also: 

Artı; Deities; Image worship; Mandir; Temple worship


References And Further Reading:


Foulston, Lynn. 2002. At the Feet of the Goddess: The Divine Feminine in Local Hindu Religion. Brighton and Portland, OR: Sussex Academic Press.



Hinduism - ABHINAVAGUPTA





(late tenth century) Abhinavagupta was a major thinker in Kashmiri Saivism, and the son of scholar Narasimhagupta, who was his first tutor.


Abhinavagupta wrote forty-one works, commentaries and independent treatises, on the three main branches of Kashmiri Saivism: Krama, Pratyabhijna, and Trika, as well as aesthetics, poetics, and language theory, becoming the most prominent and influential teacher in Abhinavagupta was the one who systematized the Trika doctrine based on a number of older and often obscure texts, most notably in his masterpiece, the Tantra loka (Light on the Tantras), a massive work in thirty-seven ahnika ('day-times,' i.e. chapters) that takes up twelve volumes in the Kashmir Series of Texts and Studies (1918–38) with Jayaratha's commentary.



The Tantra loka was summarized by its author in the Tantrasara (Essence of the Tantras), a widely read book that combines yoga, devotion to the Lord, and nondualism (advaita) in such a manner that it is applicable to a variety of systems.


The Patra trimsika Vivarana is a lengthy commentary on the Tantra Para trimsika's thirty-six pithy stanzas, which elaborates on all elements of Word/speech, whether liturgical, cosmogonic, psychological, epistemological, or metaphysical.

The Ma lin vijaya Varttika and the Isvara pratyabhijn a Vimarsin on Utpala deva's Pratyabhijn a Karika, both major works in the tradition, are two more commentaries worth noting.



All of these writings are significant, and Abhinavgupta's impact beyond not just his own school but also Tamil Nadu, where he was even regarded as an incarnation of Siva.


Not just in the sphere of poetics, with his focus on the primacy of suggestion, but also in the performing arts, particularly theatre, dance, and music, his writings on aesthetics were to be as authoritative and of enduring value.


Kiran Atma


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



See also: 


Advaita; Dance; Drama; Kashmiri Saivism; Music; Poetry; Siva; Tantras; Tantrism; Yoga



Hinduism - ABHINAV BHARAT SOCIETY

 



Vinayak Damodar Savarkar (1883–1996), better known as Veer Savarkar, created an organization in 1902 with the goal of attaining India's complete independence from the British.

This was to be accomplished via any means necessary, including military conflict and bloodshed.

The organization was founded when Savarkar was a student at Ferguson College in Pune, and it quickly grew into a breeding ground for young revolutionaries from the area.

In 1906, he travelled to the United Kingdom to study law at Grays Inn, and while there, he founded India House, a gathering place for Indian students, as a branch of the organization.




The Abhinav Bharat Society reflected its founder's ideals, which were at contrast with Gandhi's nonviolence.

Many young Indians were drawn to the organization by the impassioned language promoting violence heard at its gatherings, and many important members of the first Congress government were previously members.

After the assassination of Curzon Wylic in London by Madan Lal Dhingra, a staunch follower of the cause, the organization gained recognition.

Many of the organization's founding members were executed by the British or spent years in exile in the Andaman Islands.

Savarkar was exiled or imprisoned for twenty-seven years, keeping him apart from the Indian people.



Kiran Atma


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



See also: 


Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand; Nationalism; Savarkar, Vinayak Damodar



Hinduism - SWAMI ABHAYANANDA

 



Madame Marie Louise/Swami Abhayananda, one of Swami Vivekananda's first two Western-born followers, was initiated into sannyasa in 1895 by Swami Vivekananda in the United States.

She had been connected with radical movements in New York, where she had resided as a naturalized American citizen, while being French by origin.


She threatened to switch her allegiance to Theosophy in 1897, citing a lack of support as head of the New York Vedanta Society during Vivekananda's absence in England.


She founded the Advaita Society in Chicago shortly after.

Abhayananda left the Ramakrishna organization in 1899 after teaching independently in India, reportedly because Vivekananda had preached that Ramakrishna was an avatar, however Vivekananda's adherents have ascribed her behavior to personal ambition.


She went on to develop the New York-based School of Mind and Soul Culture.


