Showing posts with label Vyasa. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Vyasa. Show all posts

Hinduism - What Are The Yoga Sutras?

 

 


 ("yoga aphorisms") A collection of short sayings attributed to the sage Patanjali that serve as the basic texts for the Yoga school, one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy.

The sage Vyasa's commentary on Patanjali's Yoga Sutras is often read alongside the text, and it has been considered as an important component of the book.


The Yoga Sutras are split into four sections, each of which focuses on a different theme: 


  1. The first part is about concentration (samadhi), 
  2. the second part is about the mechanics of spiritual development (sadhana), 
  3. the third part is about various attainments (vibhuti), including magical powers (siddhi), 
  4. and the last part is about yogic isolation (kaivalya), which the text calls liberation.


The Yoga school is often considered the "practical" articulation of Samkhya theory, and the text presupposes the cosmology taught by the Samkhya school, another of the six schools.


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Hinduism - Who Is Vyasa In Hindu Mythology?

 



A sage who is traditionally thought to be the creator of the Mahabharata, the second of the two major Sanskrit epics, according to Hindu mythology. 

As a consequence of his dalliance with the ferrywoman Satyavati, Vyasa is the son of the sage Parashara.

Satyavati marries King Shantanu later in life, but only after securing the guarantee that their offspring will govern instead of Shantanu's firstborn son, Bhishma.

Satyavati's first son dies as a youngster, and his second son dies after marrying but before producing children.

Satyavati begs Vyasa to sleep with the brides of her younger sons, Ambika and Ambalika, in order to save Shantanu's dynasty.

Vyasa is a terribly unattractive man, according to legend, and both ladies respond automatically when he comes in their beds.

Ambika conceals her eyes, causing her son Dhrtarashtra to be born blind, while Ambalika becomes pale, leading her son Pandu to be born with an unusually pale complexion.

Vyasa also has intercourse with Ambika's maidservant, who freely submits herself to him, and Vidura is born from her.

The Pandavas and Kauravas, respectively, are the descendants of Pandu and Dhrtarashtra, the two warring groups whose rivalry propels the Mahabharata.

As a result, Vyasa is not only the Mahabharata's author, but also the source of the Mahabharata's two families' fight.


Kiran Atma


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Hinduism - What Is The Mahabharata?

 

The mythological sage Vyasa is credited with writing one of the two major Sanskrit epics.

The Mahabharata is substantially lengthier than the Ramayana, the other great epic.

The Mahabharata is the world's longest epic poem, with about 100,000 stanzas.

If the Ramayana is the story of the "good" family, in which brothers work together to maintain and protect their family, the Mahabharata is the story of the "bad" family, in which an extended royal family's hardheartedness and ambition for power leads to its demise.

The epic is located west of modern-day Delhi and tells the story of a fratricidal civil war.

The following is a substantially condensed version of the story: Shantanu is the Kurus's ruler.

He dies in an untimely and heirless manner.

Satyavati, Shantanu's wife, calls for her oldest son, the guru Vyasa, who fathers offspring by Shantanu's two women, in a desperate bid to maintain the royal dynasty.

Because Dhrtarashtra, the oldest son, is born blind, his younger brother Pandu inherits the crown.

Because of a curse, Pandu abdicates his kingdom and retires to the forest with his two wives, Kunti and Madri, allowing his older brother to govern in his stead.

Dhrtarashtra's wife, Gandhari, mysteriously bears a hundred sons, the eldest of them is Duryodhana; the hundred sons are known as the Kauravas and are the epic's enemies.

Yudhishthira, Bhima, and Arjuna are Kunti's three sons in the jungle, while Madri had twins Nakula and Sahadeva.

The Pandavas, the epic's heroes, are these five sons.

Pandu has been cursed to perish the instant he hugs his wife in loving embrace, hence none of these children are his sons.

Rather, they were created by the use of a mantra given to Kunti by the sage Durvasas, which gives the woman who recites it the ability to summon any of the gods and bear a son equal to that god's might.

Kunti gets the mantra long before her marriage and recites it spontaneously while staring at the sun, giving birth to a radiant kid.

