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Hinduism - AGAMAS



    What Are Agamas?

    Agamas refer to sacred Hindu texts recorded in various forms collectively.

    The significance of texts of all kinds—prose and poetry, written and oral, spoken and sung (whether by a single expert or by a multitude), antique and vernacular, stable and fluid—distinguishes Hinduism, if Hinduism can be characterized as a single thing at all. 

    Here we explore the significance of texts in Hinduism, defines various textual categories, and provides links to entries that cover related topics. 

    Agamas can be Stable and Flowing, Written and Spoken. 

    Any utterance, long or short, that can be repeated in essentially the same manner on several occasions is referred to in this context as a "text." 

    There is a propensity to limit the word "text" to utterances recorded in writing, whether in handwriting, printed, or electronic form. 

    This inclination is supported by the nomenclature of mobile phones and text editing software. 

    When discussing Hindu culture, however, where certain texts exist without writing and are conveyed orally from one speaker to another, this limitation is improper. 

    Writing seems to have first arisen in India, apart from the Indus Valley script, about the middle of the last millennium BCE, but was not utilized for religious writings until much later. 

    With the exception of a few later ones, several of these—the Vedic texts—were written down during a period when there is no proof that writing existed. 

    Others, passed down within small communities, are only known to those outside those communities if they are written down or electronically stored by a third party. 

    There are texts in all of the Hindu languages that are interpreted in this broad meaning (including English and other languages of countries outside South Asia). 

    Many civilizations have incredibly stable ritual texts that must always be performed in precisely the same way—the same words in the same sequence, often even with the same vocal inflections—in order to avoid becoming insulting, ineffectual, or even catastrophic. 

    Vedic writings are one example of this. 

    Other texts may be changed by various reciters, scribes, or even the same person at different times by deleting, adding, or modifying specific words. 

    The art of the reciter may include improvised variation. 

    The Mahabharata and Ramayana, which change considerably in various regions of South Asia, are excellent examples of this. 

    Whether a text is written or spoken depends on whether it is stable or flowing. 

    While the Vedic writings have not altered despite being passed down orally for millennia prior to being recorded, there are hundreds of manuscripts and four distinct printed copies of the Mahabharata. 

    The idea that a text should be retained in tact without being recorded in writing runs counter to what literary historians and anthropologists have discovered about the nature of oral literature. 

    In societies where oral texts are fluid, significant study on oral transmission of texts has been conducted (Chadwick and Chadwick 1932–1940; Lord 1960; Ong 1982). 

    A typical orally transmitted text, like a ballad or an epic, exists as a variety of performances, each of which is somewhat improvised and not an exact replication of any prior performance. 

    This explains, for instance, the Mahabharata's several recensions and myriad modifications. 

    Some theorists (mostly from outside Indian studies) have questioned whether the Veda could have been conveyed unmodified without the use of writing, despite the fact that the oral transmission of the Veda in ancient and contemporary times is thoroughly proven (Scharfe 2002: 8–37, 240–51). 

    According to one anthropologist, the Vedic texts cannot have taken on a set shape before writing was discovered since the concept of a stable text can only exist in a community that is literate (Goody 1987). 

    He claims that the educational environment decontextualizes memory in literate societies by isolating learning from action (Goody 1987: 189). 

    In contrast, this was and is accomplished in India without the use of writing by isolating the study of the Vedas from the context of the yajna, where the texts would be used. 

    The practice of self-study (svadhyaya), in which the Veda-knower recites the texts he has learned, and the learning process are rituals in and of themselves. 

    A class of people who dedicate a major portion of their life to it must be able to do the mental labor-intensive task of oral transmission of a stable text. 

    It was accomplished by brahmans, whose standing relied on their knowledge; monks, similarly, transmitted Buddhist literature (Warder 1970: 205, 294). 

    Some of Paul Ricoeur's (1981: 147; cf. Graham 1987: 15) insights must be amended in a Hindu setting due to the potential of a stable oral text. 

    He contends that the act of writing simultaneously creates the text and distinguishes it from speech, and hence from the setting in which the words were first spoken and in which they had meaning. 

    Recontextualizing the text in the interpreter's own context is the goal of hermeneutics, according to Ricoeur. 

    However, according to the Hindu perspective, the Veda and other writings are not distinguished from speech and are texts even if they are not written. 

    The Veda is speech in and of itself; it is frequently referred to as sabda-brahman, "Brahman as sound," and is a manifestation of the original speech that was spoken at the beginning of the cosmos (om). 

    Not just the Veda, but also the Epics, Puranas, Tantras, and other works that are passed down verbally yet written down in manuscripts are subject to the rule that voice takes precedence over writing (Carpenter 1992). 

    As shown by commentary (see below), recontextualization, or giving a text a new meaning in a new context, did occur in ancient India, but it had previously happened with the Brahmanas and writings like Yaska's Nirukta, completely independently of writing. 

    Until the widespread use of printing in the nineteenth century, other literature relied either on less stable techniques of oral transmission or on perishable manuscripts, or both, whereas the Vedic texts have been maintained stable by a closely regulated methodology of oral transmission. 

    While more well-known writings like the Panchatantra are available in several manuscript and printed copies in various locales, showing the unbridled inventiveness of anonymous storytellers, many ancient Sanskrit texts have been passed down in pretty dependable manuscript form. 

    Similar fluidity may be seen in the Mahabharata, Ramayana, Puranas, and other smrti works. 

    While certain vernacular collections, like the poetry of Kabir, have a very consistent history, others don't. 

    Some academics have tried to reconstruct the original shape of such a work by contrasting the readings of various manuscripts using textual criticism techniques. 

    Others argue that these approaches are unsuitable for works that have always been available in a variety of versions reflecting regional and ideological differences. 

    Others who seek the original text via the variation versions and those who believe that these versions themselves are the appropriate subject of study continue to have disagreements (Narayana Rao 2004: 110–03). 

    Printing altered the situation in the nineteenth century by giving certain copies of previously fluid writings preference and making Vedic texts, which were previously the property of twice-born men who had received upanayana, accessible to everyone. 

    Then then, recording and broadcasting in the 20th century altered everything. 

    Specialist reciters are no longer required because to sound recordings and written volumes of mantras (Buhnemann 1988: 96). 

    The Ramayana and Mahabharata on television have prioritized certain interpretations more successfully than printed copies could (Brockington 1998: 510–13). 

    The Mahabharata, Ramayana, and Puranas have certain stories that have rather solid literary forms, but popular storytelling is still a flexible art. 

    The vrat-katha is a significant kind of religious story that is told to a group of individuals engaged in a vrata

    The traditional form of a vrata includes the telling of the narrative, which explains how the vrata was established and what benefits come from following it. 

    However, a videotape might now take the role of the storyteller (Jackson and Nesbitt 1993: 65–70). 