Kiran Atma


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



See also: 


Avatara; Ramakrishna Math and Mission; Ramakrishna, Sri; Samnyasa; Theosophy and the Theosophical Society; Vivekananda, Swami


References And Further Reading:


French, H.W. 1974. The Swan’s Wide Waters. New York: Kennikat Press.



Yoga Asanas For Stress Relief - Janu Sirsasana - Head On the Knee Pose




    The Sanskrit word for "knee" is janu, while the word for "head" is sirsa

    This head-on-knee stance has a dynamic effect on the body and provides several advantages. 

    It stretches the front of the spine and relieves stiffness in leg muscles and hip joints. 

    All of the joints in the arms, from the shoulders to the knuckles, become more flexible.




    BENEFITS:





    • Relieves the heart's and mind's impacts of stress

    • Helps to keep blood pressure in check.

    • Corrects spine curvature and rounded shoulders over time.

    • Relieves stiffness in the joints of the shoulder, hip, elbow, wrist, and fingers

    • Tone the organs of the abdomen

    • Helps to relieve leg stiffness while also strengthening leg muscles.




    PRECAUTIONS:


    • Always expand out the knee of the extended leg entirely, stretching it uniformly on all sides, to preserve your hamstring muscles. 
    • Allowing the thigh of the same leg to rise off the floor is not recommended.



    INSTRUCTIONS:


    1. Take a seat in Dandasana





    • Move your right knee to the right by bending it. 
    • Pull your right foot towards your perineum until the big toe of your right thigh meets the inside of your left thigh. 
    • Make sure your bent knee is firmly placed on the floor. 
    • Push your bent knee back until the angle between your legs is more than 90 degrees. 
    • Maintain a straight left leg. 
    • It should sit exactly in the middle of the left calf.


    2. Extend your left foot until the sole feels expanded, but maintain your toes pointing straight up. 


    • Extend your right knee away from your body even further. 
    • Then, with your palms facing each other, raise your arms straight over your head. From your hips, stretch your torso up. 
    • Continue the stretch through your arms and shoulders.


    3. Exhale and bend forward from the hips while maintaining your lower back flat. 



    • To relax the spinal muscles, press your torso down towards your waist for a more efficient stretch. 
    • Hold your toes and stretch your arms towards your left foot.



    SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR BEGINNERS: 





    • Stretch as far down your leg as you can while hanging on to your knee, shin, or ankle if you can't reach your toes. 
    • You will gradually learn to stretch each region of your body independently, including your buttocks, back, ribs, spine, armpits, elbows, and arms, with practice. 
    • Maintain contact with the floor with your left thigh, knee, and calf. Always apply pressure to your thigh, not your calf.



    4. Increase the stretch now. 


    • Take a deep breath out and stretch your arms beyond your left foot. 
    • With your left hand, grasp your right wrist. 
    • Adjust your posture by stretching your spine and lowering your right knee to the floor. 
    • Lift your chest and keep your arms straight. 
    • Hold this posture for 15 seconds while evenly breathing.



    5. Take a deep breath out and extend your chest towards your toes. 


    • Bring your left knee, or as near to it as possible, to your brow. For 30–60 seconds, hold the posture.




    HEALING AND REPAIRING YOURSELF:





    Visualize the contour of your back in the ultimate stance. 


    • Only a little portion of the spine at the level of the shoulders is extended if it is rounded, as seen above. 
    • Extend your arms out from your shoulder blades and lengthen and flatten your lower spine.



    JANU SIRSASANA - ADVANCED VERSION OF THE POSE WITH A 360° VIEW:





    Your sternum and abdomen should rest on the left thigh as though the leg and torso were one. 


    • One side of your back and torso may extend more than the other - generally the same side as your outstretched leg. 
    • Keep this in mind and strive to balance the stretch on both sides. 
    • Keep your elbows outstretched, expanding them to create chest expansion.



    Kiran Atma


    You may also want to try out some more Yoga Asanas For Stress Relief Here.


    You may also want to read more about Yoga here.

    You may also want to read more about Yoga Asanas and Exercises here.




