Showing posts with label work. Show all posts
Showing posts with label work. Show all posts

Yoga, Karma, And Ayurveda - What Is The Meaning Of Prakriti?

 



TABLE OF CONTENTS
PRAKRITI — UNDERSTANDING NATURE AND HARMONY'S FOUNDATION.
BEHAVIOR AND PRAKRITI.
PRAKRITI AND KARMA .
GETTING TO KNOW YOURSELF.
SATTVA FOR HARMONY AND BALANCE.
PERCEPTION OF OTHERS.
TEAMWORK AND PRAKRITI.
PERSONNEL SELECTION.
PROFESSION SELECTION BASED ON SAMSKARA, KARMA, AND PRAKRITI.




PRAKRITI — UNDERSTANDING NATURE AND HARMONY'S FOUNDATION. 



Here, I'm addressing Prakriti, or your True Inner Nature and Essence. 


  • Your prakriti is observed and manifest via your looks(outward appearance), base animalistic magnetism, behavioral inclinations or dispositions, lifestyle choices, current health, external environmental influences,  and personality characteristics
  • You know you should eat and live according to your prakriti, and the physical balance you strive to preserve via these multifaceted efforts also helps you maintain your mental equilibrium. 
  • In the Samkhya system (darshan) of Indian philosophy, Prakriti ( meaning  “nature,” or “source” in Sanskrit) is material nature in its primordial condition, everlasting and beyond perception. 
  • When prakriti (female) comes into touch with purusha (male), a process of evolution begins, leading to the formation of the current material universe via various stages. 
  • Prakriti is made up of three gunas (“matter qualities”), which are the cosmic elements that make up all of nature. 
  • Simply prakriti is active in the Samkhya perspective, whereas the spirit is contained inside it and only watches and experiences. 
  • The spirit's extrication from prakriti (moksha) is based on its own awareness of its complete distinction from it and non-involvement in it. 
  • The word svabhava (“own being”) was employed in early Indian philosophical writings to denote material nature in a similar way to prakriti.
  • To this point, I've just discussed the basic function of prakriti on an individual level. This element of Ayurvedic knowledge may also be used to a group. 



Working with this energy may help us establish a productive and pleasant work environment. 


  • Personality conflicts slow down productivity and create an uncomfortable environment. 
  • You may create a working group built on understanding and compassion for each other if you pay attention to the individuals you work with and attempt to understand them from their basic nature. 
  • You may also employ individuals based on their suitability and competence to do a certain task. 
  • You may also pair individuals together such that their personality types complement the rest of the group. 


You can prevent a lot of workplace conflicts and irritations, which means you'll like your job and look forward to coming to work. Let's have a look at how it works in practice. 





BEHAVIOR AND PRAKRITI. 



"He's exactly like he was when he was a kid," we hear older parents remark lovingly of their middle-aged children's responses and conduct. 


  • Couples often attempt to alter one other for the "better," thinking that the partner's personality would improve. 
  • They eventually quit up, declaring, "I have given up; he or she will never change." If you look about you or watch yourself, you'll see that some patterns of behaving and reacting are ingrained in you. 
  • For example, whether it's the doorbell, the phone, or responding to a question, you react in a certain manner. 
  • If you are a vata-dominant per son, you will respond fast throughout your life. 



The psychological characteristics of vata-dominant individuals remain a part of their existence until their final days of life under normal circumstances (non-pathological). 


  • Similarly, kapha-dominant individuals have sluggish reaction times and responses, a difficulty to make fast choices, and a proclivity for deferring tasks until the following day. 
  • Because their basic character is a part of who they are, you can't expect them to change into vata persons. 
  • Those who are naturally impatient cannot wait for their meals, and if they must, they get annoyed and angry— the pitta-type. 


The characteristics mentioned above are a component of an individual's prakriti, or basic nature. 

This style of acting and behavior is a part of the individual since childhood. 



All living creatures, are a mix of body and spirit. 


  • The soul is a non-physical energy that is the source of consciousness. 
  • Five components make up the material body.                                                                                         
  • When the five components are combined with the soul, a living creature emerges, with the need to execute all of the fundamental physical tasks. 


The doshas, or the three humors, are in charge of this job. In other words, the five components combine to create the three humors, which is why I believe the most accurate translation of the doshas is "three vital forces of the body," rather than humors. 





PRAKRITI AND KARMA .




Let's look at some deep elements of prakriti to figure out what's preset and what we can do to alter things. 


  • Prakriti is determined by the constitution — sperm, ovum, uterus, mother's diet and behavior, time, and the mahabhutas (the five funda mental components), according to Charaka. 
  • These are the conditions under which a person was born. 



Who makes the decisions about our birth circumstances? 



