Showing posts with label Hinduism. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Hinduism. Show all posts

Hinduism - What Are Causal Models In Indian Philosophy?






Causal Models are a kind of model that is used to explain why something happens. 




Satkaryavada, asatkaryavada, and anekantavada are three distinct theories in Indian philosophy that describe the connections between cause and effect. 



Satkaryavada, the first model, posits that effects are pre-existing in their sources. 


  • As a result, effects are modifications (actual or perceived) of these causes. 
  • The transition of milk into curds, butter, and clarified butter is a typical example. 
  • Each of these consequences was already there in the cause, according to proponents of satkaryavada, and arises from it via a natural transformation of that cause. 



Asatkaryavada, the second model, asserts that effects do not preexist in their causes and that they are totally separate. 


  • In the traditional examples for this model, one weaves a fabric from strands of thread or makes a clay pot by fitting the two sides of the pot together.
  • According to proponents of asatkaryavada, some material and instrumental causes generate a completely new object with each of these actions. 





The third concept, anekantavada (“the idea that things are not singular”), attempts to bridge the gap between the other two. 



  • Anekantavada emphasizes the significance of one's viewpoint and how it may influence one's judgment
  • When it comes to the transformation of milk into curds, butter, and clarified butter, an anekantavada proponent would argue that these substances were already present in the causes (supporting the satkaryavada viewpoint), but that the qualities of these substances were created from scratch each time (supporting the asatkaryavada notion). 

As a result, depending on how one views them, causes and effects are both the same and distinct. 




All of these philosophical systems think that gaining ultimate soul liberation is attainable if one properly understands the causal process and can influence it via conscious acts (moksha). 


As a result, each of these causal theories has significant consequences for religious practice. 


1. The asatkaryavada thinks that causal connections are weak, with the risk that human activity is too unpredictable to bring about a desired result; 

2. Anekantavada claims to establish a medium ground but may be interpreted as inconsistent or self-contradictory



Karl H. Potter (ed. ), Presuppositions of India's Philosophies, 1972, has further information. 




Hinduism - What Is Causation In Indian Philosophy?

 






Causal Chains is a term that refers to a series of events that lead to the ultimate goal of all Indian philosophical systems is to discover and comprehend the causal factors that keep humans trapped in samsara, or the endless cycle of rebirth. 



Indian thinkers tried to accomplish this in a variety of ways, including formulating different chains of cause and effect that detailed the process by which humans became bound by karma. 


They believe that by knowing this process, they would be able to control it, leading to the ultimate emancipation of the soul (moksha).



The Buddha and the Jains were the first to construct causal chains. 


The causal chain in each of these theories is started by avidya, or a lack of true knowledge. 

These causal linkages may be broken in the Buddhist and Jain traditions by a religious discipline that starts with moral action and progresses to meditation and knowledge at higher levels. 

Causal chains in Hindu philosophy have a lot in common with these ideas, especially the idea that avidya is the root of the issue. 



Gautama, a Nyaya philosopher, proposed a five-fold causal chain in the Nyaya Sutras: 

pain, 

birth, 

activity, 

flaw, 

and incorrect idea. 


Each of these components is caused by the one before it, and it is removed when the cause is destroyed. 




This paradigm was also utilized by the Vaisheshika school, which was historically associated with the Nyayas. 




The Samkhya philosophical school's causal chain, as articulated by its founder, Ishvarakrishna, ascribes bondage to the process of development, resulting from a misunderstanding between purusha (conscious soul) and prakrti (unconscious spirit) (primal matter). 


These two fundamental principles, according to Samkhya, are always distinct from one another, yet people may mix them up. 

This paradigm was also utilized by the Yoga school, which was historically associated with the Samkhya. 

The Vishishthadvaita Vedanta school's founder, Ramanuja, offers an evolutionary system similar to Samkhya's, except that instead of dualism, all things develop from a single source, Brahman. 




Advaita Vedanta is the only major Hindu philosophical system without a causal chain. 




The concept of parinamavada is used by all other schools to describe the connection between the Ultimate Reality (in most instances, Brahman) and the perceivable universe. 



This philosophical viewpoint accepts the universe as it is seen, as well as the assumption that changes in the material world entail actual transformation (parinama) of one item into another, which can be explained by cause and effect. 


The Advaita school adheres to a philosophical stance known as monism, which is the idea that all things are simply different manifestations of a single Ultimate Reality. 

This one reality, according to Advaitins, is the formless, unqualified Brahman. 

The appearance of variety and diversity in daily life is explained by Advaitins as an illusory rather than a real change of Brahman, a philosophical perspective known as vivartavada. 

This deceptive metamorphosis is produced by a human mind characteristic that causes the mental superimposition (adhyasa) of an erroneous understanding over the true one. 



The fundamental issue for Advaitins, like for all other schools, is avidya, or erroneous knowledge, which must be replaced with right understanding. 