    References And Further Reading:


    • Singh, C., Reddy, T.O. and Singh, V., 2013. Benefit of Yoga Poses for Women during Pregnancy.
    • Sena, I. Gusti Made Widya. "Janu Sirsasana: Konsep dan Manfaatnya Bagi Kesehatan Diri." Jurnal Yoga dan Kesehatan 2, no. 1 (2020): 1-11.
    • Yonglitthipagon, P., Muansiangsai, S., Wongkhumngern, W., Donpunha, W., Chanavirut, R., Siritaratiwat, W., Mato, L., Eungpinichpong, W. and Janyacharoen, T., 2017. Effect of yoga on the menstrual pain, physical fitness, and quality of life of young women with primary dysmenorrhea. Journal of bodywork and movement therapies21(4), pp.840-846.
    • Padmanabhan, K., Sudhakar, S., Aravind, S., Kumar, C.P. and Monika, S., 2018. Efficacy of Yoga Asana and Gym Ball Exercises in the management of primary dysmenorrhea: A single-blind, two group, pretest-posttest, randomized controlled trial. CHRISMED Journal of Health and Research5(2), p.118.
    • Galantino, M.L., Greene, L., Archetto, B., Baumgartner, M., Hassall, P., Murphy, J.K., Umstetter, J. and Desai, K., 2012. A qualitative exploration of the impact of yoga on breast cancer survivors with aromatase inhibitor-associated arthralgias. Explore8(1), pp.40-47.
    • Feuerstein, G., Refining Your Forward Bends With The TFL.
    • Riera, A. and Torres, C., 2015. Yoga for Those with Multiple Sclerosis: Exercises to Improve Balance and Manage Symptoms of Pain and Fatigue. Meteor Content Providers.
    • Farhi, D., 2000. Yoga mind, body & spirit: A return to wholeness. Macmillan.
    • Hainsworth, K.R., Salamon, K.S., Khan, K.A., Mascarenhas, B., Davies, W.H. and Weisman, S.J., 2014. A pilot study of yoga for chronic headaches in youth: Promise amidst challenges. Pain Management Nursing15(2), pp.490-498.
    • Iyengar, G.S., 2003. About menstruation. Opintomoniste, tekijän hallussa.
    • Broad, W.J., 2012. The science of yoga: The risks and the rewards. Simon and Schuster.



    FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS:



    What is the meaning of janu sirsasana?


    Janu Sirsasana (Head-to-Knee Pose) is a forward fold, twist, and side body stretch all rolled into one. It may help you relax while also stretching your body. Lengthen your spine and bend from your hip crease instead of rounding your back. Close your eyes and generate a feeling of inner tranquility as you fold forward.

    When a desire to go as deep as possible into an asana, or stance, pushes you over your boundaries, illusions of grandeur might arise. Asmita, or ego, is present in both incapacity and humility. 

    Approach every position with humility and mindfulness to maintain your ego in alignment with reality. Keep your focus on the current moment rather than striving to go too quickly. Without getting too caught up in reaching a goal, try to sense what you're experiencing in your body.

    The more you practice Janu Sirsasana, the more you'll discover that the purpose of this position is to slow down, concentrate on your breath, and relax your mind, not to touch your toes.

    What are some of the advantages of Janu Sirsasana?


    The hamstrings, hips, and groin muscles are stretched in Head-to-Knee Pose. This nice stretch for tight hamstrings is generally beneficial to runners and people who participate in sports that involve running. It's also a restorative position that's said to help you relax and unwind.

    Who should avoid doing Janu Sirsasana?


    If you have significant low back discomfort, you should avoid this position. One can see that one side of the hip is more flexible than the other in this stance.

    What is Janu Sirsasana?


    Janu sirsasana is a sequence of sitting forward bends that are asymmetrical. Janu means "knee," sirsa means "head," and asana means "position" in Sanskrit. 

    The goal of the position is to bring the head closer to the knee by folding the body. The head will really travel past the knee and to the shin in the full expression of the posture, once the hamstrings and back of the body are wide enough.

    Janu sirsasana has three primary versions, each with somewhat different alignment of the bent leg with reference to the torso. The fundamental series of Ashtanga yoga incorporates all three versions. Head-to-knee posture is the Western term for janu sirsasana.




    Human Well-Being From A Hindu Perspective: Care, Healing, And Wellness





       

      It is reasonable to conclude that religion and spirituality in general contribute to human life fulfillment and pleasure in all civilizations. 


      Due to the increasing complexity of everyday life, providing care for persons' physical and mental needs has become a growing problem. 

      Indeed, life has become a source of worry, bringing significant challenges to religious thought and spirituality. 

