Showing posts with label Western Yoga. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Western Yoga. Show all posts

YOGA AND AESTHETIC PHILOSOPHY.



Aesthetic philosophy is the study of sensuous experience, how we judge beauty, and how this affects our understanding of reality. 


"The term 'aesthetics,' which comes from the Greek word aesthesis ('perception,' was created in the middle of the eighteenth century by the German philosopher Alexander Baumgarten. 

He intended 'the science of sensory knowledge,' yet the word was rapidly restricted to a specific area of sensory knowledge and regarded as 'the science of sensory beauty.'" Cooper, 1997, p. 1. 

Aesthetic appreciation, which is based on sensory processing, is critical for how physical yoga is used to discern material reality, but it also has implications for understanding the transcendent. 

The aesthetics of current physical yoga practice are examined here by comparing and contrasting two primary technical approaches: one that works with approximation stillness and the other that tries to achieve continuous fluid movement. 


The possibilities and propositions of yoga, which are founded on stillness, are well-represented in the literary canon, yet the exact strategies for achieving them are unclear. 


There is also a lot of literature on the nature of "activity," which has an impact on how yogic movement might be done. 


Stillness is often connected with asana and movement with vinyasa in contemporary yoga, and these words will be used interchangeably throughout to indicate which of these techniques is being explored. 


The historical concepts of yoga are undeniably essential, yet they may become an impediment to the live growth of yoga's practices and philosophy if they are examined without caution. 

Ancient writings' aphoristic form promotes interpretation, but these interpretations seem to be based on the idea that the serious issues yoga presents have already been fully resolved. 



Physical yoga discoveries are a necessary and ongoing search for new perspectives, informed by fresh and provocative information and subject to constant modification. 


This philosophical perspective provides the writers' experiences and understanding of yoga practice and teaching (since the 1970s). 


It presents a theory to explain these sensations and investigates them via a range of aesthetic and historical reflections on the nature of reality (later chapters give ways and strategies to research it). 

The mystical, old, and complicated philosophic traditions associated to yoga are rife with speculation and remain unsolved. 


Rather than abandoning the teachings of earlier generations of yogis, the aesthetic philosophy is a method of making sense of this intriguing argument from a contemporary, Western, scientific viewpoint.




References & Further Reading: 



Bhaktivedanta Narayana Gosvami Maharaja, Sri Srimad and Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura, Pure Bhakti: Bhajana-rahasya, 2nd Edition. New Delhi: Gaudiya Vedanta Publications, 2015.

Birch, Jason. “The proliferation of asana-s in late-medieval yoga texts.” In Yoga and transformation historical and contemporary perspectives, edited by Karl Baier, Philipp A. Maas, and Karin Preisendanz, 101–180. Vienna: Vienna University Press, 2018.

Coomaraswamy, Ananda K. The dance of Siva: essays on Indian art and culture.
New York: Dover, 1985.

Cooper, David E. “Introduction.” In Aesthetics: the classic readings, edited by David E. Cooper, 1–10. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1997.

Eliade, Mircea. Yoga immortality and freedom, translated by Willard R. Trask. 
Princeton: Bollingen Foundation, Princeton University Press, 1958.

Herbermann, Charles, ed. “The Absolute.” In Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1913.

Jakubczak, Marzenna. “The purpose of non-theistic devotion in the classical Indian tradition of Sāmkhya-Yoga.” Argument, vol. 4 (January, 2014): 55–68.

Jaspers, Karl. The origin and goal of history, translated by Michael Bullock. London: Routledge, 1955.

Johnson, Williams J., translator. The Bhagavad Gita. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Lewis-Williams, David and David Pearce. Inside the neolithic mind. London: Thames and Hudson, 2005.

Mallinson, James and Mark Singleton. Roots of yoga. New York: Penguin Books, 2017.

McGilchrist, Iain. The master and his emissary: the divided brain and the making of the Western world. New Haven: Yale, 2009.

Rama, Swami. The science of breath. Delhi: The Himalayan Institute Press, 1979.

Rama, Swami. Sacred journey: living purposefully and dying gracefully. Delhi: Himalayan Institute Hospital Trust, 2002.

Rees, Martin. Our cosmic habitat. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001.

Sinh, Pancham. The Hatha Yoga Pradipika: Sanskrit text with English translation. New 
Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, 1915.

Sinha, Phulgenda. The Gita as it was: rediscovering the original Bhagavad Gita. LaSalle: Open Court, 1986.

Stark, Rodney and William Sims Bainbridge. The future of religion. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.

Tarnas, Richard. The passion of the Western mind: understanding the ideas that have shaped our world view. London: Pimlico, 1991.