    Hindu thinking places a high value on speech, as seen by the care with which texts are preserved and the respect accorded to individuals who recall them, both in the Vedic textual tradition and in less formal traditions (Graham 1987: 67–77). 

    However, in non-Vedic ritual writing has a place alongside speech despite the fact that speech is given priority and that the vocal aspect is dominant both in Vedic ritual and elsewhere. 

    Both inside and outside of temples, mantras are painted; home shrines often have metal sculptures of the om symbol, and some temples have neon signs. 

    On holy diagrams, this character and others that stand in for "seed mantras" are engraved (yantras). 

    Both Valmiki's Ramayana and the whole of Tulsidas' Ramcharitmanas are engraved on the walls of contemporary temples in Varanasi and Ayodhya, respectively (Brockington 1998: 506n.). 

    In many temples, a printed copy of the Rigveda Samhita is on display; however, it is not meant to be read, but rather to be revered, much as the Sikhs revere the Adi Granth

    What exactly are "holy texts"? 

    The term "holy texts" is a useful method to distinguish between writings that obviously have a religious purpose within a given tradition and those that do not. 

    The Veda, the Dharmasastra, the poems of the Alvars and Nayan-mar, the mantras spoken or chanted in worship, bhajan songs, or books of instruction like the Siks.patr of Swami Narayana are just a few examples of texts that are discussed in this entry that are used in ritual or that convey religious ideas or precepts. 

    Even though the Pancatantra and the Kamasutra are included in this encyclopedia because of their importance to Hindu culture, we are not concerned with these writings since they are obviously not holy. 

    Although many of them include mythical content or express significant principles like karma or purity, the majority of ancient poetry and contemporary books are also unimportant to us. 

    The Mahabharata and the Ramayana, on the other hand, are the subjects of our interest since they not only include tales but also serve as a repository for religious doctrine and mantras and are dramatized and repeated during certain ceremonial occasions. 

    A priceless legacy of editions, translations, and other works has been left by the study of Hindu writings written in Sanskrit and other languages throughout the nineteenth and most of the twentieth centuries. 

    The belief that every religion had its own "Bible" or "scriptures," serving a comparable purpose to the Bible in Protestantism (in theological theory if not in observable practice), was supported and, to some measure, driven by that scholarly tradition. 

    This presumption, exemplified by Muller's Sacred Books of the East series, ignores the many ways that texts may be employed in various traditions as well as the various ways that their authority or holiness may be perceived (Timm 1992: 2). 

    Like "the holy" itself, the notion of "sacred texts" or "scripture" is imposed from outside and is not always present among participants. 

    We may interpret it as texts that are "considered, in some way, as the primary center of spoken interaction with ultimate reality" (Graham 1987: 68). 

    They can be interpreted as such because they were said by a particularly wise person, like Valmiki, or by a great number of wise people, like the Vedic rishis or a group of bhakti poets, or by a deity, like Siva; or they can be interpreted as wise because they were eternal and independent of any author, which in the Purva Mmamsa view is the assurance of the Veda's authority. 

    Some works (e.g., Bhagavadgta 18, 67-78; S vetas.vatara Upanisad 6. 22f.) make a claim to being holy by offering incentives for hearing or reciting them or banning teaching them to unauthorized individuals. 

    However, the way a text is used, not its contents, can indicate whether it is considered sacred. 

    This includes whether or not it is recited in ritual settings, whether it is treated as a source of truths or moral imperatives, and whether written or oral versions of the text are revered or protected from tampering. 

    Speaking of sacred texts implies that there is a community who holds those texts in high regard (W.C. Smith 1993: 17f.). 

    For various Hindu groups, various texts are sacred in various ways. 

    Adherence to a text may define what is, for convenience's sake, a "sect" in Hinduism (Renou 1953: 91–99). 

    The word "sect" essentially translates to "tradition" in Sanskrit; unlike in European contexts where it may denote anything that differs from a church or societal standards. 

    Even when a sampradaya's founder left no written works behind, later generations continued to produce literary works in both the vernacular and Sanskrit. 

    This was the situation with the Chaitanya-founded Vaisnava tradition, where the six Gosvamins of Vrindavana composed Bengali and Sanskrit texts that were considered canonical for the Sampradaya. 

    Even the non-hierarchical Bauls, who have no known founder, have their own fluid corpus of songs. 

    What Are Smritis And Srutis?

    Smrti and Sruti Although the term "holy texts" or "scripture" is not an indigenous one, Hindus themselves have categorized such books in a number of significant ways. 

    We may start by dividing knowledge into sruti, which means "hearing, revelation," and smrti, which means "memory, tradition." Sruti is the Veda; it is timeless and was comprehended by the ancient via extrasensory perception. 

    Even if the writers of Smrti writings were much smarter than modern humans are capable of becoming, they were still humans. 

    The word "sruti" does not relate to a fixed canon of writings since the bounds of the Veda are fluid. 

    Indeed, the phrase was not always limited to the Veda; in Manusmrti (12.95), books that are most likely Buddhist and Jain are condemned as "srutis that are outside the Veda" (Olivelle 2005: 234, 349). 

    Smrti is still not as exact. It contains the Kalpasutras, yet as they are a component of the Vedic ceremonial system, they are not typical of smrti writings. 

    The Mahabharata, the Ramayana, the Dharmasastras, the Puranas, the Agamas, and the Tantras are what are often meant by the word. 

    There may be disagreements on whether a text is authentic since none of these criteria are clearly established. 

    These works are often structured by a dialogue in which a mythological person learns something from a different figure, with the prestige of these individuals lending legitimacy to the lessons. 

    Conversations are often placed inside dialogues to provide a series of teachers and listeners, most notably in the Mahabharata. 

    As a result, their literary form places them in a setting of verbal instruction from an authoritative speaker to an attentive listener, a scenario that is repeated by a line of speakers and listeners down to the current reciter and his audience. 

    Smrti renders its listeners indirect receivers of linguistic communication from the divine, but Sruti makes audible the everlasting speech at the beginning of the cosmos. 

    The Smrti texts are publicly recited, with the reciter frequently interspersing a vernacular translation, in contrast to the Vedas, which must be protected from being heard by unauthorized people (such as non-twice-born men or women) and recited in a set ritual manner in the exact form in which they have been learned. 

    Despite the fact that printing and manuscripts have made such recitation easier, the majority of people encounter texts via voice. 

    The performance of reciting the Puranas is mostly oral, however it is carried out by a highly educated professional known as the pauranika, who not only reads the book aloud but also comments on it while referencing other works. 

    A similar performance erases the line between oral and written culture (Singer 1972: 150–55; see also Narayana Rao 2004: 103–14). 

    Since the proponents of smrti possessed in-depth knowledge of the Veda, historically, the authority of smrti is drawn from that of sruti. 