      As a result, care and human well-being are prioritized in modern India, particularly among Hindu civilizations. 



      Hinduism, the world's third biggest religion, is very important to the people of India. It is considered "a way of life" (Chaudhuri 2012: 28). 


      As a result, it's critical to look at how Hindus see care, healing, and human well-being, as well as what their practice includes among their followers in India. 

      The current research begins with an overview of Hinduism as India's major religion. 

      It is descriptive and attempts to elucidate the notions of care, healing, and well-being within Hindu thinking's cultural and religious traditions. 

      The relationship between Hindu thought and how it is operationalized in its rites of passage (also known as "Hindu sacraments"), "goals for meaningful human life," and "five great sacrifices" will be a particular emphasis. 



      Finally, the article discusses care, healing, and well-being in the modern day, with a focus on renascent Hinduism and its ideas on gods and goddesses as its source. 


      Ayurveda as a Hindu science of medicine for holistic well-being, yoga as a path for mental well-being, and asrama-dharma as care and well-being for the elderly within the domain of gem-transcendence will all be discussed to further investigate modern Hinduism's viewpoints. 




      India's primary religion is Hinduism. 




      Hinduism is the most widely practiced religion in India, the world's seventh biggest nation (3.3 million square kilometres). 


      India, which is expected to have a population of 1.42 billion people by 2023, is noted for its religious variety and cultural diversity. 

      Aside from Hinduism, India is home to Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, and a number of other ancient religious traditions. 

      In addition, India is home to a diverse range of faiths, including Semitic religions. 

      According to the 2011 census, Hinduism is followed by 79.8% of the Indian population, 14.2% Islam, 2.3 percent Christianity, 1.72 percent Sikhism, 0.7 percent Buddhism, 0.37 percent Jainism, and 0.66 percent Zoroastrianism. 



      Despite the diversity of religious connections among Indians, the Hindu religious heritage plays a critical part in the country's spiritual, cultural, and social makeup. 


      In terms of Hinduism's texts, deities, and belief systems, the concept of 'unity amid variety' (Sarma 1996: 13-27) may be distinctively recognized. 

      The word 'Hinduism' does not refer to a single, closed religion tradition, but rather to a wide range of faiths, beliefs, doctrines, rituals, and practices linked with a variety of gods, goddesses, and cults found on the Indian subcontinent. 

      Although the name Hinduism refers to a specific religious tradition with a history that spans many centuries, its spiritual foundations date back almost four millennia. 

      Hinduism is considered by its supporters to be a sanatana dharma, or "everlasting religion," since it is founded on the eternal truth enshrined in the Vedas (the primary Hindu scriptures). 




      Hinduism, being one of the world's oldest alive religions, does not honor a single sage or prophet as its creator, nor does it claim a single central authority for its existence. 

      It is, in reality, based on an open canon. 

      It remains an all-encompassing, all-encompassing, and inevitably ever-evolving spiritual tradition in this way. 

      According to Shashi Tharoor (2018: 39), "Hinduism is a characteristically Indian development, a type of 'banyan tree,' as a consequence of its openness and variety. 

      Its branches spread far and wide, sinking back into the ground to take new root in the inviting soil." 

      One of its defining characteristics is the domination of a type of 'religious awareness.' 

      This centripetal perception leads to the domination of a very distinct religious point of view and spiritual sensitivity to all matters of life among Hindu believers (Griswold 1996: 24-26). 

      As expressed in Hindu scriptures, traditional thought, and culture, this complete worldview incorporates a spiritual perspective of care, healing, and human well-being. 



      Hindu themes of care, healing, and well-being are discussed in this paradigmatic context. 




      The themes of caring, healing, and well-being are implicitly ingrained throughout Hindu thought. 



      In Sanskrit (the Hindu tradition's holy language), the term 'care' has many distinct definitions: 


      Raksa Means to guard, look after, save, preserve, or keep away from. 


      Pala(-na) Means to keep an eye on, guard, defend, or govern. 


      Chinta = to consider a thought via contemplation and introspection,  (Williams 1994; 1976). 



      Raksha Bandhan, a prominent Hindu event, is strongly linked to the pledge of care and the safety of the family. 