Prakriti, or even vikriti (since some individuals are born with an imbalance of the humors and are not healthy at birth), is derived from an individual's past karma, as well as previous karmic ties with other people, which put him or her into a certain birth circumstance. 


  • Samskara is the sum total of all past karma, and it is because of your samskara that you have behaved in a certain way or had a certain passion from infancy. 
  • This does not, however, imply that you are doomed to a certain future. 
  • Your independence is based on your sense of discretion, which allows you to go on with your karma. 
  • This implies you have the ability to substantiate your point based on the outcomes of previous actions. 
  • Previous karma is referred to as daiva, while current karma is referred to as purushakara in Ayurveda. 



You must strike a balance between your daiva and purushakara for good health, harmony, and serenity. 


  • Your daiva offers a particular landscape, and you construct your present and future with personal work — or your current karma. 
  • Even if you all respond differently on the job and come from various backgrounds and socioeconomic statuses, the individuals you work with create a sort of karmic group. 
  • People that work together in major cities like Paris, London, Berlin, or New York come from many ethnic groups from all over the globe. 



You must consider Karma while bringing Ayurveda to the workplace. 


  • You may bring peace and harmony to the group and learn to work together more effectively if you understand your karma. 
  • You will remain healthy if you work properly since you will not be annoyed by your colleagues! Let's have a look at what you can do to foster this understanding and peace. 
  • When I say "harmony," please understand that I mean "harmony with the nature of your job," "harmony with the location where you work," and "harmony with the group of which you are a member." 





GETTING TO KNOW YOURSELF. 



It would be beneficial if everyone in the work group took the time to learn about their constitutional type. 


  • That is unlikely to happen. However, if you want to take control of your life, you must become conscious of your own habits and conduct in relation to your prakriti. 
  • Only then will you be able to appreciate the freedom you have inside a particular framework. 
  • You will be able to help others in the same manner if you get to know yourself in terms of your prakriti and watch your behaviors and responses closely. 

This method will allow you to observe yourself without being too involved, since the basic concept of prakriti allows you to recognize your limitations and understand that time is not confined to one lifetime or the brief boundaries of your memory. 



You also learn to watch people within their limits, with greater compassion and sympathy, as a result of this knowledge. 



  • Despite the limitations of your basic nature, each of you may maintain your balance and achieve inner peace and harmony with your current karma. 
  • Peace and harmony must begin with everyone of you separately in a specific activity atmosphere.
  • Then you'll be able to open up and cope with your connections with others. 



One of the most important skills you can bring to a job is knowing where you belong in. 


  • By taking the time to accomplish this, you may drastically alter your circumstances. 
  • I'm certain you've discovered your basic essence, or prakriti. 
  • In the current situation, it is critical to examine your behaviors and responses in order to create positive adjustments. 


Keep in mind that prakriti transforms into vikriti, and your conduct may alter throughout the vikriti (non-health) cycle. 


  • It's essential not to mistake your "regular" prakriti with vikriti if you're trapped in a vikriti mood for an extended period of time. 
  • Let's say your life becomes very busy, you're having trouble sleeping, you're yawning during the day, and you're making rash choices. This is a vikriti condition. 


It's conceivable that you're a vata type who suffers from vata diseases due to a lack of vata. 


  • It's also possible that your prakriti isn't vata at all, but rather the result of an overly vata lifestyle. 
  • To figure out your prakriti, go back to your childhood behavior and reactions. 
  • In any instance, whether your prakriti is due to the dominance of the same out-of-balance humor or you have vikriti owing to another humor, you should first and foremost restore your health. 


Assume you are a healthy individual with vata prakriti. 


  • Your vata vitiates when there are vata weather conditions, such as high winds, or when you didn't get enough sleep, or when you were at a party till late at night, or when you ate the incorrect food. 
  • You feel confused and anxious, irritable and easily agitated, and make rash choices when in this condition. 
  • In terms of your work, this sort of energy isn't conducive to efficiency. 

You must learn to recognize these variables and take the appropriate measures to prevent yourself from harming your body. 


  • Furthermore, you should be aware that when you are not at your best, you should refrain from making critical choices. 
  • You should be able to assess your shortcomings and defects and put them into context.



As a writer, for example, if I discover, either through students or on my own, that I have made a mistake or written instructions in such a way that my students were unable to understand what I was trying to teach, I investigate the circumstances in which I wrote that particular copy in order to determine the factors that influenced my work that day. 


Was it an angry phone call I got while I was writing, which proved to be a stumbling block in my communication? 

Was it the extreme heat or vata vitiation?

Why didn't I maintain my sattva state while working? 


Analyzing the past will enable us to rectify our errors and avoid repeating them in the future. 