    Manu claims that the tradition (smrti) and behavior of people who know it are the second source of dharma after the Veda itself (Manusmrti 2, 6). 

    The Vedic redactor Vyasa is credited with writing the Mahabharata after compiling the Vedas (Mahabharata 1.1.52). 

    According to Mahabharata 1.1.204, "The epics (itihasa) and Puranas should be employed to reinforce the Veda, because the Veda dread an uneducated man lest he may ruin it." 

    The narrative is repeated in the Bhagavata Purana: Vyasa wrote the Mahabharata because women, sudras, and nominal brahman (those who do not fulfill the actual character of brahman by learning the Veda) could not access the Vedas (Bhagavata Purana, 1.5.25). 

    But it also adds a conclusion: Vyasa eventually wrote the Bhagavata Purana to instruct in Krishna worship because he was still unsatisfied (Bhagavata Purana 1.4. 26–31; 1.7.6–8). 

    The historical link between smrti and sruti weakens as we go from the Kalpasutras through the Dharmasastras and epics to the Puranas, Agamas, and Tantras

    The four yugas, the framework on which historical time is traditionally constructed, are used to acknowledge this historical variation in the tradition. 

    Only during the Kreta era could the Vedas be properly followed; during the Dvapara era, they were in danger of being lost, which is why Vyasa set them up. 

    The Vedas are poorly known and understood in the current Kali era, when the brahmans who should preserve them are degenerate and the status of the kshatriyas who once supported the yajna has been usurped by rebels; instead, the smrti texts, which contain the meaning of the Vedas, have taken their place. 

    The Kali era is claimed to outlaw several behaviors that are prescribed in the Vedic writings namely Kali Varjya(or kali-varjita). 

    These practices include animal sacrifice and niyoga, also known as levirate, in which a man's wife engages in sexual relations with his brother in order to produce a son for her dead husband. 

    The belief that the Bhagavata Purana, or any other specific smrti work, conveys the content of the Veda does not imply that specific sentences in one text may be connected to phrases in another. 

    Instead, it conveys the feeling that both have the absolute truth. 

    The Bhagavad Gita, which has been the subject of countless translations and commentaries since the late nineteenth century, is the smrti text that is currently printed the most widely. 

    Long before that, it served as the inspiration for numerous imitations, some of which are included in Puranas like the Ganesagta or the Devgta while the Anugta is contained within the Mahabharata itself (Gonda 1977: 271–76). 

    Although some people object to this, the Bhagavadgta is often utilized in funeral ceremonies and as a book for religious schools (Firth 1997: 84, 87). 

    Numerous smrti writings, whether they promote the worship of Siva, Visnu, or Sakti or another god, are well-known and acknowledged by devotees of other deities. 

    Many of the Puranas support this. 

    On the other hand, there are literature known as Agamas, Tantras, and Sam hitas that are particular to one or both of these deities. 

    The word "agama," which means "tradition," may be used to refer to works that provide guidance on ritual behavior and the pursuit of salvation generally, but it is particularly used to describe books that identify Siva as the ultimate god. 

    Tantra may also be used more broadly, however it is particularly employed in books on Sakti worship. 

    The Vedic Samhitas and the group of works dedicated to Visnu known as the Pancaratra Samhitas are the two principal usage of the term samhita. 

    Even while the phrases A gama, Tantra, and Samhita are often used to refer to Saivism, Saktism, and Vaisnavism, respectively, none of them are exclusive to any of these three. 

    However, the specific books they refer to are often just Saivism, Saktism, or Vaisnavism (Gonda 1977). 

    What Are Mantras, Vidhis, And Arthavada?

    The Veda is divided into mantra, vidhi, and arthavada categories according to a different categorization created in Purva Mimamsa. 

    1. A mantra is a passage of text chanted or spoken aloud during a rite. 
    2. A vidhi is a paragraph that instructs ritual practitioners on what to do and how to execute it. It is often translated as a "injunction." 
    3. Arthavada, which translates to "statement of purpose," explains why a ritual should be performed in a certain manner. 

    In practice, it refers to all Vedic texts that are neither mantras nor vidhis. 

    The Samhitas have mantras, but the Brahmanas and Aranyakas also commonly mention them. 

    The Brahmanas, Aranyakas, and Upanishads also contain vidhi and arthavada

    Although the word "mantra" is often used outside of the Vedic setting, this categorization specifically pertains to Vedic writings. 

    Non-Vedic literature may also be categorized into sections that are employed in ritual, sections that prescribe, and sections that offer motivation for ritual action. 

    The phrases vidhi and arthavada are less common writings in both Sanskrit and the local language. 

    The sruti and smrti writings mentioned above are all in Sanskrit, and many Hindus who do not speak the language are acquainted with the sound of Sanskrit due to its usage in ritual. 

    There are holy scriptures in all Indian languages. 

    Bhakti, with its focus on the relationship between the devotee and the divine, which eliminates the necessity for the brahman and his ceremonial writings in Sanskrit, encouraged the use of literature in vernacular languages. 

    However, we need not assume that the earliest vernacular texts, starting with the Tamil poems of the sixth century, were also the first bhakti texts to be made available. 

    The use of vernacular languages from the beginning in Buddhist and Jain texts suggests that Sanskrit's dominance in the religious sphere had long been contested. 

    Along with the bhakti poetry, there are many vernacular Puranas, some of which are completely independent of Sanskrit and others that have been translated or altered from it (Rocher 1986: 72–77). 

    Many regional and educational themes are addressed in vernacular versions of the Ramayana, such as Kampan's Tamil translation Iramavataram and Tulsdas's Hindi Ramcaritmanas. 

    In the Ramlla dramas, especially at Dasahra, these, especially the latter, are not only recited but also performed (Brockington 1998: 505-07; Lutgendorf 1991). 

    It is less common to dramatize the Mahabharata, but South India and Sri Lanka both stage plays centered on Draupad (Brockington 1998: 507; Hiltebeitel 1988-91; Tanaka 1991). 

    Sanskrit writings are explicitly rejected in certain bhakti traditions, as in the tale of the Marathi poet Namdev who had a cow recite the Veda (Ranade 1961: 71). 

    The concept of the fifth Veda and the notion that vernacular texts with concepts such as the Tamil Veda, as well as smrti texts with concepts like the Bhagavata Purana (see above), contain the meaning of the Veda, were both expanded. 

    On the other hand, in many lineages, the creation of vernacular literature has been followed by the development of texts in Sanskrit. 

    For instance, the Sanskrit works of Yamunacarya, Ramanuja, and others came after the Tamil songs of the Alvars. 

    The Alvars were also followed by the Bhagavata Purana, which, because it was written in Sanskrit, made emotional bhakti accessible outside of the Tamil-speaking region. 

    However, the change from the vernacular to Sanskrit was accompanied by a change from an emotional to an intellectual form of bhakti (Hardy 1983: 36–43). 