      • The sisters tie the rakhi, a kind of amulet, around their brothers' wrists as part of the festival's ceremonial to protect them from negative influences and to pray for their long life and happiness. 
      • The sisters are given a gift at this event. 
      • The ceremony's origins may be traced back to a Hindu folklore in which Draupadi tore a piece of her saree and wrapped it to Krishna's wrist, injuring him accidently. 
      • Its purpose was to halt or prevent bleeding. 
      • As a result, a link was formed between them. 
      • Krishna vowed to safeguard Draupadi in exchange. 



      Furthermore, the Raksha Bandhan celebration serves as an annual ritual. 



      It historically authorized the brothers to take duty for the care of their sisters in order to keep them from being harmed, and it signifies protection and caring among siblings. 


      Sama = balanced; when anything in its original healthy nature is injured, it should be balanced, according to Sanskrit. 


      Svastha is the Sanskrit word for "health" or "being in one's natural condition." • Santhi is a Sanskrit word that means "rest," "quiet," "peace," "tranquility," "bliss," and "comfort" (Williams 1994). 

        • The word svastha in Ayurveda refers to a person's overall health. 
        • It typically refers to a "state of being in which one's body, mind, spirit, and senses are all in happy harmony" (Yogapedia Dictionary 2020). 
        • As a result, health is defined as the physical well-being of a person, as well as mental, emotional, spiritual, and energetic inclinations. 
        • As a result, healing is defined as the comprehensive restoration of health. 
        • Despite this holistic approach, doctors' cures for illnesses are different from the spiritual part of healing. 



      Svasti is a Sanskrit term that means 'well-being.' It might also mean 'benefit.' Well-being refers to a sense of fulfillment and happiness in life, as well as an inner sense of harmony with our surroundings. 



      Meditation, according to Hindu belief, leads to an inner feeling of serenity and tranquility. 


      • It promotes a sense of well-being that is rooted deep inside oneself (Lovato 2019). 
      • Hindus are taught to consider well-being, a feeling of pleasure with life, as vital to a sense of purposefulness, rather than the pursuit of artificial kinds of enjoyment (Menon 2012: 2; 4). 
      • Holi, a full-moon Hindu celebration in which married women celebrate their happiness and the well-being of all family members, is an example of this. 



      Yoga is another aspect of the Hindu tradition's concept of well-being. 


      • It is said to provide people with a feeling of well-being, encouraging a sense of being 'whole.'

       


      Sources and practices of conceptualization in Hindu thought. 


      The Hindu scriptures and Indian cultural traditions both include notions of care, healing, and well-being. 


      Hinduism is blessed with various texts as one of the world's oldest existing faiths. 

      The benefit is that they all have a canon that is open-ended. 

      There are four Vedas, as well as Sutras, Epics, Codes of Law, and Sacred History, among other sources. 



      Philosophical Manuals and Sectarian Scriptures are also included with the Vedas. 



      In addition to many other literature that Hindu devotees religiously study, all of them are deemed to have either main or secondary scriptural value. 


      Vedangas, or Sutra literature, is taken straight from the Vedas and contains many of Hinduism's theological principles. 

      In Hindu religious thought, the concepts and practices of caring, healing, and well-being are implied in the Grhya and Dharma Sutras

      The former is concerned with household rituals, whereas the latter is concerned with socioreligious rules. 

      Many other Hindu beliefs and practices, such as samskaras, purushartha, paru;amahayajna, and varnaasramadharma, are intertwined with its different elements. 

       



      Hindu rites of passage: the practice of samskaras. 



      Meaningful life and dying via Hindu rites of passage: the practice of samskaras. 



      The Hindu sacraments, or rites of passage, are known as samskaras (Pandey 2001; Antoine 1996c) and span one's whole life span as well as the world beyond (transcendent dimension), starting with prenatal rituals and ending with post-mortem existence. 

      • According to ancient scholars, three key prenatal rituals lay the way for care to be offered to pregnant women and the unborn child in order to assure health and protection against evil. 
      • Early childhood or infancy samskaras are for the child's intellectual well-being, longevity, safety, and even adornment. 
      • With basic and secondary education, educational samskaras secure an individual's profession outside of the family, preparing them for active citizenship obligations. 
      • The marriage (vivaha) ceremony is the most important sacrament, through which a person fulfills socio-religious and family duties. 
      • The penultimate sacrament, the funeral ritual (antyeshthi), takes into account the needs of both the dead and the living. 
        • This ceremony expresses 'sublime feelings' that make death pleasant for the one who dies, as well as for the society to accept death and dying as an unavoidable occurrence. 