You are all aware that there are days when nothing seems to go as planned. 


  • You're not very productive at work, and you're also not particularly pleasant. 
  • There are times when you recognize this and say, "Well, since I was up late last night, or because I didn't digest my meal well, or because I didn't sleep very well owing to whatever reason, and so on." "I don't understand why I'm like this today," you may remark at other times.
  • During one menstrual cycle, women's humors may alter, and their behavior may change as a result. 
  • There are also many elements that may take you from a state of health (prakriti) to a state of non-health (vikriti). This has an impact on both your job and your interactions with people. 



When you recognize that you are out of balance, you should attempt to restore your health using all reasonable techniques available. 


  • The issue may also be dealt with on a mental level. 
  • Even when you are out of balance, you should always do your hardest: this is achievable with a sattvic mental state. 
  • When you are not in touch with your environment and have some subjective symptoms of illness, you may bring bad energy into the workplace, either directly or indirectly. 
  • You may potentially start a cycle of issues at work without realizing what's causing them. 


You've all had days when you remark to yourself, "Nothing works today!" The serenity and quiet of your thoughts may assist or prevent you from starting a sequence of unpleasant responses at these moments. 

When you become conscious that you are not functioning at your best, you may call on your spiritual energy to assist you in this difficult circumstance. 



Spiritual energy is a latent reservoir of energy inside us. 


  • You awaken this dormant reservoir of energy by momentarily closing your senses to the outer world and stopping this line of thinking. 
  • In reality, the soul's vitality isn't really "dormant" in the traditional meaning of the term. 
  • The spiritual force is constantly flowing from the soul, but worldly activities — which are dominated by rajas and tamas — create a blanket of darkness over it and obstruct its path. 
  • When you use personal effort and different yoga techniques to quiet your mind, the blanket of darkness dissipates, and you are led by energy from the soul. 
  • The tamasic characteristics (anger, impatience, jealousy, intolerance, etc.) vanish with the aid of this energy, and you are able to exhibit the virtues of compassion, love, tolerance, and so on. 
  • You may make an attempt to summon your sattvic energy to counteract undesirable characteristics that may be related to a brief condition of vikriti with some simple exercises. 



However, every effort should be made to move away from vikriti and into prakriti. 


  • If the different humors are out of balance, you may take the following urgent steps. 
  • Try to obtain quick rehef by drinking something hot, rubbing your ears, or sending prana to your head area if you have vata vitiation. 
  • Drink cold water or any cooling beverage if you have pitta vitiation, apply sandalwood paste to your forehead, and send prana energy to your solar plexus. 
  • If you're suffering from kapha vitiation, attempt some strenuous motions or quick walking, as well as rapid breathing exercises. 




SATTVA FOR HARMONY AND BALANCE. 



Sattva not only aids in the development of good characteristics when in vikriti, but also in bringing balance and harmony to daily life. 


  • Tolerance, love, and compassion are characteristics that contribute to a group's mutual understanding and support. 
  • On the one hand, these characteristics are essential for improving group efficiency, while on the other hand, they are necessary for individual originality. 
  • You will make errors no matter what the nature of your job is if you are angry, annoyed, or unhappy. 
  • One blunder leads to another, creating a vicious cycle of annoyance and rage. 
  • What I'm trying to say is that you should cultivate your mind's sattvic quality even if you're in perfect equilibrium. 



There are specific things that "we tend to do" in each of the seven kinds of prakritis. 


  • That is to say, each prakriti has its own set of negative traits, such as irritability, lethargy, intolerance, discontent, and so on. 
  • These characteristics may not show themselves in everyday life, but they may be elicited in a certain scenario. 
  • Even in highly charged situations, you should make an effort to maintain your balance by invoking sattva. 



I've included a few basic techniques that may be useful in this regard. 



To Achieve a Sattva State of Mind, Practice Breathing and Concentration 



1. Take a deep breath and direct prana energy into your solar plexus. 


    1. Allow it to remain there for as long as you can while focusing on the plexus area, which is where the soul resides. 
    2. Slowly and gently exhale. 
    3. Hold the lungs without air until all of the air has been expelled, while concentrating on the solar area. 
    4. This should be done three times. 
    5. Pronounce the mantra "OM shanti" at the conclusion of each breathing practice (universal peace, harmony, and stillness). 



2. Repeat the practice, but this time direct the prana energy to the head. 


    1. In the same manner, repeat the "OM shanti" mantra. 
    2. Repeat three times. 



3. Send prana energy to every area of your body during this last and third practice. 


    1. The energy should first travel from your head, then through your arms up to your hands, via your thorax and ab dominal area, and finally through your legs to your feet and toes. 
    2. Hold your breath and exhale gently and smoothly, allowing your energy to flow freely throughout your body. 
    3. Recite this mantra three times, remembering to say "OM shanti" each time. 
    4. Breathing nine times is part of these workouts. 
    5. In between, you may take a few more breaths. 
    6. It should take you no more than seven minutes to complete everything. 