    Vernacular works must obviously be regional, although this does not preclude their translation into or imitation in neighboring languages; for example, poetry credited to Kabr are also available in Bengali, Panjabi, and Hindi. 

    Tyagaraja's (1767–1847) Telegu songs are popular in areas of South India and the diaspora but are seldom recognized outside of that region (Jackson 1991). 

    Up until the nineteenth century, when English usage started to rise steadily throughout the Hindu world, Sanskrit was the only language in which texts could be made available. 

    The English writings of non-regional, non-sectarian Hinduism pioneers like Gandhi, Radhakrishnan, and Vivekananda—a Bengali, Gujarati, and Tamil—show the significance of English in this process. 

    In the last fifty years, Hindi has surpassed English as the language spoken across all of India. 

    Some Sanskrit writings are regional or even local, while vernacular texts are by their very nature local. 

    What Are Mahatmyas And Sthala-Puranas?

    In addition to texts from locally based sampradayas, there are texts from pilgrimage sites or temples. 

    These texts include Mahatmyas ('glorifications'), which extol the local deity and the advantages of visiting it, and Sthala-Puranas ('puranas of the place, local puranas'), which tell the history of the site's sanctity and the rules for visiting it. 

    Examples of these two types that overlap may be found in vernacular and Sanskrit languages (Rocher 1986: 71f. ; Gonda 1977: 276-81). 

    The readers or listeners of vernacular texts are not always able to understand them; Sanskrit is not the only language that is used in ritual without being fully understood. 

    The language of the Tamil bhakti poetry is not current spoken Tamil, although they are nevertheless widely performed in temples. 

    Tulsıdas’ Ramcaritmanas may have owed its popularity originally to its being in language familiar to its hearers, but it continues to be repeated in its original, now archaic form, its worth consisting in its holiness rather than its accessibility. 

    Sacred Poetry And Prose. 

    Most of the works we are interested in are in verse, however numerous mantras from the Yajur veda, all of the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas, certain Upanisads, and the Kalpasutras are in prose (interesting as the earliest instances of prose in any Indian language). 

    Also written in prose are the non-Vedic sutras. 

    There are a few portions in the Mahabharata and Puranas that are written in prose. 

    Sanskrit literature, especially technical works like the Sam. 

    hyakarikas, the founding book of the Sam. 

    khya philosophy, was and remains heavily verse-based. 

    The sloka, a stanza of thirty-two syllables split into four halves, is by far the most popular poetry form. 

    Unlike the other meters employed in the complex literature known as kavya, it is adaptable and simple to utilize (see below). 

    Slokas have been written by countless anonymous authors of the Puranas and other texts, in addition to well-known poets, and are used even for quite unpoetic subjects were cited in prose works of religion that inspired debate, such as:

    1. Swami Narayan's Vacanamrta ('Immortality in words') in Gujarati, 
    2. Dayananda Saraswati's Satyartha Prakasa ('Light of truth') in Hindi, 
    3. or Vivekananda's writings in English. 

    What is Kavya?

    Even though kavya can be in prose, the term is occasionally translated as "poetry." It takes a significant amount of literary training to compose and appreciate this particular genre of Sanskrit literature. 

    It contains a variety of literary genres, such as verse epics, dramas, and one-verse epigrams. 

    Even today, despite the fact that few people are sufficiently educated to appreciate it, it is still being developed under the patronage of kings. 

    The Buddha-charita (also known as the "Life of the Buddha"), written by Asvaghosa in the first or second century CE, and inscriptions from the second century CE forward are the earliest instances that have survived. 

    Although textual scholars consider the Ramayana's only passages in which it claims to be the original kavya to be late and that it lacks the stylistic elaboration typical of kavya, it is still hailed as the genre's founding work (Brockington 1998: 23, 361). 

    Kavya, in contrast to smrti and other works, rigorously adheres to the grammatical rules established by Panini and other grammarians and makes use of sophisticated meters and aesthetic embellishments that are outlined in literary guides. 

    A thorough understanding of mythology as well as other disciplines is required to fully comprehend kavya, even though it generally does not come within the category of holy literature. 

    Kavya works frequently start with a prayer or deity's invocation. 

    Some, like Kalidasa's Kumarasam Bhava on the birth of Skanda, are based on mythological stories, while others, like his play Sakuntala, use epic tales. 

    The Gtagovinda and the Karnandana ('Delight of the ears'), poems from the Radhavallabh Sampradaya, which was formed by the poet's father, Hita Harivamsa, and focused on Krishna's beloved, Radha, are two instances of kavya compositions that are devotional throughout (Gonda 1977: 25–29; Entwistle 1987: 168). 

    The Kuncitan ghri-stava, written by Umapati Sivacarya in the year 1300 CE and translated as "Hymn of praise to [Nataraja's] curved foot," is one particularly intriguing example. 

    Each of its 313 verses concludes with a refrain that alludes to Siva's foot being raised in the dance and does so by way of a clever and moving fusing of mythological, theological, and philosophical ideas (D. Smith 1996). 

    What Is a Stotra?

    The stotra, a hymn of adoration to a deity, is a common type of religious text that is written in both Sanskrit and vernacular (Gonda 1977: 232–70). 

    In contrast to sloka or the meters used in kavya, many stotras use rhyme and a metre with a strong recurrent beat, and they frequently contain a refrain. 

    Many stotras are credited to Sankara (Mahadevan 1980; Hirst 2005: 24f.). 

    The Gtagovinda contains stotras, which are songs. 

    Another example is the poem Bande Mataram by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, which was originally written to honor Bengal as a mother goddess but was later changed to refer to India. 

    Its grammar is so straightforward that anyone who knows Bengali or Hindi can understand most of the poem (Lipner 2005). 

    The nama-stotra is one kind of stotra, and it consists mostly of a list of names, epithets, and descriptions of a specific god (Gonda 1977: 268–70; Gonda 1970: 67–76). 

    An early example is the Sata-rudrya ('[hymn] of a thousand Rudras'), which is still chanted in Siva temples and is part of the Black Yajur veda (Vajasaney Samhita 4, 5). 

    The prayers are interspersed with numerous names and epithets that invoke Rudra (Gonda 1970: 70f.; Gonda 1977: 241; translated Keith 1914: 353-62). 

    Other Sanskrit prose was utilized in theological works such as Ramanuja’s Vedartha-samgraha (‘Compendium of the meaning of the Veda’), and for the huge library of comments detailed below. 

    It was used for literary works such as the Pancatantra, theater, and other literary works that did not fall under the rubric of holy writings. 

    Except for letters and other related documents, little little prose was produced in the common languages until the nineteenth century. 

    The bhakti poems are in verse, though some, like the Marathi abhangs and the Kannad vacans, have a more flexible verse structure. 