      A person's life is made up of a succession of events. 


      • In this way, the sacraments offer people in society with the care and protection they need. 
      • These sacraments are intended to mold one's personality and connect our humanity to religious significance. 
      • As a result, the concept of life passages was born. 
      • Their purpose is to aid in the expression of pleasure and grief. 
      • The sacraments support an individual's well-being in this manner. 



      Simultaneously, they contribute to an individual's growth as a "full-fledged social person" (Dandekar 1996: 142). 




      As a result, the Samskaras provide a complete vision of what constitutes a healthy life and personal well-being in Hindu traditional culture. 

      All of these rites of passage are described and formulated in the Grhya Sutras, which defines and formulates household or domestic rituals, which were historically performed at home and in which priests had a little part. 



      The relevance of these family ceremonies is eroding as a result of modernization of schooling and changing societal attitudes. 


      Even the practice of samskaras has become fragmented and has lost its uniting effect. 

      However, some of the customs are still followed, such as the singing of Vedic hymns and the offering of ceremonial fire during official ceremonies, as well as at private occasions when no religious person is present (Gengnagel and Husken eds. 2005). 




      In reality, only the most devout Hindu households still follow these samskaras to the letter. 


      Fortunately, despite secularization, most Hindus in modern society are still eager to participate in a number of these samskaras, such as the naming ceremony, the first feeding of the infant, initiation into education, marriage, and burial customs. 

      These rituals are often carried out with the assistance of a priest, albeit not always at the temple. 


      Well-being in the context of the individual-society interaction: Promoting 'Human Life Goals' (Purushartha). 

       



       The four ideals of purushartha (literally: 'goal' or 'end' of man/human [Antoine 1996a: 155156]), dharma, artha, kama, and moksha form a four-fold network about what life is about and its relationship to the universal human desire for meaning and purpose. 


      Dharma as a life aim encourages people to be virtuous, righteous, and morally and ethically responsible in all aspects of life. 

      • The quest of money and success is the theme of ArthaIt is the source of human life and existence. 

      Kama is a Sanskrit word that means "pleasure" or "enjoyment of life." It denotes the method of procreation and, as a result, humanity's survival. Both artha and kama, or money and pleasure, must be consistent with dharma. 

      Moksha is the Hindu term for emancipation, which is the ultimate purpose of existence. 


      A person who acquires money (artha) and enjoys and fulfills life's wants (kama) via virtuous and righteous ways (dharma) would, in theory, achieve nirvana (moksha). 


      These four life objectives are traditionally taught at the student/learning stage of life (brahmachari) and implemented in the householder stage ( Grhastha )  Purushartha is made up of all of these life objectives. 


      In this way, they establish a set of life objectives that must be met in order to live a meaningful life. 

      Life would be blank and pointless without these objectives. 

      As a result, the purushartha dharma defines an individual's well-being in society and fosters wholeness in the public arena of life, resulting in a healthy society. 



       

      Affectionate treatment of family members, other people, and other living things: The Great Five Sacrifices Or Yajnas (Panchamahayajnas). 


      Every day, a homeowner is obligated to do the five-fold mandatory sacrifices, or duties: 


      (a) Brahma Yajna, homage to Brahman, is performed by reading scripture; 

      (b) Pitr Yajna, homage to the ancestors, is performed by offering water; 

      (c) Deva Yajna, homage to the gods, is performed by offering homa sacrifices

      (d) Bhuta Yajna, homage to elements or other beings, is performed by feeding animals and birds; and 

      (e) Manusya Yajna (Antoine 1996b: 203). 


      Both Bhuta Yajna and Manu-D-'a Yajna are closely tied to an individual's obligation as a caretaker to fellow human beings, animals, and other species; failing to do so implies failing to do one's major daily required task, which may destroy the prospect of liberation, or moksha (the ultimate goal of life). 

      Pitra Yajna, according to Wilson Paluri (2020), is the 'reverential connection' with parents and elders, which is particularly important for the 'well-being' of family life. 


      In the Hindu family structure, caring for parents and the elderly is both a virtue and an obligation. 


      In Hindu tradition, "may mother be god to you, may father be god to you..., may visitors be god to you"10 is the ultimate state of being. 