PERCEPTION OF OTHERS.



You will begin to understand vikriti conduct once you have taught yourself to watch your acts and re actions in the context of your basic nature, or prakriti. 


  • At this stage, it's normal to see other individuals who share your viewpoint. 
  • It's a good idea to collaborate with your coworkers in the framework of their basic character. 
  • For example, if you have a vata personality and work with a kapha personality, don't get annoyed by their sluggish speed. 


Learn to have patience and consider the gradual development this individual may make as you move forward. 


  • People don't operate at your speed for a variety of reasons. 
  • Perhaps your colleague is dealing with personal issues. 
  • Consider one of your coworkers who is dreamy and absent-minded, who seems miserable, and who is unquestionably unproductive at work. 
  • This individual irritates you often. You hear from another colleague one day that this individual used to be extremely productive at work and always had a pleasant demeanor. 
  • She lost her 12-year-old kid in a car accident two years ago, and she hasn't been the same since. 
  • Your perspective about your coworker changes after hearing this sad tale, and you become more understanding and compassionate. 
  • Similarly, even if you are unaware of it, you may attempt to understand people who may have had previous life experiences in their own context. 



When people strive to understand one other's responses in the workplace, a sense of unity develops, and the group works on a more intimate level. 


This will motivate you to assist one another and to love and care for one another. 


  • My personal experience has shown that understanding others in the context of their prakriti has the benefit of reducing self-involvement and allowing individuals to accept their so-called negative characteristics without feeling ashamed, touchy, or sensitive. 
  • The group learns that some personality characteristics are connected to physiological responses and behavior patterns, and that pointing this out is not a form of condemnation. 
  • People also do not feel powerless since they recognize that there is a method to improve oneself that involves a shift in mindset or dietary habits. 


Let me give you an example to explain my point. 


In a group lecture, it is often difficult to call out people's personality characteristics. 

When I explain the three humors and how they operate at the body/mind level, however, the students begin to recognize and acknowledge their own unique qualities. 

They don't attempt to explain themselves by claiming that their rage is caused by the actions of others. 


When I suggest that kapha individuals put off work till the following day, or that they are daydreamers or sluggish, people readily accept it if they fit into this group.


  • They are ecstatic about the idea that they can change these traits by altering the foods they consume and incorporating certain yoga exercises into their daily routine, among other things. 
  • They no longer believe that their body and mind are two distinct things, or that they are in charge of their responses when they actually require nutritional advice. 


In a manner, the underlying emotions of guilt and self-blame are removed utilizing Ayurvedic knowledge of prakriti and personality types. 



People get a new feeling of independence and may begin to identify their own and others' traits. 


  • Knowing each other's prakriti may assist you cope with workplace interactions. 
  • There is a time and a place for everything. 


For example, you never ask a pitta person a question or discuss other work issues just before lunch. 

  • These individuals cannot tolerate hunger and get easily enraged just before a meal. 


Also, keep an eye on how you deal with pitta individuals when they come inside after being out in the sun. 


In windy conditions, Vata individuals get quickly tired. 

  • Allow them to unwind a little when they arrive at work while the wind is blowing. 


The kapha people are influenced by rainy, gloomy, dark winter days, therefore if you want to hold an important business meeting with them, invite them for a hot and spicy dinner. 



A rudimentary education in Ayurvedic knowledge may help to start a fruitful path of mutual understanding. 


  • People are sometimes perplexed by this style of thinking because it is so unlike to the mechanistic view of the world, body, mind, personality, and behavior. 
  • In every corporate scenario, a few easy changes may help create a more human and loving atmosphere, which leads to increased productivity and creativity. 




TEAMWORK AND PRAKRITI.



People in management positions may use these Ayurvedic principles to ensure that the appropriate people are in the right locations for effective management and productivity. 


They should look at people's prakriti before employing them for a certain position in this direction. 


For example, kapha people don't work well at night; pitta individuals don't perform well in hot nations doing field labor; and vata people don't work well outdoors in cold regions. 

    • Jobs that demand patience and tolerance will fit kapha personalities better. 

Pitta persons aren't often suited to such occupations. 

Vata individuals thrive in environments where fast responses are required. 



Management should avoid placing too many individuals of the same kind together when forming groups. 


  • An all-vata group may be confusing; add some kaphas to balance things out. 
  • When there are too many pittas together, particularly during the heat, it may lead to rage. 
  • An exclusive club of kaphas may create a sluggish environment in which nothing gets done fast. 