    Since 1816, Rammohan Roy and his Hindu and Christian adversaries have contributed prose works in Bengali and English to religious debates that had hitherto only been held in Sanskrit. 

    In his earliest work, Roy noted that many people had trouble reading Bengali prose and offered some brief tips on how to do so (Killingley 1982: 12; Das 1966: 131f.). 

    Newspapers, books, and other advances encouraged the use of prose in the vernacular languages during the nineteenth century. 

    These well-known instances are the Lalita-sahasra-nama ('Thousand names of the luscious [Goddess]') in the Brahmanada Purana and the Visnu-sahasra-nama ('Thousand names of Visnu'; Raghavan 1958: 421-36). 

    What Is The Purpose And Place Of Commentary In Sacred Texts?

    Hindu writings are meant to be analyzed and discussed. 

    Some comments, sometimes referred to as t.ka, just clarify challenging terms; the term for a more thorough commentary is bhasya. 

    Some comments, such as Saya's on Vedic literature, Sankara's on the Upanisads, or the countless commentators on the Manusmrti or Manavadharmasastra, explain every word in the original text on the grounds that nothing is without intent. 

    Some texts, like the Brahmasutras and the Bhagavadgta, have been discussed numerous times from various and frequently conflicting perspectives; one of the commentator's tasks is to disprove competing interpretations. 

    A commentary, particularly one on a sutra, may be a text of original authorship in and of itself, with subsequent commentary by members of the same school of thought elaborating on the first commentary's meaning in light of newer developments within the school. 

    Although it has been argued that the presence of substantial commentaries indicates a text's theological significance, a text that is religiously inspiring but not theologically significant may draw little to no attention (Clooney 2003: 461). 

    In addition to Sanskrit commentaries, vernacular commentaries exist. 

    Tamil commentaries on Tamil texts are one such example (Hardy 1983: 244f.). 

    Oral commentaries on the Puranas have also been mentioned.

    ~Kiran Atma

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    References And Further reading: 

    • J. A. B. van Buitenen, trans., Yamana’s Agamapramanyam or Treatise on the Validity of Pancaratra (Madras: Ramanuja Research Society, 1971).
    • Bruno Dagens, Architecture in the Ajitagama and the Rauravagama: A Study of Two South Indian Texts (New Delhi: Sitaram Institute of Scientific Research, 1984).
    • Mark Dyczkowski, The Canon of the Saivagama and the Kubjika Tantras of the Western Kaula Tradition (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1988).
    • Kamalakar Mishra, Kashmir Saivism: The Central Philosophy of Tantrism (Portland, Ore.: Rudra Press, 1993).
    • S. K. Ramachandra Rao, Agama-Kosa: Agama Encyclopedia (Bangalore: Kapatharu Research Academy, 1994).

    Hinduism - What Is The Mahabharata?


    The mythological sage Vyasa is credited with writing one of the two major Sanskrit epics.

    The Mahabharata is substantially lengthier than the Ramayana, the other great epic.

    The Mahabharata is the world's longest epic poem, with about 100,000 stanzas.

    If the Ramayana is the story of the "good" family, in which brothers work together to maintain and protect their family, the Mahabharata is the story of the "bad" family, in which an extended royal family's hardheartedness and ambition for power leads to its demise.

    The epic is located west of modern-day Delhi and tells the story of a fratricidal civil war.

    The following is a substantially condensed version of the story: Shantanu is the Kurus's ruler.

    He dies in an untimely and heirless manner.

    Satyavati, Shantanu's wife, calls for her oldest son, the guru Vyasa, who fathers offspring by Shantanu's two women, in a desperate bid to maintain the royal dynasty.

    Because Dhrtarashtra, the oldest son, is born blind, his younger brother Pandu inherits the crown.

    Because of a curse, Pandu abdicates his kingdom and retires to the forest with his two wives, Kunti and Madri, allowing his older brother to govern in his stead.

    Dhrtarashtra's wife, Gandhari, mysteriously bears a hundred sons, the eldest of them is Duryodhana; the hundred sons are known as the Kauravas and are the epic's enemies.

    Yudhishthira, Bhima, and Arjuna are Kunti's three sons in the jungle, while Madri had twins Nakula and Sahadeva.

    The Pandavas, the epic's heroes, are these five sons.

    Pandu has been cursed to perish the instant he hugs his wife in loving embrace, hence none of these children are his sons.

    Rather, they were created by the use of a mantra given to Kunti by the sage Durvasas, which gives the woman who recites it the ability to summon any of the gods and bear a son equal to that god's might.

    Kunti gets the mantra long before her marriage and recites it spontaneously while staring at the sun, giving birth to a radiant kid.

    Kunti, distraught and desperate, places him in a box and throws him into the Ganges.

    The charioteer Adhiratha adopts the kid, who grows up to be the heroic Karna.

    Pandu dies young as a consequence of his curse, and Kunti (his wife) and his sons (the Pandavas) return to Hastinapur, where the boys are nurtured as princes.

    Duryodhana (the oldest of the Kauravas) and his cousins have had a tense relationship from the start, owing to Duryodhana's ambition for the throne, which rightfully belongs to Yudhishthira (one of the Pandavas).

    The Pandava brothers leave the realm to become mercenaries after foiling many assassination attempts.

    Arjuna wins the hand of Princess Draupadi on one of their adventures, and she becomes their common wife (their mother commands that Arjuna share whatever he wins with his brothers).

    After a while, Dhrtarashtra (the Kauravas' father) abdicates the throne and divides his country.

    The Pandavas construct a new capital at Indraprastha, which is located near modern-day Delhi.

    Things remain peaceful for a time, but Duryodhana isn't satisfied to share his kingdom.

    He challenges Yudhishthira to a dice game, pitting him against Shakuni, the most skilled gambler alive.

    Yudhishthira is an example of honesty and decency, but his fatal fault is his addiction to gambling.

    Yudhishthira loses his kingdom, all of his belongings, his brothers, himself, and eventually his wife in the match.

    Duryodhana's brother, Duhshasana, pulls Draupadi into the assembly hall by her hair, her garments soiled with her menstrual blood, in one of the epic's most devastating sequences.

    Dhrtarashtra is moved to set them free by Draupadi's humiliation, but it also initiates the hostility that drives the remainder of the tale.

    Following some haggling, the parties agree that the Pandavas will spend twelve years in exile and the thirteenth in secret.

    They will reclaim their kingdom if they can stay undetected for the thirteenth year.

    However, if they are found, the cycle of exile will begin all over again.

    Yudhishthira and his brothers approach Duryodhana for their fair portion after thirteen years, but are haughtily rejected.

    All attempts at reconciliation fail because Duryodhana states he won't give them enough land to poke a needle in.

    The Pandavas, pressed against a wall, prepare for combat.

    Yudhishthira and his siblings are on one side, supported by their advisor Krishna.

