Showing posts with label ashtachap. Show all posts
Showing posts with label ashtachap. Show all posts

Hinduism - Who Was Vitthalnath?

 

Vitthalnath (1566–1585).

His father, Vallabhacharya, founded the Pushti Marg (a religious community).

Vitthalnath continued the Pushti Marg's consolidation, especially the organization of its rites and the encouragement of song and poetry composition to accompany them.

The eight ashtachap poets were active during his reign, according to legend, though four of them are more closely associated with his father.

Vitthalnath's four poets were clearly Pushti Marg members, as hymns praising him and his leadership can be found among their works.

He was succeeded by his son Gokulnath, who oversaw the final writing down of the lives of these and other saints, each with a Vallabhite emphasis.


Kiran Atma


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.




Hinduism - Who Was Surdas Among The Ashtachap?

 

 

 (early sixteenth century) One of the ashtachap, a group of eight bhakti (devotional) poets from northern India.

The Pushti Marg, a religious society whose members are Krishna devotees (bhakta), utilized the works of these eight poets for liturgical reasons.

All eight poets are also identified as members of the community and colleagues of either the community's founder, Vallabhacharya, or his successor, Vitthalnath, in the Pushti Marg's sectarian literature.

Surdas started writing songs about Krishna's lila, his humorous interactions with the universe, and his followers at Vallabhacharya's instruction, according to the Chaurasi Vaishnavan ki Varta ("Lives of eighty-four Vaishnavas").

He subsequently went on to write the Sursagar's 5,000-odd poems.

Surdas is shown in a very different light in the earliest manuscripts, since most of them only include a few hundred verses, most of which are relatively brief.

Supplication (vinaya) and separation (viraha) are the most essential topics in early poetry, and although Surdas is best known for his descriptions of Krishna's boyhood, these themes are more prominent later in the poetic tradition.

Surdas' poetry covers a broad variety of topics, from his personal spiritual life to devout "glimpses" of Krishna, the latter of which often explores the religious conflict between Krishna's image as a cute kid and his alter ego as master of the world.

Surdas wrote these poems to draw his listeners into Krishna's realm, as he does in most Vaishnava devotional poetry.

The disparity between these images casts doubt on Surdas' and Vallabhacharya's relationship.

Surdas, unlike the other ashtachap poets, did not produce poetry in honor of Vallabhacharya, despite his songs being included into the Pushti Marg's ceremonies.

It's just as probable that, as Surdas' poetry rose in popularity, the Pushti Marg "claimed" him as a fellow Krishna lover.

In truth, very little is known for certain about him, including whether or not he was indeed blind, as is often assumed.

Only two of the earliest poems address blindness; one is obviously allegorical, and the other is part of a litany of old age's ills.

One knows a lot more about the poetry than the poet, as is the case with many bhakti poets.

For further detail, read John Stratton Hawley's Krishna: The Butter Thief (1983) and Surdas: Poet, Singer, Saint (1984); also check John Stratton Hawley and Mark Juergensmeyer's Songs of the Saints of India (1988).


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism - What Is The Pushti Marg?

 



Vallabhacharya (1479–1531) formed a religious community whose teachings have remained the sect's primary impact.

Vallabhacharya's philosophical viewpoint is known as "pure monism" (Shuddadvaita); his fundamental belief is that the deity Krishna is the Supreme Being and the ultimate source of everything that exists.

As a result, the earth and humans partake in his divine essence, although in limited ways, and the human soul is endowed with divinity as its inner light and controller.

Because Krishna is the ultimate source of everything, everything ultimately relies on God, the school's major religious focus is on God's grace.

This blessing is said to nourish (pushti) the devotee (bhakta) and is best obtained via devotion (bhakti), which is seen to be the only successful religious method.

Because of this focus on grace and devotion, the Pushti Marg has placed little emphasis on abstinence or sacrifice, and Vallabhacharya's followers mostly came from prosperous merchant groups.

In the Pushti Marg's temples, the emphasis on devotion was quickly expressed in beautifully structured forms of image worship.

Devotees would imagine themselves as Krishna's companions throughout his everyday activities—waking, eating, bringing his cows to pasture, returning home, and so on—and so be able to participate in the divine drama (lila).

The emergence of large liturgical materials, composed by eight poets (the ashtachap) affiliated with Vallabhacharya and Vitthalnath, his son and successor, aided this focus on vision and participation.

Vitthalnath's son Gokulnath, the group's third head, further cemented the growing community, whose main holy place is currently at Nathdwara, Rajasthan.

R.K. Barz, The Bhakti Sect of Vallabhacharya, 1976, is a good source of information.


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.




Hinduism - Who Is Parmananddas?

 


Parmananddas (early 16th c.) One of the ashtachap, a group of eight bhakti (devotional) poets from northern India.

The Pushti Marg, a religious society whose members are Krishna devotees (bhakta), utilised the works of these eight poets for liturgical reasons.

All eight are also identified as members of the community and companions of either the community's founder, Vallabhacharya, or his successor, Vitthalnath, in the Pushti Marg's sectarian literature.

Although legend claims that Parmananddas was a Kanaujia brahmin, nothing is known about him, and the corpus of poetry ascribed to him is considerably bigger in later sources, indicating that his name was adopted by subsequent poets.

According to the evidence from the oldest texts, he was a devout devotee of Vallabhacharya.

Much of his poetry is composed expressly for the Pushti Marg, such as songs in honor of Vallabhacharya or hymns to be repeated throughout the day for Krishna worship, a religiosity that came to characterize the Pushti Marg.

His writings have not been translated to date, perhaps due to their sectarian nature.


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism - Who Was Kumbhadas ?

 


Kumbhadas (early 16th c.) is one of the ashtachap, a group of eight bhakti (devotional) poets from northern India.

The Pushti Marg, a religious community whose members are Krishna followers (bhakta), utilized these poets' writings for liturgical purposes.

All eight poets are mentioned in the Pushti Marg's sectarian literature as members of the community and associates of either the society's founder, Vallabhacharya, or his successor, Vitthal nath.

Vallabhacharya is usually associated with Kumbhadas.

Kumbhadas is a mysterious figure who is said to have been born around 1469.

His poetry exemplifies Rupa Goswami's five modes of devotion, particularly the madhurya ("honest eyed") mode.

Madhurya uses the language of lover and beloved to depict the relationship between god and devotee, in which one has ardent love for the other.


Hinduism - Who Was Krishnadas?

 

(early 16th c.) Krishnadas is one of the ashtachap, a group of eight bhakti (devotional) poets from northern India.

The Pushti Marg, a religious society of devo followers (bhakta) of Krishna, utilized the writings of these eight poets for ritual reasons.

All eight are also identified as members of the community and companions of either the community's founder, Vallabhacharya, or his successor, Vitthalnath, in the Pushti Marg's sectarian literature.

Krishnadas is traditionally linked to Vallabhacharya.

Krishnadas is a little-known figure, however he is thought to have been born around 1497, according to legend.

Krishna's physical attractiveness is described in his poems as an object of aesthetic pleasure.

Within the Pushti Marg, he is recognized as a good administrator and a protector of the sect's interests against Chaitanya's supporters at Brindavan Krishna's boyhood home.

 

You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.