It is important to combine the various prakritis at work to prevent storm (vata), fire (pitta), and flood (kapha) situations. 

  • When working in pairs, however, avoid combining vata and kapha, since vata and pitta will be far more creative. 




PERSONNEL SELECTION.



It may be extremely helpful to observe the prakriti of new workers. 


  • It may assist you determine if the personality is appropriate for the kind of work you are providing, in addition to technical credentials. 
  • A profession that requires a lot of travel, for example, is not appropriate for kapha types since they are primarily house lovers. 
  • They may take the position and tell you that they are qualified, but there is a chance that they may get frustrated, which will ultimately impact their performance. 



Because of their impatience, Pitta persons may not be suited for retail sales management. 

Sales may fit kapha individuals better since they have greater patience and tolerance. 

When interacting with the general population, these two characteristics, patience and tolerance, are crucial. 



When we go to a job interview to recruit a new employee, we carry a lot of things with us. 


  • People who are hiring should be aware of the nature of the position, the specifics of the job description, and the other members of the team with whom they will be working. 
  • It's also crucial to understand how to assess individuals based on their outer look and conduct. 
  • The appearance of the skin, eyes, nails, and hair will reveal a variety of traits that may be used to classify people. 
  • The way individuals speak and respond in conversation provides more information. 
  • Although kapha individuals are sluggish to respond, they are less likely to misinterpret your remark than vata people are. 


By the time you reach the conclusion of a lengthy phrase, or if you speak about some element of the work for too long, fine-featured pitta types may indicate impatience — via facial expression. 




PROFESSION SELECTION BASED ON SAMSKARA, KARMA, AND PRAKRITI.




It would be beneficial if parents carefully watched their children and paid attention to the interests that "came from inside them," so that they could assist the children in choosing a career that was appropriate for them. 


  • Each of us has a unique samskara and therefore prakriti. 
  • It's possible that parents and children or siblings have different professional interests. 
  • It's very unusual for two siblings to have quite different interests and pursue careers in completely different areas. 



Parents should not force their own views on their children when it comes to choosing a career. 


  • Many parents feel compelled to impose a career on their children based on values such as "family honor or prestige," or simply the "convenience aspect" of an already established profession. 
  • As a result, not only do these people suffer for the rest of their lives as a result of being in the incorrect profession, but the harm is also compensated in far greater amounts. 


It has an impact on our whole society because those in the incorrect profession will continue to be frustrated on the job. 

Their general unhappiness will have an impact on their relationships with the individuals they deal with. In reality, this is a really important topic. You want to recruit individuals who will be pleased and productive as an employee and with their employer.




You may also want to read more about Ayurveda here.


You may also want to read more about Kundalini Yoga here.

You may also want to read more about Yoga here.


You may also want to read more about Yoga Asanas and Exercises here.


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.


COVID-19 Sectarianism and Prioritization of Issues



The second dimension of civility as public-mindedness, justificatory civility, is examined in this article. Although almost all liberal political theorists believe in moral civility, justificatory civility is most closely associated with the political liberalism strand of modern liberal philosophy. People in western democracy marked by fair pluralism and dissent, according to Rawls and other democratic liberals, have a "duty of civility" to justify to one another how the political rules "they defend and vote for may be accepted by the political ideals of popular purpose." Basic rights and liberties, as well as epistemic rules of investigation and scientific proof, are among the political ideals that are universally endorsed in western democracies. 

When defending policies and legislation, being civil in the justification sense means referring to these widely held principles. This is particularly true for politicians, who have a greater direct influence on decision-making than ordinary people. Appeals to contentious causes, such as those based on moral worldviews or faulty factual facts, on the other hand, are an example of justificatory incivility. This segment focuses on one way that certain political leaders abused justificatory civility during COVID-19: the promotion of sectarian goals and political ideologies. Sectarianism is diametrically opposed to open-mindedness and rationality. 



Rather than advancing the greater good, it means promoting the desires, beliefs, and aspirations of particular persons and communities within society. To be certain, not all liberals are concerned with the promotion of political ideologies based on divisive views and sectarian ambitions. For example, some opponents of political liberalism argue that imposing public purpose limits on political discourse and decision-making is antidemocratic. Others justify political perfectionism by saying that states should foster valuable concepts of the good life; they believe that public purpose obstructs this aim. For these opponents, the fact that a political party may promote a sectarian political ideology that only serves the needs of a certain social community, or that a politician may use theological reasoning to defend policies they support, does not constitute an issue for liberal democracy. 