    Duryodhana and many esteemed characters, like as Drona, Bhishma, and Karna, are on the opposing side.

    The fight rages for eighteen days, until the majority of the important individuals have died.

    Yudhishthira and his brothers make it through.

    Yudhishthira is anointed king and reigns for many years in righteousness.

    He appoints his grandson, King Parikshit, to the throne later in life.

    He embarks on a last expedition into the Himalayas with his siblings.

    Yudhishthira ultimately joins the divine world after his siblings die one by one throughout the voyage.

    This synopsis does not cover the whole of the epic.

    One of the epic's characteristics is that it incorporates several unrecorded stories, with the main plot serving as a frame.

    Aside from being a story of a dysfunctional family, the Mahabharata has a wealth of cultural wisdom, with character names that are still meaningful today.

    The text's TV serial, which aired for more than a year in 1989–90, was a huge hit in India.

    It's also worth noting that many traditional Indian families will not maintain a copy of the book in the home since it's thought that doing so may cause family strife.

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    Hinduism - Who Is Drona In The Mahabharata?

    Drona is a renowned instructor of all the skills of battle, but especially archery, in the Mahabharata, the second of the two major Hindu epics. 

    He is the martial instructor of both the Pandavas and the Kauravas, the two royal factions at the center of the Mahabharata's power struggle. 

    Drona is the son of the sage Bharadvaja, who was born when the sage saw a heavenly nymph and had an involuntary seminal discharge (apsara). 

    Drona's weapon talents come from the deity Vishnu's incarnation, Parashuram, who bestows both his weapons and abilities to Drona as a blessing. 

    Drona's archery proficiency is legendary, as is his ability to teach archery. 

    He has a special liking for Arjuna (a Pandava sibling), who demonstrates such dedication and focus that Drona tells Arjuna that he will become the world's best archer. 

    The tale of Ekalavya, a tribal kid whom Drona refuses to educate because of his low position, but who becomes Arjuna's equal as an archer by worshiping a clay figure of Drona, exemplifies this support for Arjuna. 

    When Drona learns of this, he insists that Ekalavya hand up his right thumb as a preceptor's fee, ensuring that no one would be able to compete with Arjuna. 

    Drona battles heroically on the side of Duryodhana (Dhrtarashtra's oldest son) during the Mahabharata war, but is eventually murdered by King Drupada's son Dhrshtadyumna. 

    Drupada and Drona have a lengthy history of feuding throughout the epic. 

    They lived together as students, but after their studies are through, Drupada ascends to the throne of Panchala, whilst Drona is so destitute that he cannot support his family. 

    When Drona begs Drupada for charity, Drupada upbraids him in the most offensive way possible. 

    Drona swears vengeance, and after teaching the Pandavas and Kauravas the skills of battle, he demands Drupada's kingdom as a teacher's fee (dakshina) from his pupils. 

    Drona steals part of Drupada's kingdom after he defeats him, and Drupada swears to avenge him. 

    Drupada then undertakes a massive fire sacrifice in order to have a son who would slay Drona. 

    Two radiant children emerge from the flames, one of them is Dhrshtadyumna and the other his sister, Draupadi. 

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    Hinduism - Who Is Vyasa In Hindu Mythology?


    A sage who is traditionally thought to be the creator of the Mahabharata, the second of the two major Sanskrit epics, according to Hindu mythology. 

    As a consequence of his dalliance with the ferrywoman Satyavati, Vyasa is the son of the sage Parashara.

    Satyavati marries King Shantanu later in life, but only after securing the guarantee that their offspring will govern instead of Shantanu's firstborn son, Bhishma.

    Satyavati's first son dies as a youngster, and his second son dies after marrying but before producing children.

    Satyavati begs Vyasa to sleep with the brides of her younger sons, Ambika and Ambalika, in order to save Shantanu's dynasty.

    Vyasa is a terribly unattractive man, according to legend, and both ladies respond automatically when he comes in their beds.

    Ambika conceals her eyes, causing her son Dhrtarashtra to be born blind, while Ambalika becomes pale, leading her son Pandu to be born with an unusually pale complexion.

    Vyasa also has intercourse with Ambika's maidservant, who freely submits herself to him, and Vidura is born from her.

    The Pandavas and Kauravas, respectively, are the descendants of Pandu and Dhrtarashtra, the two warring groups whose rivalry propels the Mahabharata.

    As a result, Vyasa is not only the Mahabharata's author, but also the source of the Mahabharata's two families' fight.

    Kiran Atma

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    Hinduism - Who Was Drupada In The Mahabharata?

    Drupada is the ruler of the Panchala area and the father of Dhrshtadyumna and Draupadi in the Mahabharata, the second of the two major Hindu epics. 

    Drupada's conflict with Drona, who was one of Drupada's fellow pupils, consumes most of his life. 

    After their studies are completed, Drupada ascends to the throne and lives lavishly, whilst Drona is so destitute that he cannot even feed his family. 

    Drona approaches Drupada for assistance, reminding him of their previous relationship. 

    Drupada rejects him arrogantly, informing him that such relationships are irrelevant. 

    Drona vows vengeance and demands Drupada's kingdom as his preceptor's fee after imparting the techniques of combat to the Pandavas and Kauravas, the two royal factions whose struggle for supremacy lies at the core of the Mahabharata (dakshina). 

    Drona steals part of Drupada's kingdom when Drupada is vanquished, and Drupada vows vengeance. 

    He makes a significant sacrifice in order to give birth to a son who would assassinate Drona. 

    Dhrshtadyumna, who finally kills Drona, and Draupadi, who becomes the wife of all five Pandavas, are the two offspring that emerge from the sacrifice fire. 

    During the Mahabharata battle, Drupada fights with his sons-in-law, the Pandavas. 

    Drona finally kills him in combat, but his son Dhrshtadyumna avenges him by killing Drona. 

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    Hinduism - Who Is Dhrtarashtra In The Mahabharata?

    The son of the philosopher Vyasa and queen Ambika in the Mahabharata, the later of the two major Hindu epics. 

    After Shantanu's son Vichitravirya died without heirs, Dhrtarashtra and his stepbrother Pandu are the outcome of a desperate endeavor to maintain King Shantanu's royal dynasty. 

    Satyavati, Vichitravirya's mother, instructs her eldest son, Vyasa, to sleep with Ambika and her sister, Ambalika, in the hopes of conceiving the ladies. 

    Vyasa is said to be incredibly ugly, and when he comes in a woman's bed, she responds reflexively. 

    Ambika closes her eyes, blinding her son Dhrtarashtra, while Ambalika becomes pale, giving her son Pandu an unusually pale skin. 

    Dhrtarashtra succeeds to the kingdom despite his infirmity after Pandu's resignation; the latter renounces the world after being cursed by the sage Kindama. 