      Bhuta Yajna, or the offering of food to all creatures, decreases egomaniacal tendencies in humans and cultivates the practice of giving one's assets for the benefit of all sentient beings in need (Dandekar 1996: 139). 

      Hindu traditional societies reflect these mahayajnas. 

      They place a premium on caring for parents and seniors, respecting visitors, offering hospitality to everyone, and defining the pursuit of human well-being. 


      Troublesome Issues to Consider 




      Without mentioning its limits, a discussion of care, healing, and well-being in Hindu thinking and traditional practices would be insufficient. 

      The majority of traditional customs are geared at men and the upper caste. 

      Many people from the disenfranchised, so-called lower caste populations, have been denied access to Vedic traditions because they had to settle for a 'lower religion.' Early Vedic religion is supposed to be simple yet deep, promoting society and gender equality. 

      It has generated hierarchical structures and inequalities throughout its history in order to serve the entrenched interests of rich groups. 

      The most exploited victims of such a discriminatory practice are women and members of indigenous groups (Tribals, adivasis, Dalits) (Devi 2000: 15). 

      Although the dynamic position of people from disadvantaged groups and women in general can be traced throughout Hindu history, the society adopted hierarchical and patriarchal structures (Krishnan 2020a). 

      Current Hindu cultures, on the other hand, are not static, but are subject to social development, which has an impact on the dynamic position of women and indigenous people in religion and society.



      Kiran Atma





      References And Further Reading.



      Antoine, R. 1996a. "Hindu Ethics: 1. General Ethics." In Religious Hinduism, edited by R. DeSrnet and J. Neuner, pp. 149-158. Murnbai: St. Pauls. 

      Antoine, R. 1996b. "Rituals and Worship". In Religious Hinduism, edited by R. DeSrnet and J. Neuner, pp. 200-209. Murnbai: St. Pauls. 

      Antoine, R. 1996c. "The Hindu Saril.skaras." In Religious Hinduism, edited by R. DeSrnet and J. Neuner, pp. 210-219. Murnbai: St. Pauls. 

      Arulsamy, S. 2000. Religion for a New Society. Delhi: ISPCK. 

      Bowker, John. (ed.) 1997. The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

      Braam, Arjan W., et al. 2006. "Cosmic Transcendence and Framework of Meaning in Life: Patterns Among Older Adults in The Netherlands." The Journals of Gerontology- Series B 61 (3),pp. 121-128. DOl: 10.1093/geronb/61.3.Sl21. 

      Capistrant, B.D., et al. 2015. "Culture and Caregiving for Older Adults in India: A Qualitative Study," The Gerontologist 5(2), p.ll2. DOl: 10.1093/geront/gnv504.06. 

      Chaudhuri, Nirad C. 2012. Hinduism: A Religion to Live By [1st edition 1979]. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. 

      Dandekar, R.N. 1996. ''The Role of Man in Hinduism." In The Religion of the Hindus, edited by Kenneth M organ [first published 19 53], pp. 11 7-153. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas. 

      Dasgupta, Surendranath. 1975. A History of Indian Philosophy, Vol. II [Cambridge Edition 1922], Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas. 

      Datta, Sukurnar. 2001. "Monasticisrn in India." In The Cultural Heritage of India, Vol. II, pp.582-593. Calcutta: The Rarnakrishna Mission Institute of Culture. 

      Devi, K.Urna. 2000. Women's Equality in India: A Myth or Reality? New Delhi: Discovering Publishing House. 

      Gautamananda, Swami. 2019. "Holistic Health." In Healthy Mind, Healthy Body: New Thoughts on Health [first published 1997] Chennai: Sri Ramakrishna Math, pp. 1-8. 

      Gengnagel, Jorg and Ute Hiisken (eds.) 2005. Words and Deeds: Hindu and Buddhist Rituals in 

      SouthAsia. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. 

      Griffith R. T. ( ed.) 1899. The Texts of the White Y ajurveda. https://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/wyv/index.htrn (accessed 13 Sept 2020). 

      Griswold, Harvey De Witt. 1996. Insights into Modern Hinduism. New Delhi: Aryan Books International. 

      Hall, C. Margaret. 1985. "Religion and Aging." Journal of Religion and Health 24(1 ), pp. 70-78. 