We agree that sectarianism is a challenge for liberal democratic states and we believe in public reason liberalism. The remainder of this segment demonstrates how COVID-19 has placed new constraints on public-spirited conduct, allowing individuals and organizations to follow sectarian goals with greater ease. Horizontal and vertical sectarian political agendas The COVID-19 crisis has given some actors fresh chances to follow openly sectarian goals. Despite the fact that we are all facing the same public health issue, actors with different priorities and ambitions have tried to direct policy in ways that favor their own agendas over ones that will benefit the public good. It's important to differentiate between two types of sectarianism that have arisen as a result of the pandemic. 

The first, which we refer to as horizontal sectarianism, includes government leaders who have advanced legislative proposals based on their party's or voters' needs. In many cases, party politics has played a significant role in policy formulation and implementation. Many lawmakers have taken advantage of the current health crisis to further their own and their party's goals, as well as the interests of their supporters, rather than the greater welfare of the political nation. The US Senate, for example, failed to pass an emergency relief package because Democrats and Republicans couldn't compromise on those clauses, such as corporate stock buybacks and executive compensation, unemployment benefits, and job security. Furthermore, in the run-up to the November US presidential elections, political considerations tended to affect pandemic policies. 

The formulation and execution of successful and politically justified policy solutions to the pandemic have been hampered by sectarian interests and a lack of unity across partisan lines. The decision to have Trump's name on stimulus checks sent to millions of US people to help them cope with the economic consequences of the pandemic is another sign of horizontal sectarianism. Although the economic stimulus is a fair and socially supported reaction to COVID-19, aimed at fostering economic prosperity and saving employment, Trump's politicization of the stimulus seems to be difficult to explain based on good justification, and appears to be mostly motivated by his personal and ideological political interests. Photo. President Donald J. Trump's name was on a US economic stimulus check. Another example of lateral sectarianism is using contentious theological reasoning to explain opposition to mask-wearing laws. 

According to a new survey, in the United States, resistance to wearing a mask and other careful behaviors is often linked to a conservative Christian heritage. Consider the following quote from Ohio state senator Nino Vitale, who made the following remark in May: This is the largest nation on the face of the planet, built on Judeo-Christian values. All of these beliefs is that we are all made of God's likeness and portrait. Our eyes are drawn to the picture the most. I'm not going to wear a mask... That is God's picture in action, and I want to see that in my brothers and sisters as well. Vitale's comment includes a strong reference to a divisive theological argument that will be rejected by atheists and, potentially, other religious believers who do not share his interpretation of Judeo-Christian beliefs. It is simply an example of justifiable incivility founded on a sectarian and contentious religious ideology in this context. 

During the current pandemic, we have seen vertical sectarianism in addition to horizontal sectarianism. Vertical sectarianism entails a particular decision-making level within a multi-level political framework, rather than the use of controversial theories or the promotion of the interests of a specific faction or segment of society. For example, when Italy demanded medical assistance and supplies from other EU member states at the start of the pandemic, those countries did not respond. This "shameful lack of unity" demonstrated a blatant disregard for their own national interests, obstructing the achievement of a public-spirited target at the EU level. 

If the EU is considered the appropriate constituency of public reason in this case, it is difficult to see how such a response might be publicly justified. The same point may be made in other situations where national interests are prioritized above those of the international community, including where coordinated intervention and cooperation seem to be the public-spirited responses required to address a crisis like the current pandemic. Of necessity, we recognize that the question of whether public cause and public rationale can extend beyond the conventional nation-state is already being debated. However, we believe that, at least in the sense of a political and economic union like the EU, notions of justifying civility, sectarian claims, and public-mindedness are becoming more relevant. The vertical component of sectarianism, however, is perhaps most evident within the nation-state, which is the conventional place of popular purpose. 

The advancement of policy agendas based on the needs of particular provincial or state subunits in relation to the national or federal level is what this dimension entails. In the United States, for example, partisan interests seem to have motivated the distribution of economic relief services to various states, often favoring Republican states less threatened by the pandemic over Democratic states facing urgent difficulties. This example also shows how sectarianism's horizontal and vertical axes are often intertwined. Horizontal partisan preferences propelled conflict at the vertical level of government in this situation. In April, several US states developed alliances such as the West Coast Pact and the East Coast Consortium to address President Trump's downplayed COVID-19 vulnerability appraisal and insistence on reopening for industry, reigniting the country's perennial controversy about states' rights.