Vasu, Rai Bahadur Srisa Chandra, translators. Siva Samhita. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, 1914–15.







211 Illustrated Yoga Asanas And Postures (Names In English!)




  1. Accomplished: Siddhāsana 

  2. Airplane: Digāsana / Vīrabhadrāsana 

  3. Alligator: Godhāpīṭham

  4. All - limb: Sarvāṅgāsana (Sālamba-Sarvāṅgāsana)

  5. Arm - pressure: Bhuja-Pīḍāsana

  6. Auspicious: Svastikāsana

  7. Back - stretched out: Paścimottānāsana / Paścimatānāsana

  8. Ball: Piṇḍāsana (in Sarvāṅgasana)

  9. Beam/gate: Parighāsana

  10. Bed/couch: Paryaṅkāsana

  11. Bending: Ākuñcanāsana

  12. Big toe: Pādāṅguṣṭhāsana

  13. Big toe - bow: Pādāṅguṣṭha - Dhanurāsana

  14. Bird that lives on raindrops: Kapiñjalāsana

  15. Boat - full: Paripūrṇa-Nāvāsana

  16. Boat - half: Ardha-Nāvāsana

  17. Both - big toe: Ubhaya-Pādāṅguṣṭhāsana

  18. Bound - angle: Baddha-Koṇāsana

  19. Bound - angle - head: Baddha-Koṇa-Śīrṣāsana

  20. Bound - hand - head: Baddha-Hasta-Śīrṣāsana

  21. Bound - lotus: Baddha-Padmāsana

  22. Bow: Dhanurāsana

  23. Bow, standing: Naṭarājāsana

  24. Bow, towards ear: Ākarṇa-Dhanurāsana

  25. Bridge: Setu-Bandhāsana

  26. Bridge (one leg) in shoulderstand: Ekapāda-Setu-Bandha Sarvangasana

  27. Bridge in shoulderstand: Setubandha-Sarvāṅgāsana

  28. Buddha: Buddhāsana

  29. Butterfly: Baddha-Koṇāsana

  30. Cakra: Cakrāsana

  31. Camel: Uṣṭrāsana

  32. Cat: Cakravākāsana

  33. Child: Bālāsana

  34. Circle: Maṇḍalāsana

  35. Cobra: Bhujaṅgāsana

  36. Comfortable: Sukhāsana

  37. Corpse: Śavāsana

  38. Cow - face: Go-Mukhāsana

  39. Cowherd: Gorakṣāsana

  40. Crane: Bakāsana

  41. Crane - side: Pārśva-Bakāsana

  42. Crocodile: Nakrāsana (see also Makarāsana)

  43. Cross - legged: Sukhāsana

  44. Crow (Kākāsana): see Bakāsana (crane)

  45. Dancer: Naṭarājāsana

  46. Dangling: Lolāsana

  47. Dangling: Tolāsana

  48. Dead: Śavāsana

  49. Direction: Digāsana / Vīrabhadrāsana  

  50. Dog, downward facing: Adho-Mukha-Śvānāsana

  51. Dog, upward facing: Ūrdhva-Mukha-Śvānāsana

  52. Downward - air: Apānāsana

  53. Downward - facing - fish: Adho-Mukha-Matsyāsana 

  54. Downward - facing - tree: Adho-Mukha-Vṛkṣāsana 

  55. Eagle: Garuḍāsana 

  56. Ear - pressure: Karṇapīḍāsana 

  57. Easy: Sukhāsana 

  58. Endless/Viṣṇu: Anantāsana 

  59. Equal - angle: Samakoṇāsana 

  60. Equal - standing: Samasthiti 

  61. Extended - hand - big toe: Utthita-Hasta-Pādāṅguṣṭhāsana 

  62. Extended - side - angle: Utthita-Pārśvakoṇāsana 

  63. Feather - peacock: Piñca-Mayūrāsana 

  64. Firefly: Tittibhāsana 

  65. Fish: Matsyāsana 

  66. Fish, downward - facing: Adho-Mukha-Matsyāsana 

  67. Fish - lord, complete: Paripūrṇa-Matsyendrāsana 

  68. Fish - lord, half: Ardha-Matsyendrāsana 

  69. Foot - hand: Pāda-Hastāsana (Hastapādāsana) 

  70. Formidable: Bhairavāsana 
  71. Forward bend: Uttānāsana 


  72. Forward bend, standing: Pāda-Hastāsana
  73. Frog: Bhekāsana
  74. Front, stretched out: Pūrvottānāsana (Pūrvatānāsana) 

