Showing posts with label Konkanastha. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Konkanastha. Show all posts

Hinduism - Who Was Muktibai?

 

Muktibai (1279–1297?)  was a poet and saint of the Varkari Panth, a religious group focused on the worship of the Hindu deity Vithoba at his temple in Pandharpur, Maharashtra today.

Muktibai was the sister of Jnaneshvar, the renowned Varkari instructor, according to legend.


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism - Where Is The Muktinath Temple Located?


The temple is at approximately 13,000 feet at the foot of Annapurna, Nepal's tallest peak, and is a holy location (tirtha) at the headwaters of the Kali Gandaki River.

Both Hindus and Buddhists revere Muktinath, and each maintains a temple there.

The Buddhist temple is constructed atop a natural gas vent, which when fired emits a flame.

The Vishnu temple is constructed above a natural spring that is channeled outside the temple by 108 spouts styled like cow heads.

The riverbed of the Kali Gandaki is also a rich source of fossilized black ammonite, making it spiritually significant.

This ammonite, known as the shalagram, is a self-manifestation (svayambhu) form of Vishnu.


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism - What Is Muktiyoga? Who Is A Muktiyogi?


A muktiyoga is a person who is predestined to achieve freedom, according to Madhva's Dvaita Vedanta intellectual tradition.

Also see Advaita Vedanta.


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.

Hinduism - What Is The Muladhara Chakra?

 


Muladhara Chakra is a chakra located in the center of the body.

The muladhara chakra is one of the six psychic centers (chakras) thought to exist in the subtle body, according to several schools of yoga and tantra, a secret ritual-based religious practice.

The subtle body is a parallel physiological system to the material body that exists on a different level of reality than matter.

Three vertical channels link the six psychic centers, which are shown as multipetaled lotus flowers running approximately down the spine.

Each chakra has symbolic connotations with many human capabilities, numerous subtle components (tanmatras), and various seed syllables (bijaksharas) produced from Sanskrit alpha bet letters, encapsulating all holy sound.

The corporeal abodes of Shiva (consciousness) and Shakti (power), the two divine principles through which the whole cosmos came into existence, are located above and below these centers.

The homology of macrocosm and microcosm, a key Hindu belief from the time of the mysti cal books known as the Upanishads, is the basic premise underpinning the concept of the subtle body.

The six chakras are usually enumerated from the bottom up, with the muladhara chakra being the first to be enumerated.

It's shaped like a four-petaled lotus and is found around the base of the spine.

Each petal has a seed syllable, which in this instance is the consonants "va" to "sa." The muladhara chakra is said to be the physical seat of the earth element, which excretions are likened to.

The muladhara chakra is also said to be the home of kundalini, the latent spiritual force that pervades all humans and is represented as a snake looped three times around the muladhara chakra.

The muladhara, despite its connotations with the most mundane element and the most unclean body function, is also a wellspring of religious attainment potential.

See Arthur Avalon (Sir John Woodroffe), Shakti and Shakta, 1978, and Philip S. Rawson, The Art of Tantra, 1973, for further details.


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism - What Is A Mukhalinga?


Mukhalinga is a variant of the linga, a pillar-shaped item that represents Shiva.

On the shaft of a mukhalinga, one or more faces (mukha) are carved.

The number of faces on the linga should not exceed the number of doorways in the temple, according to texts detailing the shape and construction of Hindu statues.

Thus, a temple with one entryway should have one mukhalinga, and so on, up to four mukhalingas.

These faces should likewise face the entrances, according to the guidelines.

T. A. Gopinatha Rao's Elements of Hindu Iconography, published in 1981, is a good source of knowledge.



You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.

Hinduism - What Is A Muhurta?


 A muhurta is a period of forty-eight minutes in traditional timekeeping, with thirty muhurtas every day.

The Brahma Muhurta, which occurs just before dawn, is the most auspicious time period.

The hour leading up to the Brahma Muhurta is regarded as the least auspicious of the day.

This cycle exemplifies a trend in Indian time perception.

In most cases, a period of bad luck is followed by a rapid reversal of fortune.


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism - Who Was F. Max. Mueller?

 


 (1823–1900) Linguist, translator, and editor with a passion for comparative religion and mythology.

Mueller was a significant person in the intellectual history of the nineteenth century.

His main contribution was translating source writings into the Sacred Books of the East series, which introduced Indian philosophies to Western audiences.

His scholarship enabled Hindu and other Asian religious systems to reveal the complex intellect that is often hidden by popular religious practice.

Mueller started working on a "science of religion," a subject of study that could be studied in the same way as any other.

As an Oxford professor, he contributed to shift academic perspectives on Hinduism and other Asian faiths, shifting Western minds away from condemning them as polytheistic "idolatry" and toward seeing them as cohesive and appealing worldviews.


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism - Who Was Muktananda?

 

Muktananda (1908–1982) was a Hindu sage who lived from 1908 to 1982.

Modern Hindu instructor, proponent of the religious system known as siddha yoga ("adept discipline"), and creator of the SYDA organization (Siddha Yoga Dham America).

At the age of fifteen, Muktananda abandoned his family in quest of spiritual enlightenment.

Nityananda, an ascetic who was popularly thought to be an avadhuta, was his spiritual instructor (guru) (a person who has shaken off all attachments).

The metaphysics of Siddha Yoga are a modified version of Kashmir Shaivism.

