Showing posts with label Shankaracharya. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Shankaracharya. Show all posts

Hinduism - What Is Vivarana Advaita?

 


Vivarana Advaita  is a Sanskrit phrase that means "to live in the present moment."

Shankaracharya was the greatest figure in one of the later Advaita Vedanta schools, a philosophical school.

The Advaita school adheres to the philosophical position of monism, which is the belief in a single impersonal Ultimate Reality, which they refer to as Brahman.

Despite the appearance of difference and diversity in the perceptible world, Advaita proponents believe that reality is "nondual" (advaita), that is, all things are nothing but the formless Brahman.

This assumption of diversity is a manifestation of avidya for Advaitins, who believe it is a fundamental mental misunderstanding of the ultimate nature of things.

Although frequently translated as "ignorance," avidya refers to a lack of genuine understanding that leads to karmic bonds, reincarnation (samsara), and suffering.

Because the Advaitins' real problem is this erroneous understanding, realization (jnana) was the most effective spiritual path for achieving ultimate liberation (moksha).

The Vivarana Advaita school is based on the ideas of Padmapada (9th century), one of Shankaracharya's disciples, but takes its name from a commentary written by Prakashatman in the thirteenth century.

Traditionally, the latter was a Padmapada disciple, but this appears to be problematic.

The Vivarana school, like the Bhamati school, took firm positions on a number of issues where Shankaracharya had been silent.

One of these was on the locus of ignorance, described by the Vivarana school as being in Brahman.

The Vivarana Advaitins use the theory of reflectionism to explain the apparent difference between Brahman and the Self, despite the fact that the Selves are identical with Brahman, because it appears to compromise the integrity of Brahman.

Their position appears to be based on an unwavering affirmation of Brahman as the sole "reality," to which everything that exists must belong.


Kiran Atma


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Hinduism - What Is Vedanta School Of Hindu Philosophy?

 

The sixth and most recent of traditional Hindu philosophy's six schools.


Vedanta literally translates to "the end of the Vedas," reflecting their belief that they were unveiling the final meaning of these ancient books.


The Upanishads, which were also the final layer of Vedic books, and therefore their "end" in a different sense, were given special attention by Vedanta proponents.

Several prominent schools with significantly differing philosophical perspectives have used these works as authoritative sources.

The Advaita Vedanta school, founded by the philosopher Shankaracharya and his disciples, is the most well-known and influential of them.


The Advaita school adheres to the philosophical viewpoint of monism, or the belief in a single impersonal Ultimate Reality known as Brahman.

Despite the appearance of distinction and diversity, Advaita proponents believe that reality is "nondual" (advaita), that is, all things are nothing but the formless, unqualified Brahman.

This assumption of variety, according to Advaitins, is a basic misunderstanding of the ultimate essence of things, as well as a sign of avidya.

Although frequently translated as "ignorance," avidya is more accurately defined as a lack of genuine understanding that traps humans in karmic bonds, reincarnation (samsara), and suffering.

Unlike the Advaita school, which views the Ultimate Reality in abstract, impersonal terms, the other Vedanta schools are theistic, in that they regard the Ultimate Reality as a personal God, namely Vishnu.


The two other major schools are the Vishishthadvaita vedanta (“qualified nondualism”) pro pounded by Ramanuja and the Dvaita Vedanta (“dualist”) propounded by Madhva.


The major differences between these two schools stem from assumptions about connections between God, human souls, and the world.

Ramanuja tends to see these in a continuum, with the world and human souls sharing in the divine nature, whereas Madhva stresses the great gulf between God and all other things.

Another minor school is the dvaitadvaita vedanta (“dualism and nondualism”) of Nimbarka, which strives to find some middle ground between Advaita Vedanta’s monism, and Dvaita Vedanta’s dualism.

Nimbarka stressed that the world and souls were dependent on God, in whom they exist, and with whom they had a subtle connection.

Even from their names, it is obvious that there are significant differences between these positions.


~Kiran Atma


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Hinduism - Who Was Sureshvara In Hindu Philosophy?

 

 

Advaita Vedanta philosopher, one of two documented pupils of Shankaracharya (788–820? ), the other being Padmapada.

The Advaita school believes in monism, which is the concept that there is a single Ultimate Reality that lies underlying all things, and that all things are only different expressions of that reality.

Advaita proponents exhibit this idea by claiming that reality is nondual (advaita), that is, that all things are nothing but the formless, unqualified Brahman, despite the appearance of diversity and variety.

The idea that the universe is actual as seen is a basic misunderstanding of the ultimate essence of things, according to Advaita proponents, and an evidence of avidya.

Although typically interpreted as "ignorance," avidya refers to a lack of genuine insight that leads to karmic bonds, rebirth (samsara), and pain.

