Showing posts with label Bhedabhada. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Bhedabhada. Show all posts

Hinduism - What Is Vivartavada In Hindu Philosophy?


The world is described as an illusory transformation of the Ultimate Reality or Realities, according to this philosophical model.

The Advaita Vedanta philosophical school is known for its vivartavada model.

The Advaitins believe in a causal model known as satkaryavada, which assumes that effects already exist in their causes and that when they appear, they are simply transformations (parinama) of those causes.

Milk is transformed into curds, butter, and clarified butter as a classic example.

Each of these effects was already present in the cause, according to proponents of asatkarya, and emerges from it through a natural transformation of the cause.

The Advaita school adheres to the philosophical position of monism, which holds that everything is merely different manifestations of a single Ultimate Reality.

Despite the appearance of difference and diversity in the world, Advaita proponents claim that reality is nondual (advaita), that is, that all things are "actually" nothing but the formless, unqualified Brahman.

The Advaitins' belief that an effect already exists in its cause is based on the principle that all things in the universe ultimately rely on Brahman as the first cause.

Simultaneously, the Advaitins refuse to acknowledge that Brahman ever changes because this would negate its eternal and unchanging nature.

As a result, they talk about a fictitious transmission (vivartavada).

The Advaitins believe that Brahman never truly changes because it is eternal and thus unchanging; the apparent changes are only illusory, based on human ignorance through shifting superimposition patterns (adhyasa).

Advaitins are able to maintain Brahman's transcendence while also accounting for (apparent) changes in the phenomenal world in this way.

Proponents of a different approach, which portrays the perceivable world as an actual trans creation of this unified reality, argue against this stance.

Proponents of the Samkhya, Vishishthadvaita Vedanta, and Bhedabhada philosophical traditions, who, like Advaitins, believe in satkaryavada, hold this position.

Each of these three schools thinks that the world as we see it is real, that it is rooted in a single ultimate source, and that this fundamental principle undergoes a genuine metamorphosis through which the universe is born.

This parinama connection permits these schools to explain the phenomenal world, but in a manner that undermines the transcendence of these initial principles by incorporating them within it.

Philosophically, they struggle to explain how the sublime might become commonplace, then transcendent again.

Kiran Atma

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Hinduism - What Is Viparitakhyati In Hindu And Indian Philosophy?

Viparitakhyati is a Sanskrit word that means "discrimination in the face of the law". 

Kumarila, a Mimamsa philosopher from the seventh century C.E., proposed a theory of error.

All theories of error seek to explain why people make mistakes in judgment, such as mistaking a silvery flash of seashell for a piece of silver, which is a common example.

Kumarila, like Prabhakara and the Naiyayikas, believes that the simple judgments "that object is silvery" and "silver is silvery" are both correct and unquestionable.

Kumarila also agrees with the Naiyayika that the error stems from a false discrimination.

The Naiyayikas postulate the inherence-relationship as a connecting sub jects and predicates ("silver color" and "silver").

This is where he differs from them.

Kumarila's theory is identity-and-difference (bhedabhada), which states that everything is what it is and not what it isn't.

As a result, the perception (pratyaksha) of a shell on the beach would include its similitudes and differences from silveriness, as well as silver's similitudes and differences from silveriness.

One can make a false judgment by combining similarities, or one can make a true judgment by combining differences.

The root cause of combining similarities rather than differences, as in the Naiyayika theory of error, is karmic dispositions arising from avidya, specifically the desire for silver, which drives us to seek out such valuable items.

For more information, see Bijayananda Kar's The Theories of Error in Indian Philosophy, published in 1978, and Karl H. Potter's Presuppositions of India's Philosophies, published in 1972.

~Kiran Atma

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Hinduism - What Is The Kumarila?


One of the two major commentators of Mimamsa philosophy, one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy, in the seventh century; the other notable commentator was Prabhakara.

The Mimamsa school was particularly concerned with the investigation and pursuit of dharma ("good deed"), for which followers felt the Vedas, the earliest Hindu religious books, offered all required teachings.

As a result, much of Mimamsa thinking is focused with textual interpretation principles and strategies for uncovering and interpreting Vedic instructions.

Despite the fact that both Kumarila and Prabhakara were dedicated to discovering the bounds of dharma through reading the Vedas, there are significant philosophical differences between them, which are most evident in their views of mistake.

Prabhakara starts with the assumption that there is a relatively weak correlation between an object and its characteristics, comparable to the Nyaya idea of inherence (samavaya).

A good example of this is the association of the color red with a certain ball, resulting in the ball being referred to as red.

False beliefs are the product of akhyati ("nondiscrimination," according to Prabhakara).

When a person sees two different items with the same qualities and decides that they are the same, this is what happens.

Kumarila is more in line with the bhedabhada ("identity and difference") philosophical stance, which asserts that everything has both identity and distinction with everything else.

Kumarila defines error as viparitakhyati ("contrary perception"), which occurs when a person incorrectly associates two objects' similarities rather than their differences.

For example, a person may wrongly assume that a silvery-colored shell is really a piece of silver because he or she chooses to concentrate on the similarities rather than the distinctions between the shell and silver.

People are compelled to make these decisions by karmic forces, such as silver greed.

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Hinduism - What Is Jnanakarmasamucchaya In Hindu Philosophy?

 ("consciousness and action in tandem") Members of the bhedabhada ("identity-in-difference") philosophical school encouraged religious discipline to eliminate the soul's bondage and rebirth (samsara).

Correct consciousness (jnana) and ritual activity (karma) were both crucial factors in achieving eventual soul liberation, according to this school.

The first phase was to lessen one's bad karmic dispositions, such as greed, wrath, and ignorance, by doing meritorious ritual deeds like as fasting (upavasa), devotion, and pilgrimage.

Meditation was used to totally eradicate these weaker dispositions.

Other philosophical schools, notably the Advaita Vedanta school, criticized the assumptions that underpin this path, claiming that ultimate liberation comes only through awareness. 

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Hinduism - What Is Bhedabhada?


Bhedabhada (“difference-in-identity”). 

Bhartrprapancha and Bhaskara were two of the most well-known members of this philosophical school. 

The Bhedabhada viewpoint recognized three layers of being: Brahman, the Ultimate Reality, and Sakshin, the human being's "witness" awareness. 

  • The school said that these three levels are both similar and dissimilar. 
  • As a result, the universe is similar to Brahman yet, unlike Brahman, is susceptible to change and destruction. 
  • Similarly, although each human soul is equal to Brahman, unlike Brahman, it is subject to bondage and rebirth (samsara). 

The primordial ignorance known as avidya created the soul's bonding, but it may be broken via a mix of action and knowledge (jnanakarmasamucchaya). 

  • Because they thought that Brahman was really changed into the universe and the Self (parinamavada), Bhartrprapancha and his followers had a fundamental philosophical problem: Brahman was susceptible to bondage and ignorance. 
  • As a result, if avidya must be destroyed in order to achieve freedom, a portion of Brahman must also be destroyed. 
  • The transcendence of Brahman was firmly established by holy writings such as the Upanishads, making these views difficult to defend, and this issue may explain for the school's brief existence.

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