Showing posts with label Sanskrit. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Sanskrit. Show all posts

Hinduism - What Is A Chatti?

 





A pilgrim refuge, especially in the Himalayas. 


The term chatti is a derivative of the word "umbrella," and it was coined because these shelters were often only roofs supported by pillars, keeping pilgrims dry in the event of rain. 



Many Himalayan pilgrims journeyed on foot until the middle of the twentieth century, using a network of chattis along the pilgrimage routes. 



These chattis were eight to twelve miles apart, making for a pleasant day's walk for youthful pilgrims but a difficult trek for the elderly. 

Each chatti was run by a local family that sold wood and food grains to the pilgrims and provided them with cooking equipment. 

During the pilgrimage season, this arrangement provided money to mountain families while also allowing pilgrims to carry just their personal items. 

The introduction of paved roads and bus transit made this network mostly obsolete, but it is still referenced in place names like Janaki Chatti and Hanuman Chatti. 




Nagas from Chatuh-Sampradayi. 



Four groups (sampraday) of militant (Naga) ascetics who are all followers (bhakta) of the deity Vishnu are referred to as the Vishnu Sampraday. 

They are all spiritual descendants of a distinct Vaishnava religious group, each of which is linked to a prominent Vaishnava person. 


The Shri sampraday of the Ramanandi ascetics is by far the most numerous and influential of these organizations, tracing its lineage back to the poet-saint Ramananda and the southern Indian philosopher Ramanuja, whom they believe to be Ramananda's teacher. 

The Nimbarki ascetics' Sanaka sampraday may trace their spiritual heritage back to the philosopher Nimbarka. 

The Vishnuswami ascetics' Rudra sampraday may be traced back to an older person, Vishnuswami, via the scholar Vallabhacharya. 

Finally, the Gaudiya Vaishnava ascetics' Brahma sampraday traces its spiritual lineage from Bengali saint Chaitanya to southern Indian scholar Madhva. 




Each of these sampradays is distinguished not only by its founder, but also by the god or deities that serve as its patron. 



The Ramanandis worship the deity Rama, while the rest revere the god Krishna and his wife, Radha, to varying degrees. 

Scholars dispute that these organizations were ever linked to the individuals who claim to be its founders. 

The differences between the sampradays seem to be mostly intellectual in nature. 

Given that Ramanandis make up the vast bulk of these ascetics, the others seem to be significant mainly as representatives of other prominent Vaishnava religious leaders. 


The group differences are only important during the Kumbha Mela bathing (snana) event, when they dictate the order of specific groups in the bathing processions. 





More information may be found in Peter van der Veer's 1988 book, Gods on Earth. 



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Hinduism - What Is Chataka?




The term for the cuckoo bird in Sanskrit poetry and literature, typically evoked as a symbol of yearning. 




Bankim Chandra Chatterjee (1838–1894) was a Bengali writer and Indian nationalist who was a key role in the nineteenth-century renaissance of Bengali literature and in turning the region into a hotbed of anti-British resistance. 



Chatterjee saw as a young man how the English language and culture were beginning to supplant Indian culture among educated Indians. 

Through his literature and political activity, he aimed to change this by urging Indian intellectuals to rediscover their ancient culture. 

He paved the path for poet Rabindranath Tagore and political activists Aurobindo Ghose and Subhash Chandra Bose by becoming a pivotal figure in both literature and politics. 

Anandamath, Chatterjee's most renowned book, was set during the late-eighteenth-century Sanyasi Rebellion, in which Hindu and Muslim militant ascetics battled the British East India Company for control of Bengal. 

Although historical research links this battle to current social and economic problems in Bengal, Chatterjee depicts it allegorically as a struggle of Mother India's faithful children to drive out the British invaders. 


Chatterjee also penned the lyrics of “Vande Mataram,” a patriotic song that is widely referred to as the unofficial Indian national anthem.



Hinduism - What Is Charvaka?






One of the classic names for the materialist philosophical school is Charvaka.




Its main claim was that a person is identical to his or her physical body, and that when the body dies, the person dies as well. 





Related to - Materialism. 



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Hinduism - What Is Charas?




Hashish is referred to as Charas. 



This is typically combined with tobacco and smoked in a chillum, which is a straight pipe. 


Certain parts of the ascetic community are known for smoking hashish. 

Smoking is a social pastime and a ritual of hospitality for many ascetics, as well as a religious gesture that emulates the deity Shiva, who is renowned for his love of the substance. 