Kunti, distraught and desperate, places him in a box and throws him into the Ganges.

The charioteer Adhiratha adopts the kid, who grows up to be the heroic Karna.

Pandu dies young as a consequence of his curse, and Kunti (his wife) and his sons (the Pandavas) return to Hastinapur, where the boys are nurtured as princes.

Duryodhana (the oldest of the Kauravas) and his cousins have had a tense relationship from the start, owing to Duryodhana's ambition for the throne, which rightfully belongs to Yudhishthira (one of the Pandavas).

The Pandava brothers leave the realm to become mercenaries after foiling many assassination attempts.

Arjuna wins the hand of Princess Draupadi on one of their adventures, and she becomes their common wife (their mother commands that Arjuna share whatever he wins with his brothers).

After a while, Dhrtarashtra (the Kauravas' father) abdicates the throne and divides his country.

The Pandavas construct a new capital at Indraprastha, which is located near modern-day Delhi.

Things remain peaceful for a time, but Duryodhana isn't satisfied to share his kingdom.

He challenges Yudhishthira to a dice game, pitting him against Shakuni, the most skilled gambler alive.

Yudhishthira is an example of honesty and decency, but his fatal fault is his addiction to gambling.

Yudhishthira loses his kingdom, all of his belongings, his brothers, himself, and eventually his wife in the match.

Duryodhana's brother, Duhshasana, pulls Draupadi into the assembly hall by her hair, her garments soiled with her menstrual blood, in one of the epic's most devastating sequences.

Dhrtarashtra is moved to set them free by Draupadi's humiliation, but it also initiates the hostility that drives the remainder of the tale.

Following some haggling, the parties agree that the Pandavas will spend twelve years in exile and the thirteenth in secret.

They will reclaim their kingdom if they can stay undetected for the thirteenth year.

However, if they are found, the cycle of exile will begin all over again.

Yudhishthira and his brothers approach Duryodhana for their fair portion after thirteen years, but are haughtily rejected.

All attempts at reconciliation fail because Duryodhana states he won't give them enough land to poke a needle in.

The Pandavas, pressed against a wall, prepare for combat.

Yudhishthira and his siblings are on one side, supported by their advisor Krishna.

Duryodhana and many esteemed characters, like as Drona, Bhishma, and Karna, are on the opposing side.

The fight rages for eighteen days, until the majority of the important individuals have died.

Yudhishthira and his brothers make it through.

Yudhishthira is anointed king and reigns for many years in righteousness.

He appoints his grandson, King Parikshit, to the throne later in life.

He embarks on a last expedition into the Himalayas with his siblings.

Yudhishthira ultimately joins the divine world after his siblings die one by one throughout the voyage.

This synopsis does not cover the whole of the epic.

One of the epic's characteristics is that it incorporates several unrecorded stories, with the main plot serving as a frame.

Aside from being a story of a dysfunctional family, the Mahabharata has a wealth of cultural wisdom, with character names that are still meaningful today.

The text's TV serial, which aired for more than a year in 1989–90, was a huge hit in India.

It's also worth noting that many traditional Indian families will not maintain a copy of the book in the home since it's thought that doing so may cause family strife.


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Hinduism - Who Are The Kauravas In Hindu Mythology?


The Kauravas are the hundred sons of King Dhrtarashtra in the Mahabharata, the later of the two major Hindu epics, and the epic's enemies to the Pandava heroes.

As descendants of Kuru, King Shantanu's ancestor, the Kauravas get their name.

The Kaurava boys are born in an unconventional way, as is common in Hindu mythology.

Gandhari, their mother, obtains the sage Vyasa's benediction (ashirvad) that she would have one hundred boys.

Her pregnancy is more than two years long.

She gives birth to a large lump of meat when she becomes impatient and attempts to accelerate the delivery.

Gandhari should split the lump and set each piece in a saucepan of clarified butter, according to Vyasa (ghee).

Each of the 101 pots eventually breaks open, revealing a hundred lovely lads and a solitary girl, Dussala.