      Hinduscriptures. corn. 2021. "Hindu Samskaras." https://www.hinduscriptures.corn/vedic-culture/rituals/sixteen-sanskara/hindu-samskaras/11992/ (accessed 29 Sep 2021). 

      Ketchell, A., L. Pyles, and E. Canda. 2013. World Religious Views of Health and Healing. http://spiritualdiversity.ku.edu/sites/spiritualitydiversity.drupal.ku.edulfiles/docs/Health/World%20Religious%20Views%20of"/o20Health%20and%20Healing.pdf (accessed 10 Nov 2020). 

      Kimble, Melvin A., et al. (eds.) 1995. Aging, Spirituality and Religion: A Handbook. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. 

      Krishnan, Giri. 2020a. "Discovering the Dynamic Status ofWomen in Hindu Tradition: Re-reading of the Narratives of Hindu Women towards Gender Justice." UBS Journal (Union Biblical Seminary, Pune, India) 14(1), pp. 53-70. 

      Krishnan, Giri. 2020b. "Viinaprastha-Sannyiisa Schemes of Life as Gerotranscendence: An Appraisal of a Hindu Perspective of Ageing." In Ageing: Perspectival Explorations Towards Theo-Gerontology, edited by Songram Basurnatary, pp. 125-139. Chennai: Gurukul Publication. 

      Lamb, Sarah. 2005. "Cultural and Moral Values Surrounding Care and (In)Dependence in Late Life: Reflections from India in an Era of Global Modernity." Care Management Journals 6(2), pp. 80-89. 

      Lamb, Sarah. 2007. "Lives Outside the Family: Gender and the Rise of Elderly Residences in India." International Journal of Sociology of the Family 33(1), pp. 43-61. 

      Lamb, Sarah. 2019. "Hinduism Teachings and Aging." In Encyclopedia of Gerontology and Population Aging, edited by D. Gu and M. Dupre. DO I: 1 0.1007/978-3-319-69892-2~144-1. 

      Lovato, Chris. 2019. "Well-Being and Spirituality." In Healthy Mind, Healthy Body: New Thoughts on Health [first published 1997], pp. 147-151. Chennai: Sri Rarnakrishna Math. 

      Menon, Usha. 2012. "Hinduism, Happiness and Wellbeing: A Case Study of Adulthood in an Oriya Hindu Temple Town." In Happiness Across Cultures: Views of Happiness and Quality of Life in Non-Western Cultures, edited by H. Selin and G. Davey, pp. 417-434. Dordrecht: Springer. Manuscript with differing pagination online at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279409932 (accessed 25 Sep 2020), quoted from this online source. 

      Paluri, Wilson. 2020. "Familial and Community Care in Vrddhavastha: Socio-Religious Jarasastra from Classical Hinduism." In Ageing: P erspectival Explorations towards Theo-Gerontology, edited by S. Basurnatary, pp. 141-153. Chennai: Gurukul Publication. 

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      Pandya, Samta P. 2016. "Aging Spiritually: Pitamaha Sadans in India." Cogent Social Sciences 2(1 ). DO I: 10.1080/23311886.2016.1219212. 

      Pathshala. 2020. Overview of Hindu Healing Traditions. https://epgp.inflibnet.ac.in/epgpdata/uploads/epgp_content/S000825CR/POO1532/MO18441/ET/1483520083Text.pdf (accessed 10 Nov 2020). 

      Premsagar, P. Victor. 1994. "Vanaprasthasrama Dharrna: A Programme of Renewal and Religion as Realisation for Retired People." Bangalore Theological Forum 26(3&4), pp. 15-24. 

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      Roy, Mira. 1986. "Ayurveda." In The Cultural Heritage of India, Vol. VI: Science and Technology, edited by P. Ray and S.N. Sen, pp. 152-176. Calcutta: Rarnakrishna Mission Institute of Culture. 

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      Valiathan, M.S. 2015. "Healing in the Ramakrishna Tradition." In Total Human Development in the Light ofRamakrishna-Vivekananda Tradition, pp. 109-116. Kolkata: Ramakrishna Institute of Culture. 

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      WorldBookEncyclopedia. 1981. Vol. 21. Chicago: World Book, Inc. 

      Yogapedia Dictionary. 2020. "Svastha." https://www.yogapedia.com/definition/11783/svastha-ayurveda (accessed 10 Nov 2020).