Regardless of the substance of the disagreement, this indicates a legislative approach that prioritizes the interests of individual states or groups of states over the overall national political culture, as justificatory civility and collective cause would require. However, in other situations, the interests of individual states or sub-units have been presented as being linked to (rather than competing with) the national interest. In July, the Australian Government's Acting Chief Medical Officer, Professor Paul Kelly, voiced his concern about a recent COVID-19 outbreak in the state of Victoria, saying, "This latest outbreak is not a Victorian problem." It's a national problem. It is an epidemic that affects everybody. The Commonwealth and several states and territories are assisting in monitoring, contact tracking, and public engagement. Several hundred health and other personnel are assisting with testing, contact tracing, and public engagement. This national response to combat the virus gives me much hope – yet, to be honest, it doesn't surprise me in the least. 

To summarize, we have seen in this section that when political leaders use controversial principles or partial (e.g., personal, partisan, or local) preferences to justify or criticize laws and policies relevant to COVID-19, they threaten democratic rationale and violate justificatory civility. It is important to note that the justifications for sectarian policies are not necessarily clear. However, it is frequently possible to conclude whether a policy may be justified by pointing to societal motives from the policy itself and/or the wider behavior of the related political actor. In certain cases, implementing a strategy that explicitly serves the interests of a certain political party or individual is unlikely to be deemed justifiable civility. Confronting sectarianism can take two ways, both during COVID-19 and in general. 

The first step entails developing and improving structural structures to avoid the erosion of justifiable civility. For example, judicial entities such as the United States Supreme Court, which Rawls regards as the "exemplar of public justification," will act as a check on laws that promote sectarian religious beliefs. Similarly, structural responses to resolve conflicts at various levels of government would necessitate opposing partisan players acknowledging the extent of their rights and responsibilities at each level. There should be consistent lines of contact between the parties engaged in a conflict and effective procedures for its settlement where there are uncertainties or conflicts at various levels of government. 

The second type of approach to sectarianism entails encouraging leaders and people to follow the religious obligation of justificatory civility. Remember, the responsibility requires people to protect the democratic principles they defend by referring to common political ideals of collective reason. Schools and other educational institutions may play an important role in instilling the virtue of justificatory civility in adolescents, for example, by familiarizing them with core constitutional concepts that embody common societal values. People should use such concepts as the shared language of collective argument when engaging in the process of democratic justification in the political arena. Another option is to create or improve platforms for people to participate in decision-making, such as dialogue systems or deliberative forums. 

In the spirit of justificatory civility, it will inspire politicians and people to develop reasoned and other-regarding views on political issues, motivated by the value of reciprocity.




COVID-19 Hate and Discrimination in the Public Sphere


In the public domain more generally, the pandemic has intensified religiously uncivil acts of prejudice and hate. We also seen an increase in blatant anti-Chinese bigotry and racist cases in many parts of the world as a result of the virus's geographic roots. Stop AAPI (Asian American and Pacific Islander) Hate has gathered data on incidents in the United States to demonstrate the scope of the issue, who it impacts, and where these types of incidents occur. According to descriptive figures in a recent US survey, the most prevalent forms of abuse are verbal harassment in workplaces and on the street, which overwhelmingly affect women. 

The report's qualitative data contains illustrative instances. 'I'm a hospital professional,' one New York City plaintiff recalled. On the metro, I saw a man without a mask sitting across from me. He led me on the other side of the train compartment. On the subway, he spit and coughed while shouting racist slurs. There was no one who stood up for me.' ‘I was in line at the pharmacy when a lady hit me and poured Lysol all over me,' said another survivor in Georgia. “[y]ou're the infection,” she screamed. Return to your house. “You are not welcome here!” As I walked out of the house, I was in shock and sobbed. Nobody comes to my aid.' Some of the terminology used by political figures in the media to characterize COVID-19, such as "kung flu" and "China virus," can embolden those who might engage in more blatant acts of bigotry and racism in the public domain. 

Hate and prejudice cases also represent pre-existing social divisions based on race, gender, and other factors. When we met with Erin Wen Ai Chew, the Founder and National Convener of the Asian Australian Alliance, she said, "COVID-19 is not the source of anti-Asian rhetoric; it's just a sign of a larger crisis." The pandemic, on the other hand, has both escalated and normalized those events. 

This tense atmosphere has been fueled by leaders from various political parties across the political spectrum. Public views against people with Chinese ancestry and other Asian backgrounds have been exacerbated by media messaging and wider geopolitical conflicts. This social and political environment, as Erin Wen Ai Chew points out, "has normalized the notion that it's cool to wander around, that if you see an Asian person walking down the street, it's okay to name them "the Chinese flu," and it's okay to warn them not to eat dogs, bats, or some sort of wild species." As a result, the concept has become much more mainstream, especially during COVID. Individuals and organizations may have additional ways to promote agendas inspired by religious and ethnic animosity as a result of the pandemic. Some, for example, have used increased media ‘strain' to promote Islamophobic messaging. Key "trigger" incidents, such as the current COVID-19 crisis, will cause surges in both offline and online anti-Muslim sentiment. 

