Showing posts with label savaiya. Show all posts
Showing posts with label savaiya. Show all posts

Hinduism - What Are Poetic Meters In Hindu Poetry And Literature?


Indian poetry has well-developed metrical forms that primarily follow two patterns.

The first metric is based on the number of syllables in a single line.

Each line in the second pattern has a specific number of metric beats, which is determined by the distinction between "heavy" and "light" syllables.

A heavy syllable is any syllable with a long vowel or a consonant cluster and is given two metric beats; all other syllables are considered light and counted as one beat.

Sanskrit poetry tends to stress the former pattern, and has codified meters ranging from four to twenty-six syllables per half-line, yet even within these syllabic constraints each meter usually has a prescribed sequence of light and heavy syllables as well.

Two different Sanskrit poetic meters may thus have the same number of syllables, but vary in their syllabic patterns.

Although such subtle differences could generate vast numbers of meters, in practice there were only about a hundred.

The vast majority of Sanskrit texts are written in a single meter, the anushtubh, which has eight syllables per half-line.

Later devotional (bhakti) poetry, particularly in northern India, tend to favor poetic forms based on the number of metric beats.

The most popular forms are the doha, which has twenty-four metric beats in two lines, and the chau pai, which has four lines of sixteen beats each.

Although there are several poetic forms based on the number of syllables in each line, particularly the savaiya and the kavitt, these were used less often.

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Hinduism - What Is The Kavitavali?

 ("poems in a sequence") The poet-saint Tulsidas (1532–1623?)'s last poetry composition.

Tulsidas presents a simplified version of the epic Ramayana as well as poetry in which he clearly speaks in his own voice in the Kavitavali.

It was finished after 1615, according to evidence in the text.

The poems are composed in the savaiya and kavitt meters, which are lengthier, more difficult, and less accessible than Tulsidas' earlier works' meters.

The Kavitavali is structured into seven divisions, which correspond to the Ramayana's internal structure, however the Kavitavali's verses are concentrated in the final two sections.

The "Lankakhand," for example, portrays the ultimate battle symbolizing the conflict between good and evil; the kavitt meter is utilized to convey spectacular war scenes in this portion.

The last volume is "Uttarakhand," which accounts for more than half of the total work.

Tulsidas has written some autobiographical verses in this last section, and he repeats themes that can be found throughout much of his work: the degeneracy of the present age (Kali Yuga), a focus on devotion as the only means of salvation, and the power inherent in God's name, which can overcome any obstacles.

Parts of this last portion seem pessimistic, maybe reflecting the challenges of old age, yet there's a thread of optimism running through it all, implying that the author's faith in God's redemptive power will not be in vain.


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Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.