    Dhrtarashtra and his wife Gandhari produce one hundred sons, collectively known as the Kauravas, while Pandu's two wives have five sons, known as the Pandavas. 

    The Mahabharata's ultimate cause of strife is the rivalry between these two royal lineages, each of which has a legitimate claim to reign. 

    Dhrtarashtra does nothing to avert the conflict. 

    He is often represented as a nice guy, but he is also weak and unable to control his oldest son, Duryodhana's ambitions. 

    Dhrtarashtra's blindness is not only real, but also symbolic, since he lacks the vision and clarity that would have enabled him to see and prevent the breach between these two families. 

    His infirmity puts him on the periphery of everyday life, but it also shows that he is unable to change the course of events, no matter how strongly he feels about them. 

    When he provides boons to Draupadi (daughter of King Drupada) after her humiliation by Duryodhana and his brother Duhshasana, she regains freedom for herself and her husbands, and this is one of the few instances he truly exhibits force. 

    Dhrtarashtra does not participate in the Mahabharata battle because to his blindness, but he gets frequent reports from his poet Sanjaya, who has the capacity to view events from afar. 

    After the Kauravas are destroyed, he joins Gandhari and a group of others in the forest to dwell in isolation. 

    He gets murdered in a forest fire six years later. 

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    Hinduism - Indian History Timeline

      In light of a new perspective, Hindu India's recorded history may be conveniently divided into nine eras, each expressing distinct cultural styles. 

      Because history is essentially continuous, the following chronology is extremely speculative, and the periodization is arbitrary to some extent. 

      •  Although the date of the first four historical eras is speculative, the conventional chronology presented in college textbooks is as well. 
      •  The Vedas must obviously be placed in a time period prior to the benchmark date of 1 900 B C E, as will be demonstrated soon. 

      How much earlier is unknown with any certainty, though astronomical references in the Vedas, as well as dynastic genealogies (from the Puriinas) and a list of sages in the Briihmanas and Upanishads, support a date of at least two thousand years prior to 1200 B C E, which is the commonly accepted but demonstrably incorrect date for the composition of the Rig-Veda. 

      • For identical reasons, the creation of the original Briihmanas must be pushed back in time before 1 900 B C E, just as the Vedas must be ascribed to an earlier era. 
      • In light of all of this, the earliest Upanishads, which are usually believed to have been written soon before the Buddha's time, should be put considerably earlier. 

      1. Pre-Vedic Period (6500-4500 B C E).


      Archaeological excavation in eastern Baluchistan (Pakistan) has uncovered a metropolis the size of Stanford, California, that dates from the middle of the seventh millennium B C E Archaeologists have named this early Neolithic settlement Mehrgarh, and it anticipated later urban civilization along the two major rivers of northern India: the Indus and the now-dry Sarasvati east of it. 

      •  Mehrgarh's population was believed to be about 20,000 people, which was a large number at the time. 
      •  The town seems to have been a center of technical invention and innovation, in addition to being a thriving marketplace for imported and exported products. 
      •  By the fourth millennium B C E, the hardworking inhabitants of Mehrgarh had mass-produced good-quality pottery and were cultivating cotton as early as the fifth millennium B C E Terra-cotta figures from about 2600 B C E show a striking aesthetic similarity to the art of the Indus-Sarasvati civilization as well as later Hinduism. 


      2.  Vedic Period (4500-2500 B C E).


      The development and cultural dominance of the wisdom tradition reflected in the hymns of the four Vedas characterize this era. 

      •  The majority of the hymns were written around the fourth millennium B C E, according to astronomical allusions in the Rig-Veda, with some hymns potentially going back to the fifth millennium B C E.

      The ultimate bottom limit of the Vedic period is set by a major natural disaster: the drying up of the powerful Sarasvati River over many hundred years, presumably as a consequence of geological and climatic changes. 


      • Around 3100 B C E, the Yamuna River altered its path and stopped flowing into the Sarasvati, becoming a tributary of the Ganges instead. 
      •  Around 2300 B C E, the Sutlej, the Sarasvati's largest tributary, began to flow into the Ganges. 
      •  The Sarasvati, formerly the largest stream in Northern India, had dried up by 1900 B C E The many settlements along its banks were soon abandoned and eventually buried by the enormous Thar Desert's dunes. 

      Given the age of the Vedic poems and the fact that the Sanskrit-speaking Aryans were not foreign invaders, we can only come to one conclusion: the Vedic people lived in India at the same time as the so-called Indus civilization. 

      • Furthermore, the cultural world as reflected in the Vedic hymns is in no way contradicted by the archaeological remnants of that civilization. 
      •  As a result, we must conclude that the inhabitants of Harappa and Mohenjo Daro, as well as the hundreds of other cities along the Indus and Sarasvati rivers, were the same as the Vedic Aryans. 
      •  Furthermore, as has been shown, Vedic mathematics impacted Babylonian mathematics, implying that the Shulba-Sutras containing Vedic mathematical theory must have existed about 1800 B C E. 
      • Because the Sutras are thought to be older than the Brahmanas, the Vedas' chronology may be pushed back to the third millennium B C E to account for these developments. 

      According to some academics, the epic battle recounted in the Mahabharata, which is traditionally dated to 3102 B C E, marks the end of the Vedic Age (which includes the Brahmanas and Upanishads). 

      • This marks the start of the Kali-yuga, the dark epoch described in subsequent Puranas, Tantras, and other texts. 
      • This date, however, is likely too early, and a date for the battle and the final redaction of the four Vedic hymnodies of about 1500 B C E is more plausible. 

      3.  The Brahmanical Age(2500-1500 B C E).

      The Vedic civilization moved east to the fertile banks of the Ganges (Ganga) River and its tributaries when the towns along the Sarasvati and Indus rivers collapsed. 

      •  The changing environmental circumstances in the new settlement regions, predictably, resulted in changes in the social structure, which became more complicated. 
      •  During this time, the priestly class evolved into a highly skilled professional elite who quickly came to dominate Vedic culture and religion. 
      •  The Brahmana literature, after which this period is called, captures the priesthood's theological-mythological speculations and ceremonial preoccupations. 
      •  The Aranyakas (ritual texts for forest-dwelling ascetics) and the vast Sutra literature dealing with legal and ethical problems as well as the arts were also created in the last decades of this period. 


      4. The Upanishadic/Post-Vedic Era (1500-1000 B C E).


      We enter a new era with its own unique philosophical and cultural character with the emergence of the first Upanishads. 

      •  They popularized the concept of internalized ritualism, or "inner sacrifice" (antaryajna), in combination with world renunciation. 
      •  We may discern the origins of India's psychospiritual technology in these anonymously written holy texts, which constitute the third level of Vedic revelation (shruti). 
      •  Yet, contrary to popular belief, the Upanishads do not constitute a dramatic departure from Vedic thinking; rather, they simply explain what is hinted at or present in a rudimentary way in the Vedas. 
      •  The end of the Post-Vedic Age is marked by the rise of non-Vedic religions such as Jainism and Buddhism. 