  75. Full - boat: Paripūrṇa-Nāvāsana 

  76. Garland/necklace: Mālāsana 

  77. Gate/beam: Parighāsana 

  78. Half - boat: Ardha-Nāvāsana 

  79. Half - bound - lotus, standing: Ardha-Baddha-Padmottānāsana 

  80. Half - bound - lotus, sitting:Ardha-Baddha-Padma-Paścimottānāsana 

  81. Half - fish - lord: Ardha-Matsyendrāsana 

  82. Half - locust: Ardha-Śalabhāsana 

  83. Half - moon: Ardha-Candrāsana 

  84. Handstand: Adho-Mukha-Vṛkṣāsana 

  85. Head - foot: Śīrṣa-Pādāsana 

  86. Headstand, bound hands: Baddha-Hasta-Śīrṣāsana 

  87. Headstand, freed hands: Mukta-Hasta-Śīrṣāsana 

  88. Headstand, one leg: Ekapāda-Śīrṣāsana 

  89. Headstand, revolved - one leg:Parivṛttaikapāda-Śīrṣāsana 

  90. Headstand, side: Pārśva-Śīrṣāsana 

  91. Headstand, side one leg: Pārśvaikapāda-Śīrṣāsana 

  92. Headstand, two legs: Dvipāda-Śīrṣāsana 

  93. Headstand, supported: Sālamba-Śīrṣāsana 

  94. Hero: Vīrāsana 

  95. Heron: Krauñcāsana 

  96. Himalayan goose: Kāraṇḍavāsana 

  97. Horse: Vātāyanāsana 

  98. Inverted-doing: Viparīta-Karaṇī 

  99. Inverted - locust: Viparīta-Śalabhāsana 

  100. King - pigeon: Rāja-Kapotāsana 

  101. Knee - head: Jānu-Śīrṣāsana 

  102. Knot: Kandāsana 

  103. Light (weight) - thunderbolt: Laghu-Vajrāsana 

  104. Lion: Siṃhāsana 

  105. Lizard (iguana): Godhāpīṭham 

  106. Locust: Śalabhāsana 

  107. Lotus - peacock: Padma-Mayūrāsana 

  108. Lotus, full: Padmāsana 

  109. Mighty: Utkaṭāsana 

  110. Moon, half: Ardha-Candrāsana 

  111. Mountain: Tāḍāsana 

  112. Mountain: seated: Parvatāsana 

  113. Mudra, great: Mahāmudrā 

  114. Mudra, six - faced: Ṣanmukhī-Mudrā 

  115. Mudra, yoga: Yoga-Mudrā 

  116. Noose: Pāśāsana 

  117. One - leg - (name of sage): Ekapāda-Gālavāsana 

  118. One - leg - (name of sage): Ekapāda-Kauṇḍinyāsana 

  119. One - leg - crane: Ekapāda-Bakāsana 

  120. One - leg - inverted - staff: Ekapāda-Viparīta-Daṇḍāsana 

  121. One - leg - king - pigeon: Ekapāda-Rāja-Kapotāsana 

  122. One - leg - upward - bow: Ekapāda-Ūrdhva-Dhanurāsana 

  123. One - hand - arm: Ekahasta-Bhujāsana 

  124. Partridge: Cakorāsana 

  125. Peacock: Mayūrāsana 

  126. Peacock, extended - lotus: Uttāna-Padma-Mayūrāsana 

  127. Peacock, lotus: Padma-Mayūrāsana 

  128. Peacock - feather: Pīñca-Mayūrāsana 

  129. Pigeon: Kapotāsana 

  130. Plank (top of push-up): Same as Caturaṅga-Daṇḍāsana but arms are straight 

  131. Plow: Halāsana 

  132. Plow, sideways: Pārśva-Halāsana 
  133. Relaxing: Śayanāsana 

  134. Revolved - back - stretched out: Parivṛtta-Paścimottānāsana 

  135. Revolved - half - moonParivṛtta-Ardha-Candrāsana 

  136. Revolved - knee - head: Parivṛtta-Jānu-Śīrṣāsana 

  137. Revolved - side - angle: Parivṛtta-Pārśvakoṇāsana 

  138. Revolved - triangle: Parivṛtta-Trikoṇāsana 

  139. Rooster: Kukkuṭāsana 

  140. Rooster: upward: Ūrdhva-Kukkuṭāsana 

  141. Root - lock: Mūlabandhāsana 

  142. Ruddy goose: Cakravākāsana 

  143. Scale/balance: Tolāsana 

  144. Scorpion: Vṛścikāsana 

  145. Seated - angle: Upaviṣṭa-Koṇāsana 

  146. Serpent/snake: Bhujaṅgāsana 

