Showing posts with label Samkhya Philosophy. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Samkhya Philosophy. Show all posts

Hinduism - What Is Rajas Among The Gunas In The Samkhya Hindu Philosophy?

 

"Rajas" means "passion" in Sanskrit.

The other two gunas are sattva ("goodness") and tamas ("darkness"), which are said to be inherent in all things.

Different proportions of these characteristics, according to this paradigm, account for variances in the features of tangible objects as well as the spectrum of individual human capabilities and tendencies.

Unlike sattva and tamas, which have only positive and negative connotations, rajas and its consequences may be favorable or negative depending on the circumstances.

Rajas is unfavorable when it leads to slavery to the emotions, which may cause one to lose sight of deliberate and aware thinking.

Alternatively, the energy gained from passion might be channeled into productive activities.

Although much of the Samkhya metaphysics associated with the gunas has been disproved, the concept of the gunas and their attributes has remained a ubiquitous assumption in Indian society.


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Hinduism - Who Is Purusha In Hindu Samkhya Philosophy?


 ("individual") One of the Samkhya philosophical school's two essential initial principles, the other being prakrti ("nature").

The dual concepts of purusha and prakrti—roughly, spirit and nature—are the source of all things, according to Samkhya, an atheistic philosophical dualism.

Purusha is said to be cognizant, yet passive and unchangeable.

It is both a passive observer of the numerous prakrti transitions taking place around it and a source of consciousness.

Purusha is a term that refers to a person's actual Self (atman).

Given the multiplicity of aware beings and the reality that one individual may achieve complete enlightenment while the others remain in slavery, purusha is assumed to be numerous.

The ultimate root of bondage, according to the Samkhyas, is people's incapacity to discern between purusha and prakrti, and their identification of the Self with the latter rather than the former.

Samkhya, edited by Gerald Larson and Ram Shankar Bhattacharya, was published in 1987, and A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy, edited by Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Charles A. Moore, was published in 1957.


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Hinduism - What Is Kaivalya In The Samkhya And Yoga Hindu Philosophical Schools?

 

 (“isolation”) Kaivalya is the stage of ultimate emancipation in both Samkhya and Yoga, two of the six schools of Hindu philosophy.

The contrast between the aware but inert purusha, which is identified as the Self, and the active but unconscious prakrti is completely understood by a person who has acquired kaivalya.

According to Samkhya metaphysics, the growth of subjective awareness and the outside universe is triggered by misunderstanding between these two eternally separate principles, in which the eternal Self becomes the witness to successive rebirths.

The theoretical reason for bondage and soul release is provided by Samkhya, whilst the path to freedom is provided by Yoga.

The goal of yoga is to assist people discern between these two principles by reducing barriers to insight, especially karmic inclinations based in egoism.

Those who can distinguish between these two principles and discover the soul's oneness with the purusha achieve independence from all external causes, mastery over all states of being, and omniscience, according to the Yoga Sutras, the founding literature for the Yoga system.

Samkhya: A Dualist Tradition in Indian Philosophy, edited by Gerald Larson and Ram Shankar Bhattacharya, was published in 1987, and A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy, edited by Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Charles A. Moore, was published in 1957.



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Hinduism - What Is The Evil Eye, And Ego-Consciousness In Terms Of The Indian Samkhya Philosophy?


The Samkhya school of Indian philosophy's central concept. 

The Samkhya school employs an evolutionary theory to explain how humans see an inner world of subjective experience and an objective outside world, both of which it claims are not accurate elements of the actual, or fundamental, reality. 

Purusha and prakrti, according to Samkhya metaphysics, are the essence of the cosmos. 

Purusha is pure consciousness, which is aware yet unchanging and passive. 

Prakrti is primordial substance, which is a balance of three unconscious forces (gunas): sattva (goodness), rajas (passion), and tamas (disgust) (decay). 

According to the Samkhya, the conflation and confusion of purusha and prakrti is the fundamental reason of the soul's bonding to the reincarnation cycle (samsara), where purusha seems to be active and prakrti appears to be cognizant. 

While this mistake has no impact on purusha, it does cause prakrti to go through an evolutionary process in which it gets more differentiated, leading to even more uncertainty about the nature of the cosmos. 

When the primordial balance between the three gunas is disrupted, the first stage of development is termed mahat (“great one”); mahat is also known as buddhi, which is understood as the cognitive ability required for cognition. 

The development of ahamkar ("I-making"), in which one discovers the initial emotions of egoconsciousness, is aided by the mental processes eased by buddhi. 

With the rise of subjective feeling comes the division into subjective and objective worlds: on the one hand, ahamkar evolves the five subtle elements (tanmatras), which are the precursors of the gross elements, and on the other, it evolves the eleven faculties: five jnanendriyas or sense organs, five karmendriyas or action organs, and the mind as the eleventh. 

At emancipation, the evolutionary process is reversed, with the many devolving becoming the one one by one. 

Liberation occurs when a proper understanding replaces a faulty one, as it does in most Indian philosophical systems. 

Samkhya, edited by Gerald Larson and Ram Shankar Bhattacharya, was published in 1987, and A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy, edited by Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Charles A. Moore, was published in 1957. 



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