Whereas all other systems place some emphasis on deeds, Advaitins believe that avidya is the only source of suffering and that removing it is the only cure. 



Karl H. Potter (ed. ), Presuppositions of India's Philosophies, 1972, has further information. 




Hinduism - Castration In A Hindu Society.










With the noteworthy exception of the hijras, castration of human beings has been nearly entirely absent throughout Indian history. 



Hijras are male cross-dressers who dress and act as women and have typically had their libido castrated as a ceremonial surrender. 


Hijras are typically gay prostitutes, and they are a well-established component of most Indian towns' decadent underbelly. 

Their primary ceremonial role is to sing and dance at the birthplaces of male children, although they may also be called upon to perform on other fortunate occasions. 



Despite their connections with some auspicious events, the hijras are socially marginalized and have a poor social position. 




Serena Nanda's Neither Man Nor Woman, published in 1999, is a credible study of the hijras. 





You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.



 

Hinduism - What Is A Caste In Hindu Society?









The most well-known name for the ancient Hindu social system in which groups are placed in a hierarchy of rank based on the perceived purity of each group's customary profession. 




The term "caste" comes from a Portuguese word that means "chaste." 

Different groups in Indian culture maintained their distance from one another, especially while dining and marrying, according to the Portuguese. 

This social phenomena was referred to as "caste" by them. 




The most significant notion for social organization among Hindus is known as the jati ("birth"). 




A person is born into a jati and becomes a member of it. 

The jatis were typically split into groups based on their traditional occupations, which were supposed to be done only by that jati. 

The social standing of a jati was usually determined by its profession, and jatis who worked as latrine cleaners or tanners were considered to be polluted by their work. 





The body was used to represent society as a whole, with various jatis corresponding to different bodily parts. 



While each component had a unique status and purpose, they all had to work together for the entire to operate properly. 

To keep one group separate from the others, rigorous regulations were used to designate and enforce these distinctions in rank



The most stringent rules applied to marriage, and members of a jati would only marry inside that group in the past. 


It was almost as though the jatis were considered a distinct "species" of human beings who needed to be kept apart. 

Although there is currently much more intermarriage than in the past, marrying within one's jati is still the ideal. 




The four main social classes (varna) outlined in the dharma literature: 


  • brahmin (priest), 
  • kshatriya (warrior-king), 
  • vaishya (merchant), 
  • and shudra (slave) are the best-known model for organizing Indian society (servant). 




The multitude of distinct jati groupings, on the other hand, makes the social order much more complicated. 



A small hamlet may have dozens of jatis, each providing a specific function, while a metropolis may have hundreds of jatis, some of which are extremely specialized. 


There are various brahmin jatis even within the brahmin varna (for example, Saraswat, Chitpavan, Kanyakubja, and Kanaujia). 

The situation is much more complicated for other varnas. 

Some jati groups, for example, lie between the vaishya and shudra varnas, while modest jati clans with political success may claim kshatriya ancestry. 


The social standing of the same jati may differ from area to region, depending on whether they are a majority or minority of the population, or whether they are a land-holding group. 


The status of a group is typically determined by local circumstances, as it is in most aspects of Hindu life; but, in the last fifty years, such status determinations have also been influenced by changes in Indian culture, which have tended to loosen social differences. 





See McKim Marriot, “Hindu Transactions: Diversity Without Dualism,” in Bruce Kapferer (ed.), Transaction and Meaning, 1976, for more details. 


Hinduism - The Hindu Calendar









The Hindu religious concept that various eras have distinct characteristics is one of the most basic Hindu religious beliefs. 



Some periods are believed to be more auspicious and favorable, while others are thought to be more inauspicious and hazardous. 

These judgements may be used to define the overall characteristics of certain periods or to identify the best time to do specific tasks. 

As a result, Hindus place a high value on time management and foreseeing auspicious events. 




Many contemporary Hindus utilize several calendars at the same time, but they may use them for distinct reasons. 



To begin, the Gregorian calendar of the common period is used for daily timekeeping, which may represent the impact of the British empire or, more simply, the effect of contemporary business and communications. 

It's worth noting that the only holidays observed on this calendar are national holidays like Independence Day, Gandhi Jayanti, and Republic Day, which are all set dates. 




There are a variety of different ways to measure time, some of which overlap with each other and others of which are only found in certain parts of the nation. 



  • The movement of the sun is used in many of these systems. 
  • The solar day, of course, is the most fundamental unit, which typically starts and finishes with the rising of the sun rather than the clock. 
  • There are seven solar days in a week. 
  • The year is divided in half by the sun's movement, with the uttarayana phase happening when the sun moves northward and the dakshinayana period occurring when the sun moves southward. 

In addition, there are two different variants of the solar year, each with twelve solar months. 

These months in northern India correlate to the twelve zodiac signs and record the passage of the sun through them. 