  147. Shoulderstand: Sālamba-Sarvāṅgāsana 

  148. Shoulderstand, one leg: Ekapāda-Sarvāṅgāsana 

  149. Shoulderstand, sideways: Pārśva-Sarvāṅgāsana 

  150. Shoulderstand, sideways - one - legPārśvaikapāda-Sarvāṅgāsana 

  151. Shoulderstand, without support: Nirālamba-Sarvāṅgāsana 

  152. Side - ball: Pārśva-Piṇḍāsana (in Sarvāṅgāsana) 

  153. Side - bow: Pārśva-Dhanurāsana 

  154. Side - rooster: Pārśva-Kukkuṭāsana 

  155. Side - seated - angle: Pārśva-Upaviṣṭa-Koṇāsana 

  156. Side - stretched out: Pārśvottānāsana 

  157. Side - upward - lotus: Pārśva-Ūrdhva-Padmāsana 

  158. Side of face - formidable: Gaṇḍa-Bheruṇḍāsana 

  159. Six - faced seal: Ṣanmukhī-Mudrā 

  160. Split, front: Hanumānāsana 

  161. Split, side: Samakoṇāsana 

  162. Split, standing: Ūrdhva-Prasārita-Ekapādāsana / Trivikramāsana 

  163. Split, supine: Supta-Trivikramāsana 

  164. Spread - leg - stretched outPrasārita-Pādottānāsana 

  165. Squat: Mālāsana 

  166. Staff: Daṇḍāsana 

  167. Staff, four - limb: Caturaṅga-Daṇḍāsana 

  168. Staff, supine: Supta-Daṇḍāsana 
  169. Staff, upward: Ūrdhva-Daṇḍāsana  


  170. Stomach - revolving: Jaṭhara-Parivartanāsana  


  171. Stretched out - leg: Uttānapādāsana 

     


  172. Sun salutation: Sūrya-Namaskāra 


  173. Supine - angle: Supta-Koṇāsana 
  174. Supine - bound - angle: Supta-Baddha-Koṇāsana 

  175. Supine - big toe: Supta-Pādāṅguṣṭhāsana 

  176. Supine - frog: Supta-Bhekāsana 

  177. Supine - hero: Supta-Vīrāsana 

  178. Supine - staff: Supta-Daṇḍāsana 

  179. Supine - three - stride: Supta-Trivikramāsana 

  180. Supine - tortoise: Supta-Kūrmāsana 

  181. Supine - upwards - foot - thunderboltSupta-Ūrdhva-Pāda-Vajrāsana 

  182. Supported headstand: Sālamba-Śīrṣāsana 

  183. Supported shoulderstand: Sālamba-Sarvāṅgāsana 

  184. Swan: Haṃsāsana 

  185. Table: Catuṣ-Pāda-Pīṭham / Pūrvottānāsana 

  186. Oblique - face - one - leg - back - stretched out: Tiryaṅ-Mukhaikapāda-Paścimottānāsana 

  187. Three - stride: Trivikramāsana  

  188. Thunderbolt: Vajrāsana 

  189. Thunderbolt, supine: Supta-Vajrāsana 

  190. Tortoise: Kūrmāsana 

  191. Tree: Vṛkṣāsana 

  192. Tree, downward - facing: Adho-Mukha-Vṛkṣāsana 

  193. Triangle, extended: Utthita-Trikoṇāsana 

  194. Triangle, revolved: Parivṛtta-Trikoṇāsana 

  195. Two - leg: Dvipāda-Pīṭham 

  196. Two - leg - (name of sage): Dvipāda-Kauṇḍinyāsana 

  197. Two - leg - inverted - staff: Dvipāda-Viparīta-Daṇḍāsana 

  198. Two - hand - arm: Dvihasta-Bhujāsana 

  199. Upside down - face - stretched outTiryaṅ-Mukhottānāsana 

  200. Upward - bow: Ūrdhva-Dhanurāsana 

  201. Upward - facing - back - stretched out: Ūrdhva-Mukha-Paścimottānāsana 

  202. Upward - facing - dog: Ūrdhva-Mukha-Śvānāsana 

  203. Upward - lotus: Ūrdhva-Padmāsana 





  204. Upwards - spread - one - leg: Ūrdhva-Prasārita-Ekapādāsana 



  205. Warrior: Vīrabhadrāsana 

  206. Wheel: Cakrāsana 

  207. Wheel - lock: Cakra-Bandhāsana 

  208. Womb - ball: Garbha-Piṇḍāsana 

  209. Yoga - seal: Yoga-Mudrā 

  210. Yoga - sleep: Yoga-Nidrāsana 

  211. Yoga - staff: Yoga-Daṇḍāsana