Showing posts with label samsara. Show all posts
Showing posts with label samsara. Show all posts

Hinduism - Who Was Sureshvara In Hindu Philosophy?

 

 

Advaita Vedanta philosopher, one of two documented pupils of Shankaracharya (788–820? ), the other being Padmapada.

The Advaita school believes in monism, which is the concept that there is a single Ultimate Reality that lies underlying all things, and that all things are only different expressions of that reality.

Advaita proponents exhibit this idea by claiming that reality is nondual (advaita), that is, that all things are nothing but the formless, unqualified Brahman, despite the appearance of diversity and variety.

The idea that the universe is actual as seen is a basic misunderstanding of the ultimate essence of things, according to Advaita proponents, and an evidence of avidya.

Although typically interpreted as "ignorance," avidya refers to a lack of genuine insight that leads to karmic bonds, rebirth (samsara), and pain.

Sureshvara is the sole explicit proponent of jump philosophy in Hindu thinking, however aspects of it may be seen in other Advaita Vedanta thinkers, notably in his instructor.

The leap philosophy asserts that complete freedom from bondage, which is defined in the Indian context as the end of rebirth and full release of the soul (moksha), may be attained, but that such freedom cannot be attained by a perfectly determined sequence of causes and consequences.

Since the ultimate issue arises from one's erroneous understanding, the only solution, according to Sureshvara, is pure, accurate knowledge.

Sureshvara's approach, such as it is, is to utilize a negative dialectic to clearly define what the Self is not, and then to obtain a flash of mystic insight by hearing one of the mahavakyas ("great utterances") that connect the Self with Brahman once one's mind has been pre pared.

Sureshvara asserts that actions have no place in this process since action is inextricably linked to the world and is tainted by ignorance.

For further detail, see A. J. Alston's translation of Sri Suresvara's Naiskarmya Siddhi, published in 1959, and Karl H. Potter's ed. of Advaita Vedanta up to Samkara and His Pupils, published in 1981.


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Hinduism - What Is Manas In Hindu Philosophy?


 (“mind”) Manas is one of the phases in the devolution of prakrti (primal matter), culminating in the world we see around us, in which human souls are subject to reincarnation, according to the metaphysics of the Samkhya school, one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy (samsara).

Manas develops from the ahamkar stage, which is characterized by a first feeling of Self and subjectivity.

The mind (manas) develops as a source of intellectual activity, which, when combined with this sense of subjectivity, gives rise to the concept of individual identity.

According to the Samkhyas, the growth of the individual's sense organs (jnanendriyas) and action organs (karmendriyas), as well as the subtle components (tanmatras) that are the source of the world's material things, occurs simultaneously with the formation of mental identity.

Manas became widely acknowledged as one of the five human sense organs, despite the fact that following philosophical systems essentially rejected Samkhya cosmology.

The manas detects mental items (ideas) in the same way as the eye and ears sense sight and sound, enabling the person to experience them.


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Hinduism - What Is The House of Clay In Hindu Theology? Why Do Wicked Souls Inhabit This House?


In a line from the Rg Veda (7.89), the oldest Hindu sacred literature, a realm of retribution is depicted.

The House of Clay, as stated in this passage, is a location where evildoers—particularly those who lie—will be sent by the deity Varuna, who is regarded the protector of righteousness and cosmic order (rta).

The House of Clay, as its name suggests, is a bleak and depressing place.

The absence of any idea of rebirth (samsara) in the original stanza is remarkable, since it eventually became a major Indian premise.

It was thought to be an unpleasant and permanent condition after death at the time. 


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