Showing posts with label Vedanta. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Vedanta. Show all posts

Hinduism - What Is Viparitakhyati In Hindu And Indian Philosophy?

Viparitakhyati is a Sanskrit word that means "discrimination in the face of the law". 

Kumarila, a Mimamsa philosopher from the seventh century C.E., proposed a theory of error.

All theories of error seek to explain why people make mistakes in judgment, such as mistaking a silvery flash of seashell for a piece of silver, which is a common example.

Kumarila, like Prabhakara and the Naiyayikas, believes that the simple judgments "that object is silvery" and "silver is silvery" are both correct and unquestionable.

Kumarila also agrees with the Naiyayika that the error stems from a false discrimination.

The Naiyayikas postulate the inherence-relationship as a connecting sub jects and predicates ("silver color" and "silver").

This is where he differs from them.

Kumarila's theory is identity-and-difference (bhedabhada), which states that everything is what it is and not what it isn't.

As a result, the perception (pratyaksha) of a shell on the beach would include its similitudes and differences from silveriness, as well as silver's similitudes and differences from silveriness.

One can make a false judgment by combining similarities, or one can make a true judgment by combining differences.

The root cause of combining similarities rather than differences, as in the Naiyayika theory of error, is karmic dispositions arising from avidya, specifically the desire for silver, which drives us to seek out such valuable items.

For more information, see Bijayananda Kar's The Theories of Error in Indian Philosophy, published in 1978, and Karl H. Potter's Presuppositions of India's Philosophies, published in 1972.

~Kiran Atma

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Hinduism - What Is The Vedanta Society?


The oldest Hindu missionary organization in America, established in 1897 by Swami Vivekananda.

The society stresses the philosophical teachings of Vedanta, which it understands as referring solely to the Advaita Vedanta school, Vivekananda’s major emphasis.

The society’s tone has been nontheistic, nonritual, and rationalist; its constituency has been drawn from liberals and intellectuals, such as the writer Aldous Huxley.

~Kiran Atma

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Hinduism - What Is Vedanta School Of Hindu Philosophy?


The sixth and most recent of traditional Hindu philosophy's six schools.

Vedanta literally translates to "the end of the Vedas," reflecting their belief that they were unveiling the final meaning of these ancient books.

The Upanishads, which were also the final layer of Vedic books, and therefore their "end" in a different sense, were given special attention by Vedanta proponents.

Several prominent schools with significantly differing philosophical perspectives have used these works as authoritative sources.

The Advaita Vedanta school, founded by the philosopher Shankaracharya and his disciples, is the most well-known and influential of them.

The Advaita school adheres to the philosophical viewpoint of monism, or the belief in a single impersonal Ultimate Reality known as Brahman.

Despite the appearance of distinction and diversity, Advaita proponents believe that reality is "nondual" (advaita), that is, all things are nothing but the formless, unqualified Brahman.

This assumption of variety, according to Advaitins, is a basic misunderstanding of the ultimate essence of things, as well as a sign of avidya.

Although frequently translated as "ignorance," avidya is more accurately defined as a lack of genuine understanding that traps humans in karmic bonds, reincarnation (samsara), and suffering.

Unlike the Advaita school, which views the Ultimate Reality in abstract, impersonal terms, the other Vedanta schools are theistic, in that they regard the Ultimate Reality as a personal God, namely Vishnu.

The two other major schools are the Vishishthadvaita vedanta (“qualified nondualism”) pro pounded by Ramanuja and the Dvaita Vedanta (“dualist”) propounded by Madhva.

The major differences between these two schools stem from assumptions about connections between God, human souls, and the world.

Ramanuja tends to see these in a continuum, with the world and human souls sharing in the divine nature, whereas Madhva stresses the great gulf between God and all other things.

Another minor school is the dvaitadvaita vedanta (“dualism and nondualism”) of Nimbarka, which strives to find some middle ground between Advaita Vedanta’s monism, and Dvaita Vedanta’s dualism.

Nimbarka stressed that the world and souls were dependent on God, in whom they exist, and with whom they had a subtle connection.

Even from their names, it is obvious that there are significant differences between these positions.

~Kiran Atma

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Hinduism - Who Was Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan?


Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1888–1975) Indian philosopher and politician of the modern era.

Radhakrishnan, like many other wealthy Indians of his period, attended Christian missionary schools, and the difference between his Hindu upbringing and the Christian ideology he learned at school prompted his interest in comparative philosophy.

He spent the remainder of his life as a translator and advocate for traditional Hindu thinking, notably the Vedanta school, as well as a proponent of philosophical idealism, the belief that ultimate truth may be discovered only via intuition.

He served as vice president of India from 1952 to 1962 and as president from 1962 to 1967, in addition to his career as a college professor and administrator.

See his An Idealist View of Life, 1981; Paul A. Schilpp, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan's Philosophy, 1952; and Robert N. Minor, "Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and 'Hinduism' Defined and Defended," in Robert D. Baird (ed. ), Religion in Modern India, 1998.

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