The two oldest sons, Duryodhana and Duhshasana, are the most significant of the hundred sons. 


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Supernatural Powers Of Yogis - Yogic Luminescence, Asceticism, And Psychic Power

 





    Long before the word yoga came to mean "spirituality" or "spiritual path," He compelled the Gods to grant His request that the heavenly river Ganges (Ganga) release its waters to flood and regenerate the parched earth by raising his arms high. 



    The archetypal ascetic (tapasvin) of the Vedic period is the ecstatic muni, not the obedient householder-sacrificer or even the elevated seer (rishi). 



    • The muni is part of what is known as the Vedic counterculture, which consists of religious people and organizations (such as the Vratyas) that followed their holy goals outside of Vedic society. 
    • The muni has been referred to be the forerunner of the later yogi? in that he resembles a lunatic in his euphoric oblivion. 
    • Many aspects of his lifestyle foreshadow the later avadhuta's unconventional conduct, which is celebrated in the Avadhuta-Gita and other medieval Sanskrit writings. 



    Tapas has survived as a separate tradition from Yoga.





    The Mahabharata epic, for example, documents this simultaneous growth. 

    Many famous tapasvins' tales are told, including Vyasa, Vishvamitra, Vashishtha, Cyavana, Bharadvaja, Bhrigu, and Uttanka. 



    Indeed, the tradition of tapas is given precedence over Yoga in several sections of the epic, indicating the passages' early antiquity. 


    • Tapas is usually achieved via chastity (brahmacarya) and the subjection of the senses (indriya-jaya). 
    • The inherent tendencies of the body-mind are believed to produce psychophysical effulgence (tejas), brightness (jyotis), tremendous power (ba/a), and vitality (ba/a) (vfrya). 



    Since Vedic times, another word strongly associated with asceticism is ojas (apparently related to the Latin a dt ustus, "majestic"). 


    • It refers to a certain kind of numinous energy that energizes the whole body and mind. 
    • Ojas is produced primarily via the discipline of chastity, as a consequence of sexual energy being sublimated. 
    • It is said to be so powerful that the ascetic may influence and alter his or her own fate as well as the fate of others. 
    • According to the Atharva-Veda, the deities attained immortality by practicing chastity and austerities. 



    Tapas is typically associated with the acquisition of psychic powers (siddhi), which often proved to be the downfall of unwise ascetics who abused their extraordinary abilities. 


    • The Tapas tradition unfolded against the backdrop of a magical worldview in which the cosmos is filled with personalized sources of psychic power, both in the Vedic Age and the Epic Age (virya). 
    • He also names tapas as one of the five observances or restrictions (niyama) and claims that austerity perfects the body and its senses. 
    • Tapas is clearly limited to the role of a warm-up exercise in this context. 





    Yoga is primarily concerned with meditation and its enhanced form, ecstatic transcendence (samadhi).


    • For millennia, the tradition of tapas has coexisted with the schools of Yoga, and this is also the case today. 

    The hagiography Maharaj tells the extraordinary tale of a modern tapasvin and saint who supposedly lived for years. 

    • Tapasviji Maharaj, the story's protagonist, was born into a royal family but abandoned everything in his late fifties and girded himself with a loincloth. 
    • He was regarded as a powerful ascetic and miracle worker throughout his lifetime. 
    • He achieved incredible feats of endurance, overcoming both pain and boredom. 
    • He stood on one leg with one arm extended skyward for three years, then never laid down for another twenty-four years while traveling several kilometers every day. 






    This saint drew a lot of attention in the United States because of his extraordinary lifespan, which he said was due to his receiving the kaya-kalpa or renewing therapy known to traditional Indian medicine three times. 

    • The effectiveness of this therapy is mainly determined on the patient's temperament, since he or she must be able to tolerate extended periods of near-complete isolation. 
    • Only a highly adept meditator of Tapasviji Ma­ haraj's caliber could conceivably bear the agony of self-denial. 
    • Clearly, the tapasvins of ancient and modern India have much to teach Western medicine.


    You may also want to read more about Kundalini Yoga here.

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