      5. The Epic or Pre-Classical Period (1000-100 B C E).

      India's metaphysical and ethical philosophy was in a state of flux throughout the fifth period of the current chronology. 

      •  It had progressed to the point where the different religious and philosophical systems were able to engage in a fruitful debate. 
      •  At the same time, we can see a positive trend toward unifying the many psychospiritual pathways, particularly the two major orientations of world renunciation (samnyasa) on the one hand and social duty acceptance (dharma) on the other. 

      This is where Yoga and Samkhya's pre-classical development takes place. 

      • The lessons contained in the Mahabharata epic, in which the oldest full Yoga book, the Bhagavad-Gita, is incorporated, finest exemplify the integrative, syncretistic ethos. 
      •  The enormous Mahabharata as we know it was written during this time period, but its core, which commemorates the epic battle between the Pandavas and the Kaurvas, dates from a far earlier period. 
      •  Because of the epic's importance throughout this time period, it is also known as the Epic Age. 
      •  Although the Ramayana epic is older than the Mahabharata, its historical core dates from almost thirty generations before the Mahabharata. 


      6. The Classical Period (100 B C E-500 C E).

      The six ancient schools of Hindu philosophy escalated their long-running battle for intellectual dominance throughout this period. 

      •  The Yoga-Surra of Patanjali and the Brahma-Surra of Badarayana were composed in the middle of this era, while the Samkhya marked the conclusion. 
      •  This is also the time when Mahayana Buddhism began to take shape, resulting in a burgeoning interaction between Buddhists and Hindus. 
      •  The fall of the Gupta dynasty, whose final major king, Skan¬dagupta, died about 455 C E, corresponds with the end of the Classical Age. 
        •  The arts and sciences thrived tremendously during the Gupta rulers; whose reign started in 320 C E 
        • Despite the fact that the monarchs were ardent Vaishnavists, they were tolerant of other faiths, allowing Buddhism to flourish and make its imprint on Indian culture. 
      •  The Chinese emperor Fa-hien was awestruck by the land and its people. 
        •  He describes affluent cities with many charity organizations, as well as rest stops for highway visitors. 


      7. The Tantric/Puranic Age (500-1300 C E ).

      We may see the beginnings of the great cultural revolution of Tantra, or Tantrism, about the middle of the first millennium C E, or perhaps earlier. 

      This tradition, whose remarkable psychotechnology, is the impressive result of millennia of labor to build a great philosophical and spiritual synthesis from the various divergent approaches that existed at the period. 

      •  Tantra, in particular, may be thought of as combining the highest metaphysical concepts and aspirations with common (rural) beliefs and practices. 
      •  Tantra came to be known as the gospel of the Kali Yuga (dark era). 
      •  Tantric doctrines had spread throughout the Indian subcontinent by the first millennium C E, affecting and transforming the spiritual lives of Hindus, Buddhists, and Jainas equally. 
      •  Tantra, on the one hand, was just a continuation of a millennia-old process of amalgamation and synthesis; on the other, it was really innovative. 
      •  Tantra was of the greatest importance on the level of spiritual practice, while adding nothing to India's intellectual repertory. 

       It advocated a spiritual lifestyle that was diametrically opposed to much of what had previously been deemed acceptable within the Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain traditions. 

      •  Tantra, in particular, gave intellectual legitimacy to the feminine psychosomatic component (known as shakti), which had long been recognized in more local Goddess worship cults. 
      •  This period is also known as the Puranic Age, since the vast encyclopedic collections known as the Purcinas were produced during this time period based on far earlier Puranic traditions (dating back to the Vedic era). 
      •  The Purcinas are holy narratives that have been woven with a network of intellectual, mythological, and ceremonial knowledge. 
      •  Many of these books are influenced by Tantra, and many of them include useful Yoga knowledge. 


      8. The Age of Sectarianism (1300-1 700 C E). 

      The Tantric rediscovery of the feminine principle in philosophy and yoga practice paved the way for the bhakti movement, the next phase in India's cultural history. 

      • This religious devotionalism movement was the climax of the major sectarian groups' monotheistic ambitions, particularly the Vaishnavas and Shaivas; thus the name Sectarian Age. 
      •  The devotional movement, or bhakti-marga, completed the pan-Indian synthesis that had begun during the Pre-Classical/Epic Age by include the emotional component in the psychological/spiritual process. 


      9. The Modern Era ( 1700-Present). 


      The syncretistic bhakti movement was followed by the Mughal empire's fall in the first part of the nineteenth century and the increasing political presence of European countries in India, culminating in Queen Victoria's assumption of the title Empress of India in 1880. 

      •  The Queen was enthralled by Hindu mysticism and invited yogins and other spiritual leaders to her court. 

      Since the establishment of the East India Company in London in 1 600 and the Dutch East India Company two years later, Western secular imperialism has had an increasing effect on India's age-old religious traditions. 

      •  This has resulted in a progressive weakening of the native Scandinavian value system via the adoption of a Western-style (science-oriented and basically materialist) education coupled with new technology. 


      The following comment by Carl Gustav Jung comes to mind in this regard: 

      • The European conquest of the East was a massive act of aggression, and it has left us with the responsibility—noblesse oblige—of comprehending the Eastern mentality. 
      •  This is perhaps more important than we know right now. 
      •  However, India's creative brilliance has not been unaffected by these changes

      There has been a potential spiritual revival, which has, among other things, generated a missionary feeling among Hindus for the first time in history: 

      • There has been a continuous flow of Hindu knowledge, particularly Yoga and Vedanta, to the Euro-American nations since the imposing figure of Swami Vivekananda appeared at the Parliament of Religions in Chicago in 1893. 
      •  We have never yet struck upon the idea that while we are conquering the Orient from outside, it may be fastening its grip on us from inside, as Jung noted with remarkable perceptiveness. 

      Much more might be written about the modern resurgence of Hindu tradition and its influence on the West. 

      •  The dates provided are variable, and the above effort at periodization is just an estimate. 
      •  Until the nineteenth century, India's chronology is famously speculative. 

      Hindu historiographers have a habit of mixing historical truth with mythology, symbolism, and ideology without regard for the accuracy of dates. 

      • Hindu consciousness and culture have long been praised for their "timelessness" by Western academics. 
      •  This belief, however, has proved to be a major blind spot, since it has prevented thorough examination of the historical material found in the Hindu texts, particularly the 6 Puranas. 

      A helpful difference may be established between the fundamental orientations of asceticism (tapas), renunciation (samnyasa), and mysticism (yoga) in the widest sense of the word, in addition to the split into religio-spiritual traditions and historical eras.  These are common to all of India's religious and philosophical traditions. 


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