Sureshvara is the sole explicit proponent of jump philosophy in Hindu thinking, however aspects of it may be seen in other Advaita Vedanta thinkers, notably in his instructor.

The leap philosophy asserts that complete freedom from bondage, which is defined in the Indian context as the end of rebirth and full release of the soul (moksha), may be attained, but that such freedom cannot be attained by a perfectly determined sequence of causes and consequences.

Since the ultimate issue arises from one's erroneous understanding, the only solution, according to Sureshvara, is pure, accurate knowledge.

Sureshvara's approach, such as it is, is to utilize a negative dialectic to clearly define what the Self is not, and then to obtain a flash of mystic insight by hearing one of the mahavakyas ("great utterances") that connect the Self with Brahman once one's mind has been pre pared.

Sureshvara asserts that actions have no place in this process since action is inextricably linked to the world and is tainted by ignorance.

For further detail, see A. J. Alston's translation of Sri Suresvara's Naiskarmya Siddhi, published in 1959, and Karl H. Potter's ed. of Advaita Vedanta up to Samkara and His Pupils, published in 1981.


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Hinduism - Who Are The Rawal Among (Nambudiri) Brahmins?

The top priest (pujari) of the Badrinath temple in the Himalayas is known as Rawal.

The Rawal is generally a Nambudiri brahmin who, in order to keep his rank, must stay unmarried.

Badrinath is one of the four dhams ("divine abodes") associated with the philosopher Shankaracharya, according to Hindu tradition.

Shankaracharya reportedly designated one Hindu holy location in each corner of the subcontinent, and at each created a Dashanami Sanyasi monastic institution (math) to teach scholarly monks, in order to counteract the spread of Buddhism and rejuvenate Hindu religion.

Badrinath is linked to the Jyotir Math in Joshimath, Himalayan town forty miles south of Badrinath, which is also where the god Badrinath is symbolically moved for the winter.

According to Badrinath temple records, Dandi Sanyasis, who were also Nambudiri brahmins, occupied the post of chief priest for many hundred years, the same caste into which Shankaracharya is said to have been born.

When the last of them, a non-ascetic Nambudiri brahmin, died without a successor in 1776, the shrine's protector allowed a non-ascetic Nambudiri brahmin to serve as the temple's priest.

This priest was granted the title rawal (from the term raja, which means "deputy"), and his extended family has been in charge of the shrine ever since.

The rawal was the only person who could touch Badrinath's picture and was in charge of conducting worship during the six months the temple was open.

Because of these responsibilities, the rawal was compelled to remain a bachelor, lest the ceremonial impurity associated with childbirth (sutakashaucha) prevent him from performing his obligations.

The rawals held exclusive rights to the offerings presented at the shrine until the Badrinath Temple Act of 1939 established a temple board as the final authority.


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Hinduism - Where Is The Jyotir Math(Mutt) Located? What Are Three Important Maths In India?

 


The Sharada math, Shringeri math, and Govardhan math are the other three maths(mutts) or holy places said to have been built by the renowned scholar Shankaracharya.

The Jyotir math located in the northern quarter, in the town of Joshimath in the state of Uttar Pradesh, high in the Himalaya Mountains, and is related with one of the four geographical corners of the Indian subcontinent.

The Dashanami Sanyasis, the most prominent Hindu ascetic order, is said to have been founded by Shankaracharya.

The Dashanami ("ten names") ascetics are Shiva's worshippers (bhakta) who are divided into 10 divisions, each with its own name.

The 10 divisions are divided into four groups: Anandawara, Bhogawara, Bhuriwara, and Kitawara, each of which contains two or three of the ten divisions and is linked to one of the four holy centers.

The Anandawara group of the Dashanamis is related with the Jyotir math.


 


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Hinduism - What Are The Four Dhams Built By The great Hindu Philosopher Shankaracharya?

 


Four Dhams  is a Sanskrit word that means  ("[divine] dwellings").

Four significant pilgrimage destinations in India's four geographical corners, which define the holy topography of the country: Badrinath in the Himalayas, Puri on the Bay of Bengal in the east, Rameshvaram in the south, and Dwaraka in the west. 


Each location is associated with one of the four Sanyasi mutts, all of which are said to have been built by the great philosopher Shankaracharya: 


  • Jyotir math in Joshimath (approximately 35 miles south of Badrinath), 
  • Govardhan math in Puri, 
  • Sharada math in Dwaraka, 
  • and Shringeri math in Rameshvaram (in Shringeri). 

The first three mutts are near to the holy locations (tirthas) connected with them, while Shringeri is around 450 kilometers distant from Rameshvaram. 



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