Many ascetics convert the marijuana that grows wild across the Himalayas into hashish to consume and sell while on their journeys. 


Most individuals are prohibited from using drugs, although it is a very widespread and accepted practice among ascetics, who are intentionally peripheral members of society. 




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Hinduism - What Is Charanamrta?

 




 ("nectar of the feet") Literally, the water (or other liquid) in which one's guru's feet or god representations are washed. 



It is consumed by the student or devotee (bhakta) as a symbol of subordination and as a means of receiving grace and benefits. 


By extension, the term may apply to any liquid consumed by devotees as a sign of the deity's favor, regardless of whether it has been used for washing (snana). 


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Hinduism - Who Was Charanadas, And The Charanadasis ?




(1733–1782 C.E.); “Servant of [God's] feet”) The Charanadasis, an austere religious society, was founded by him. 



Charanadas was born in the princely state of Alwar, in the town of Dehra (in the modern state of Rajasthan). 


Charanadas founded his community in protest against the corruption and worldliness of the Pushti Marg, the religious community founded by Vallabhacharya (1479–1531 C.E.) whose members are devotees (bhakta) of the god Krishna. 

Charanadas received initiation from the puranic sage Shuka, according to tradition. 



Charanadas formed his community in protest against the corruption and worldliness of the Pushti Marg, according to tradition. 


The Charanadasis, like the Pushti Marg, are Vaishnavas, but their patron god is not only Krishna, but also his wife, Radha. 

The Pushti Marg was challenged by Charanadas, who emphasized upright and proper conduct as well as a commitment to study. 

His followers translated the Bhagavad Gita and the Bhagavata Purana, both significant Vaishnava scriptures, and produced comments on them. 



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Hinduism - What Is Charaka Samhita?




One of the two main sources for the traditional Indian medical school known as ayurveda, together with the later Sushruta Samhita. 



Despite the fact that it is ascribed to Charaka, given its references to a variety of medical systems and methods, it is more likely a compilation from previous sources. 





The idea of the three body humors—vata (wind), pitta (bile), and kapha (blood)—underpins ayurveda's medical foundation (phlegm). 

Although everyone possesses all three humors, each is made up of distinct components, the quantities of which are used to explain varied body types, metabolic inclinations, and personalities. 

Diseases are produced by an imbalance of these humors, which may be induced by one's environment or personal behaviors, while health is the condition of being in balance. 

The Charaka Samhita has been revised and translated into a number of languages, and it has been used as a source for secondary studies such as Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya's 1977 book Science and Society in Ancient India. 



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Hinduism - Who Was Charaka?

 



(1st–2nd century C.E.?) The Charaka Samhita's ascribed author, along with the somewhat later Sushruta Samhita, is one of the two main sources for ayurveda, a traditional school of Indian medicine. 




Charaka was the royal physician of the city of Takshashila in modern-day Pakistan, according to legend. 



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Hinduism - What Is The Chandrayana?




 ("the route of the moon") A one-month penitential ritual (prayashchitta) in which the penitent's food intake corresponds to the monthly cycle of the moon. 


On the first day of the waning moon, a person who observes this ritual eats fourteen mouthfuls of food, then one fewer mouthful on each subsequent day until the new moon day, when a full fast (upavasa) is observed. 


The penitent consumes one additional mouthful each day during the waxing moon, until he reaches fifteen mouthfuls on the full moon day. 


Given the little food available in the middle of the month, this is a pretty harsh penance. 

This penance was prescribed in the dharma literature as an atonement for certain types of sexual misconduct, such as having sexual relations with a woman from the same gotra (mythic lineage), marrying a woman from one's maternal grandfather's gotra, or marrying the daughter of one's maternal uncle or paternal aunt. 



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Hinduism - Who Was Chandramati?






The long-suffering wife of King Harishchandra in Hindu legend. 


Harishchandra is known for his honesty and integrity, and he is also the model for someone who patiently suffers unjust pain in contemporary Hindu society. 


Harishchandra's misery stems from a rivalry between the sages Vasishtha and Vishvamitra. 

Vasishtha, as his family priest, extols Harishchandra's goodness. 

Vishvamitra is adamant about proving Vasishtha incorrect, so he puts Harishchandra through a series of tests, during which he loses his kingdom, his riches, and is forced to sell himself and his family into slaves. 

Harishchandra maintains his integrity despite the hardships he and Chandramati face. 