Many ethnic organizations fall under the same category. According to Tel Aviv University researchers, the pandemic "unleashed a unique worldwide surge of antisemitism." Conspiracy theories and disinformation fuel prejudices and may contribute to erroneous guilt attributions aimed against religious communities. According to a survey of the English population conducted by Oxford University, almost a quarter of respondents agree to some degree with the assertions that "Jews developed the virus to crash the economy for financial benefit" and "Muslims are spreading the virus as an assault on Western principles." 

The wider far-right has been particularly interested in using COVID-19 to further a variety of goals. Far-right parties have blended populist and anti-egalitarian rhetoric into their media commentary on the global pandemic in Australia, where the far-right mainly pursues a complex and changing anti-Islam, cultural, and ethnic hegemony platform. 

Anti-Chinese bigotry is common, as is anti-globalist propaganda directed at organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO). Public myths of self-sufficiency and alienation that surface as a result of the global pandemic can now resonate with more Australians, whose views on globalization are nearly doubled from percent in to percent in. Countries facing parallel changes in public opinion must be proactive in addressing and counteracting socially uncivil expression and actions associated with populist and anti-globalization views and policies. As a result of the COVID-19 virus's disruption of social and political life, ideologies promoting xenophobia, bigotry, and religious intolerance could find a more welcoming audience. 




Outside of the public health crisis, leaders may learn from tactics to tackle hate speech and behavior. A plan of action, for example, would enable officials and partner organizations to track and analyze data, recognize and resolve root causes, collaborate with a variety of civil society groups to create cross-sector coalitions, and integrate media and emerging technology into the development of program delivery tools. States must collect data in order to analyze and comprehend the problem. This campaigns will help raise concerns of bigotry and hate crimes while also offering a more solid factual basis for policy recommendations. Solutions will range from voluntary programs to more concrete policies aimed at better protecting victims and prosecuting offenders through the rule of law (e.g., updated anti-racism legislation). 

Governments should also be aware of some of the limitations imposed by structural responses. While a government may pass laws, make rules, and set procedures to combat bigotry and hatred in general, it might not be prepared to respond to micro-incidents. The Australian Human Rights Commission, for example, uses a conciliatory or reconciliation mechanism to handle those cases. Because of the limits of mobility and face-to-face contact, it is impossible that a suspect and survivor will consent to participate in this sort of process during normal times, and much less likely in a case like a pandemic.



COVID-19 Workplace Discrimination





Moral incivility in the workplace may be a "veiled expression of discrimination and bigotry" in normal times, putting certain workers at a disadvantage. This type of workplace incivility is distinct from the impoliteness factor. It is about different types of bigotry, sexism, and injustice faced by certain individuals in the workplace, rather than politeness standards of conversation that act as a social lubricant.

COVID-19 has the potential to increase organizational moral incivility by unequal behavior and results. The virus's roots, for example, have resulted in unfair treatment of workers with HIV.


Backgrounds of Asia. One employee in Monterey, California, characterized his or her experience as follows:


I was the only Asian American at a job party, and I had an allergic reaction that day. When she saw me sneeze, she told me I couldn't be there, that I wanted to go, and that I shouldn't eat any of the convention's coffee or cookies. When other participants in the conference were sneezing, sniffling, and coughing, she singled me out.

The pandemic could also put a burden on hard-won progress on gender equality. Changes in working conditions and procedures, in certain ways, overwhelmingly impact certain classes.

The gender factor illustrates disparities in workplace stability, access to economic assistance programming, increased safety threats in some occupations with a greater proportion of woman employees (e.g., nursing, aged care, social work), and improvements to meet new parenting obligations.

Companies in a variety of industries have had to deal with the pressures to respond to the "new standard." In this new environment, large corporations have had to make health and safety decisions, and others have implemented controversial measures that could be unfair. For example, one mining firm was accused of ageism and bigotry after employees of a certain age or indigenous origin were ordered to stay at home. While the company justified its actions as a way to reduce risk to populations seen as more vulnerable to transmission and to the negative health effects of COVID-19, not everyone found this explanation persuasive. In the United States, the American Bar Association anticipates a "flood" of age abuse cases in the near future.



The pandemic has created new decision-making scenarios, such as occupational COVID-19 testing, choices for leave-of-absence demands, and rehiring procedures, where companies must be particularly vigilant to prevent discriminatory behavior. Employers will be required to make extra accommodations for vulnerable workers who continue to see dangers of returning to work after the pandemic has passed.

Steps must be taken to monitor and mitigate the pandemic's impacts on racist policies in the short term, as well as their implications for wider disparities. Employers must stand firm in the face of what may be a potentially disastrous situation.