Showing posts with label Vedas. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Vedas. Show all posts

Hinduism - Who Is A Yati In Hindu Spirituality?

 


 (from the Sanskrit word yam, which means "to restrict") The word yati has been used to identify an ascetic, as someone who has attained control over oneself, from the time of the Vedas, the oldest Hindu holy books.

Since the storm-god Indra is reported to have battled with the yatis during the period of the Vedas, there seems to be some ambiguity about the yatis, but later on the name takes on an absolutely good sense.


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Hinduism - Who Is Yaska?

 



 Yaska (5th century BCE?) is traditionally credited with writing the Nirukta, a Vedic treatise that provides etymological explanations for ancient terms.

Nearly a fourth of the Vedic terms occur just once.

As the spoken language evolved, the meanings of many of these terms had become either ambiguous or altogether forgotten by Yaska's time.

Although it is evident that Yaska is guessing at times—for example, when contemporary linguists may draw parallels with the Iranian Avesta, a comparable religious text—his work proved invaluable to subsequent readers.


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Hinduism - Who Is A Yajamana?

 


("sacrifice's patron"). The yajamana was the person who commissioned the sacrifice and paid for its fulfillment, and therefore stood to profit from its expected benefits, according to the Vedas, the earliest Hindu religious literature.

This word distinguishes the connection between the priest and the patron: the former were erudite men and ritual technologists who understood how to execute elaborate sacrificial rituals, but they were reliant on the patronage of their sponsors for their subsistence.


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Hinduism - What Is Rta In Hindu Cosmology?


Rta is the cosmic order and regularity that allows the rhythms of time and seasons to occur in orderly succession, according to the Vedas (the oldest and most authoritative Hindu texts).

According to the texts, rta had a moral dimension to it, which humans were obligated to support.

One such moral dimension was truth, which was seen as upholding the cosmos, while its polar opposite, anrta, came to be associated with deception.

Varuna, the Vedic god who was both the guardian of rta and the deity who punished untruth, usually by affliction with dropsy, was the link between the natural and moral worlds.


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Hinduism - Who Is A Rtvij?

 

One of the priests who officiated at sacrifices in Hindu sacred texts (Vedas).

The hotr, udgatr, adhvaryum, and brahman were the four chief priests at sacrifices.


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Hinduism - What Is The Rig Veda?

 


Rg Veda is a Hindu scripture.

The most ancient and authoritative Hindu holy writings, and the oldest and most significant of the four Vedas.

The Rig Veda is a collection of 1,028 hymns in 10 books.

The hymns were definitely written over a lengthy period of time based on their substance, but the exact dates are a point of contention.

Traditional Hindus believe that the Vedas were not written by God or humans, but rather by ancient sages who heard them via their enhanced abilities of perception and passed them down orally from generation to generation.

The Vedas are therefore classified as shruti ("heard") holy scriptures because of their origin.

The Vedas were started in the early second millennium B.C.E., maybe 1800–1500 B.C.E., and ended towards the end of the second millennium B.C.E., perhaps 1200–900 B.C.E., according to scholarly agreement.

All of these dates are very speculative, since the hymns themselves have no internal evidence to support precise dating, which has instead been relied mostly on a comparative analysis of changes in the language of the Vedas.

Some hymns, for example, are regarded to have been written later than others, both because their vocabulary is less archaic and closer to classical Sanskrit, and because the places referenced in them cover a larger geographical range.

The Rig Veda's hymns are mostly devoted to a single god.

Indra, Agni, and Soma are the primary deities, however Varuna is mentioned in the oldest hymns.

The hymns were sung during sacrifices to summon these deities, according to popular belief.

According to the hymns, these sacrifices were massive public ceremonies that frequently included the murder of animals, which were then burnt on a sacrificial fire, as well as the preparation and consumption of the enigmatic beverage soma.

The Vedic hymns represent a corpus of holy knowledge that is only known to a restricted number of religious specialists in this environment.

Since a result, these songs were never intended for widespread public dissemination, as everyone save twice-born males were prohibited from hearing them.

The tenth and last book of the Rig Veda varies significantly from the others.

Its language is more akin to traditional Sanskrit, and its subject is significantly more speculative than the preceding volumes, implying a significant conceptual leap.

The renowned Creation Hymn (10.129) is included in this book, in which the poet speculates on how the universe came to be, only to conclude that even the creator may not know the answer.

The Purusha Sukta (10.90) is another famous hymn in this collection, which views both the world and human civilization as the result of a primal sacrifice.

The theological and cosmic speculation contained in the Upanishads is foreshadowed in the previous song.

The latter is distinguished as predicting later dharma literature because it provides the earliest known articulation of the four primary social groupings (varnas) and their symbolic purposes.


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Hinduism - Who Is Pushan In The Vedas?

 


Pushan is one of the deities associated with the Sun in the Vedas, the oldest and most authoritative Hindu religious literature.

Pushan is known as the "witness to all things" because of this link; he is also known as the "keeper and guardian of flocks," as well as the "shower of fortune." 

His presence had nearly completely vanished by the turn of the common period, and maybe even before, and he is now only historically noteworthy.


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Hinduism - What Are Instances Of The Use Of Mnemonics In Hindu Scriptures And Literature?


The study of the Vedas, the earliest Hindu holy scriptures, is the best-known example of a mnemonic technique.

The Vedas' power is traditionally derived not from the content of the words, but from the sounds themselves.

It was critical that the material be delivered without errors.

This presented a considerable obstacle.

The Vedas have been orally transmitted for over three thousand years, similar in all areas of India, thanks to an extensive set of learning processes that have kept the text constant.

This astonishing achievement was accomplished by remembering the text in several formats, including verses, individual words, pairs of words in sequential succession (ab, bc, cd, and so on), even backwards, according to some stories.

The ultimate goal of all of these patterns was to turn the text into pure sound, rather than words with clear syn tactic meaning, since the latter could be replaced.

Despite the fact that this endeavor was successful in maintaining holy sounds, the meanings of many of these words have become ambiguous, particularly for those that occur just once.

This was evident as early as the fifth century B.C.E., when Yaska, the grammarian, authored the Nirukta, which explained the meanings of several of these terms.


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Hinduism - What Is The Kalivarjya?

 

A collection of roughly fifty-five deeds "must be avoided in the Kali [Age]," the final age in the cosmic time cycle after which it is said the world will be destroyed and rebuilt.

One of the tactics employed by brahmin academics to prohibit certain religious practices that were required in the holy writings but were no longer acceptable due to changing beliefs was to adopt this strategy.

Around the eleventh century C.E., the Kalivarjya restrictions first appear in manuscripts.

Certain animal sacrifices authorized in the Vedas (the oldest Hindu religious books) and suicide by a human suffering from a terminal disease were deemed permissible in ancient times but outlawed during the Kali period.

Pandurang Vaman Kane (trans.), A History of Dharmasastra, 1968, is a good source of knowledge.


 


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Hinduism - Who Was Jaimini?

 


 (4th c. B.C.E.?) The Mimamsa Sutras, the core writings of the Purva Mimamsa school, one of India's six schools of thought, are typically attributed to him.

The Mimamsa school is particularly concerned with dharma ("righteous deed") investigation and pursuit.

The Mimamsa thought that the Vedas, the earliest Hindu religious writings, supplied all required teachings in their pursuit of dharma.

Given these two assumptions, much of Mimamsa thinking is dedicated to the concepts and techniques of textual interpretation that they utilized to decipher the instructions they believed the Vedas contained.


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