Showing posts with label viparitakhyati. Show all posts
Showing posts with label viparitakhyati. Show all posts

Hinduism - What Is Viparitakhyati In Hindu And Indian Philosophy?


Viparitakhyati is a Sanskrit word that means "discrimination in the face of the law". 

Kumarila, a Mimamsa philosopher from the seventh century C.E., proposed a theory of error.


All theories of error seek to explain why people make mistakes in judgment, such as mistaking a silvery flash of seashell for a piece of silver, which is a common example.


Kumarila, like Prabhakara and the Naiyayikas, believes that the simple judgments "that object is silvery" and "silver is silvery" are both correct and unquestionable.

Kumarila also agrees with the Naiyayika that the error stems from a false discrimination.

The Naiyayikas postulate the inherence-relationship as a connecting sub jects and predicates ("silver color" and "silver").

This is where he differs from them.


Kumarila's theory is identity-and-difference (bhedabhada), which states that everything is what it is and not what it isn't.


As a result, the perception (pratyaksha) of a shell on the beach would include its similitudes and differences from silveriness, as well as silver's similitudes and differences from silveriness.

One can make a false judgment by combining similarities, or one can make a true judgment by combining differences.

The root cause of combining similarities rather than differences, as in the Naiyayika theory of error, is karmic dispositions arising from avidya, specifically the desire for silver, which drives us to seek out such valuable items.

For more information, see Bijayananda Kar's The Theories of Error in Indian Philosophy, published in 1978, and Karl H. Potter's Presuppositions of India's Philosophies, published in 1972.


~Kiran Atma


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Hinduism - What Is The Kumarila?

 


One of the two major commentators of Mimamsa philosophy, one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy, in the seventh century; the other notable commentator was Prabhakara.

The Mimamsa school was particularly concerned with the investigation and pursuit of dharma ("good deed"), for which followers felt the Vedas, the earliest Hindu religious books, offered all required teachings.

As a result, much of Mimamsa thinking is focused with textual interpretation principles and strategies for uncovering and interpreting Vedic instructions.

Despite the fact that both Kumarila and Prabhakara were dedicated to discovering the bounds of dharma through reading the Vedas, there are significant philosophical differences between them, which are most evident in their views of mistake.

Prabhakara starts with the assumption that there is a relatively weak correlation between an object and its characteristics, comparable to the Nyaya idea of inherence (samavaya).

A good example of this is the association of the color red with a certain ball, resulting in the ball being referred to as red.

False beliefs are the product of akhyati ("nondiscrimination," according to Prabhakara).

When a person sees two different items with the same qualities and decides that they are the same, this is what happens.

Kumarila is more in line with the bhedabhada ("identity and difference") philosophical stance, which asserts that everything has both identity and distinction with everything else.

Kumarila defines error as viparitakhyati ("contrary perception"), which occurs when a person incorrectly associates two objects' similarities rather than their differences.

For example, a person may wrongly assume that a silvery-colored shell is really a piece of silver because he or she chooses to concentrate on the similarities rather than the distinctions between the shell and silver.

People are compelled to make these decisions by karmic forces, such as silver greed.


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.