They are ultimately returned to their former happy condition, including the resuscitation of their son, after suffering many difficulties, including the loss of their only son. 




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Hinduism - Who Was Chandragupta Maurya?

 












(r. 321–297 B.C.E.) Chandragupta Maurya  is the Maurya dynasty's founder. 



The youthful Chandragupta established his kingdom by deposing the last member of the Nanda dynasty and establishing his capital at Pataliputra, which is now known as Patna in Bihar. 




From there, he seized control of the Ganges River valley, proceeded south into the Narmada River basin, and then turned his attention to northern India, exploiting the power vacuum left by Alexander the Great's previous invasion. 






He defeated Alexander's commander Seleucus Nicator in combat in 303 B.C.E., then consented to a treaty that gave him vast swaths of modern-day Afghanistan. 


Despite the fight, ties between the two seem to have been cordial, since Seleucus Nicator sent Megasthenes, an ambassador to Pataliputra, who stayed there for many years. 


Chandragupta is said to have received advice from a great brahmin minister known as Kautilya or Chanakya, who is credited with writing the Arthashastra. 



Chandragupta abandoned his kingdom to become a Jain monk and died of ceremonial hunger, according to tradition. 






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Hinduism - Who Was Chandra Gupta II?











 Chandra Gupta II (r. 376–415 C.E.) was a Hindu emperor who reigned from 376 to 415 C.E. 



After his father, Samudra Gupta, and grandfather, Chandra Gupta I, he was the third in the Gupta dynasty's line of great emperors. 


Chandra Gupta II led the Gupta dynasty to its geographical apex. 

The Shaka kingdom in the Malwa area was ultimately defeated under his reign, and the Guptas thereafter ruled all of northern India and current Pakistan, as well as the Coromandel Coast all the way to modern Madras, through conquest or tribute. 





Between 350 and 550 C.E., the Gupta dynasty reigned in northern India, and their rule is linked to the development of Indian culture and the rebirth of Hinduism. 


Both were made possible thanks to the Gupta rulers, who are regarded as benefactors of fine culture as well as fervent Shiva worshippers (bhakta). 

This is particularly true of Chandra Gupta II, since Kalidasa, the greatest of the Sanskrit poets, is one of the main personalities connected with his court. 



Related to - The Shaka epoch.






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Hinduism - Who Was Chandra Gupta I?

 





Chandra Gupta I (r. 320–35 C.E.) was a Hindu emperor who reigned from 320 to 35 C.E. 



The Gupta dynasty, which had its capital at Pataliputra like the Maurya dynasty, is associated with the present city of Patna in the state of Bihar. 





The capital of the Guptas was subsequently relocated to Allahabad. 

The Guptas ruled all of northern India and modern Pakistan during the reign of Chandra Gupta II (r. 376–415), as well as the Coromandel Coast all the way to modern Madras. 




Between 350 and 550 C.E., the Gupta dynasty reigned in northern India, and their rule is linked to the development of Indian culture and the rebirth of Hinduism. 

Both were made possible thanks to the Gupta rulers, who are regarded as benefactors of fine culture as well as fervent Shiva worshippers (bhakta). 




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Hinduism - What Is The Chandogya Upanishad?

 





The Chandogya Upanishad is a Hindu scripture. The religious writings that make up the most recent layer of the Vedas include the Brhadaranyaka Upanishad, one of the two oldest upanishads. 






Internal textual reasons suggest that the Brhadaranyaka Upanishad is the elder of the two, and since significant parts of both texts are identical, the Chandogya Upanishad is believed to be reliant on it. 







Both writings are likewise considerably longer and less structured than the other upanishads, meandering from subject to topic with no clear purpose. 






Both are written in prose rather than poetry, and the material is often presented as a conversation between many characters. 





Their very speculative debates on the nature of the cosmos were significant sources for subsequent upanishads. 





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Hinduism - What Is Chandiprakasha?

 





 ("Chandi effulgence") The spear of the Atala akhara, a specific group within the Naga class of Dashanami Sanyasis, is known by this name. 



The Dashanami Nagas are Shiva worshippers (bhakta) who are organized into akharas, or regiments, similar to an army. 



The Nagas' main profession until the beginning of the nineteenth century was as mercenary warriors, but they also had significant trade interests. 

In modern times, these roles have virtually vanished. 

The Atala akhara is symbolized by this specific spear, which is used by all of the akharas to express their organizational identity. 






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