The Tamil solar year is an identical calendar found in southern India, in which the names of the months are derived from the names of specific nakshatras, or lunar zodiac signs. 



The lunar calendar is essential for religious life, while the solar calendar is generally utilized for astrological reasons. 

The Vikram era (fifty-six or fifty-seven years later than the common era) and the Shaka era (fifty-six or fifty-seven years later than the common era) are still used to date history using the lunar calendar (seventy-eight years earlier than the common era). 

Each lunar month has thirty days, making the lunar year twelve months long. 

A lunar day is somewhat shorter than a solar day since the moon's cycle is only approximately twenty-eight solar days long. 

The lunar month is split into two parts, each lasting fifteen days: the "dark" (krishna paksha) half, which occurs when the moon is waning and ends with the new moon, and the "bright" (shukla paksha), which occurs when the moon is waxing and concludes with the full moon. 




In northern India, the lunar month starts with the dark half of the moon and finishes with the full moon, while in the south, it is frequently the other way around. 



Because the solar year has about 365 days and the lunar year has approximately 354, each lunar year would begin eleven solar days sooner than the previous one if allowed unchecked. 

Every two and a half years, an intercalary month is added to rectify the difference. 

Although the celebration of a specific festival may vary by several weeks from one year to the next, this helps to maintain the lunar months falling around the same time every year. 

The lunar calendar is used to commemorate almost all Hindu festivals. 



The festivities of certain festivals are linked to specific lunar days, and therefore occur twenty-four times in a twelve-month lunar year: 


  • The god Vishnu is honored on the eleventh day (ekadashi) of each lunar month; 
  • the Goddess, especially in her form as Durga, is honored on the eighth day (ashtami); 
  • the god Shiva is honored on the thirteenth day (trayodashi) and the fourteenth day (chaturdashi); 
  • and the god Ganesh is honored on the fourth day (chaturthi). 




The lunar month, half of the moon, and specific lunar day are used to determine when yearly religious festivals are held. 



For example, Bhadrapada Krishna eight, the eighth day of the dark (waning) half of the lunar month of Bhadrapada, is dedicated to the deity Krishna. 

The lunar calendar is also used to commemorate the birthdays of many significant historical religious leaders, including Guru Nanak, the founder of the Sikh faith, the Buddha, and devotional poet-saints. 

Because of the overlapping calendars, any one day may be identified by multiple distinct markers: the day of the week and the day in the common period (as in many cultures), the day on the conventional solar calendar, and the day on the lunar calendar. 


Depending on the situation—business, astrology, or a festival—any of these may be chosen. 



Hinduism - What Is A Busti In India?










Busti(“Settlement”): In its most literal sense, a settlement, village, or community is a place where people dwell. 





It has evolved to mean an unlawful colony in contemporary use, such as one constructed by squatters on empty property using whatever materials are available, from brick to cardboard to plastic. 



Initially, such communities lack municipal facilities such as water, electricity, roads, or sewage, and living conditions are sometimes deplorable. 





Many times, especially in Bombay, where real estate is exorbitantly costly, such "slums" become people's ancestral homes. 

Typically, these people have obtained power and water via illegal connections. 

Squatters have acquired title to property via political pressure in a few exceptional instances, following which conditions have usually improved.












Hinduism - Is There Burial Of The Dead In Hinduism?

 






Although cremation is the most frequent method of Hindu cremation, remains are sometimes buried. 




The corpses of extremely young children are one example, as though it is acknowledged that they never grew into actual people. 


Ascetics are the only other individuals that are typically buried, and there are many meanings for them. 

One theory is that they are not really dead, but rather in a profound state of meditation (samadhi). 

Because the ascetic is still believed present, he is often buried in a sitting position. 



Another rationale for burying ascetics may be because it was assumed that by abandoning the world, they had become “dead” to it, and therefore no more rituals were required. 




Indeed, performing one's own death rituals is a requirement of several ascetic initiations. 

Ascetics with followers who want to preserve their graves as shrines are often buried. 

Those who aren't buried are typically tossed into bodies of water after being weighted down with boulders.








Hinduism - Where Is Bundi?







City and district in Rajasthan's southeastern region, approximately 100 miles south of Jaipur, the state capital. 




Bundi was a tiny kingdom before India's independence in 1947. 




Bundi became a hub for Rajasthani miniature painting in the late seventeenth century, perhaps as a result of painters from the Moghul court seeking foreign sponsorship. 

Rajasthani miniature artists depicted Hindu religious subjects, especially events in the life of the deity Krishna, in addition to the portraits and court groups that characterize this genre under the Moghuls. 

Unlike other styles, which use flat, monochrome backgrounds, the Bundi style emphasizes nature, with realistic depictions of the trees (typically banana trees) that surround the figures, as well as flowers, birds, and lotus-filled ponds. 

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W. G. Archer's Indian Painting, published in 1957, and his Indian Painting in Bundi and Kotah, published in 1959, are both good sources of knowledge.