The guru's spiritual force may instantly awaken the disciple's dormant kundalini, hastening the process of spiritual growth, according to the organization's fundamental doctrine.

The centrality of the guru is emphasized in this theory, which is bolstered by Muktananda's charismatic presence.

Muktananda traversed the globe, founding ashrams and meditation centers in North America, Europe, and Australia, despite his home base being an ashram just outside of Bombay.

Swami Chidvilasananda was his successor.

See Muktananda's autobiography, Play of Consciousness, published in 2000, for further details on his teaching.


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism - What Is The Mudrarakshasa?


 Mudrarakshasa ("The Ring of Rakshasa") - The dramatist Vishakhadatta, who is thought to have lived in the sixth century, wrote the sole extant Sanskrit theater.

Mudrarakshasa is a drama that follows Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Maurya dynasty, and his crafty brahmin minister Chanakya as they climb to power.

The narrative of the drama is convoluted, as is the case with many Sanskrit plays, but the drama's climax occurs when the main protagonists are dramatically saved from execution at the last minute.

Despite the fact that the drama is based on true events, scholars believe Chandragupta Maurya's depiction as a weak monarch is false.

Michael Coulson translated the play into English and released it in the collection Three Sanskrit Plays in 1981.


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism - What Is A Mudra (Intoxicants)?

 

Mudra is fermented or parched grain .

Fermented grain is the fourth of the "Five Forbidden Things" (panchamakara) in the secret ritual-based religious practice known as tantra.

In "left hand" (vamachara) tantric ritual, they are used in their actual forms, whereas in "right hand" (dakshinachara) tantric ritual, they are represented by symbolic substitutes.

Although fermented grain has toxicating properties, it is also said to be an aphrodisiac.

The use of intoxicants and/or sexual license is fiercely condemned in "respectable" Hindu culture.

As a result, the tantric usage of this chemical must be seen in context.

The ultimate oneness of everything that exists is one of the most widespread tantric conceptions.

To proclaim that the whole cosmos is one principle from a tantric viewpoint implies that the adept must reject all dualistic conceptions.

The "Five Forbidden Things" serve as a ritual for dismantling dualism.

In this ritual, the adept defies society norms by consuming intoxicants, eating nonvegetarian cuisine, and engaging in unlawful sexual activity in an attempt to sacralize what is generally banned.

Tantric adepts point to the ceremonial usage of banned objects as evidence that their practice entails a higher level of exclusivity (adhikara) and is therefore superior to ordinary practice.

See Arthur Avalon's (Sir John Woodroffe's) Shakti and Shakta, 1978; Swami Agehananda Bharati's The Tantric Tradition, 1977; and Douglas Renfrew Brooks' The Secret of the Three Cities, 1990, for further details.


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.




Hinduism - Who Is Bapu Morari?

 


Bapu Morari (born Muraridas Prabhudas in 1946) is a modern Ramcharitmanas commentator and expositor (kathava cak).

The Ramcharitmanas is a vernacular rendition of the Ramayana, the older of the two major Sanskrit epics, written by the poet-saint Tulsidas.

Tulsidas did not just translate Valmiki's Sanskrit epic, but altered it to meet his own religious concerns, particularly the significance of devotion (bhakti) to God, one of the text's fundamental themes, as with all vernac ular versions of the Ramayana.

Morari Bapu claims no supernatural abilities or capabilities; his religious popularity is completely based on his devotion to the scripture and his ability to expound it.

He has given katha (discourse) to Hindu diaspora populations in Europe and North America, as well as in India, at times to audiences of over 100,000 people.


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism - What Is A Mudra In Indian Dance And Hindu Iconography?


 (meaning "seal") A mudra is a stylized hand gesture in Indian dance, theater, and iconography that expresses a particular meaning, ranging from real things like animals, common items, and Hindu deities to abstract things like emotions.

Performers in the performing arts, notably dance, use gesture alone to create elaborate tales.

Many of these gestures are qualities associated with certain deities in the context of iconography.

The words mudra and hasta ("hand") have considerable syntactic overlap; one difference is that some hastas merely describe the location of the hand, while others have symbolic value, but mudras always have extremely particular symbolic meanings.


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism - Who Is Mrtyunjaya?

 


 ("Death's Conqueror") The deity Shiva's epithet.

The legendary origins of this name may be traced back to the narrative of the sage Markandeya.

Markandeya, who is devoted to Shiva, is a bright and holy young man who excels in all fields of study.

His narrative is moving since he is destined to die at the age of sixteen.

When Markandeya hears of this, soon before his sixteenth birthday, he becomes even more fervent in his devotion of Shiva.

Yama, the deity of death, arrives on the designated day to collect Markandeya.

Yama's noose snags the statue of Shiva to which Markandeya is clutching as he throws it over Markandeya to pull out the boy's soul.

Markandeya's life is saved when Shiva emerges from the picture and kills Yama.

Although Shiva relents and brings Yama back to life, this specific form of Shiva demonstrates Shiva's ability to shield his bhaktas (devotees) from all harm, even death.


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism - What Is The Mrcchakatika?


Mrcchakatika ("The Tiny Clay Cart") is a short story about a little clay cart.

Shudraka, a writer from the early fifth century, wrote a drama.

The drama depicts the blossoming of love between Charudatta, a poor but noble brahmin, and Vasantasena, a rich and pious courtesan, in the midst of a tangled political intrigue.

The small clay cart—a child's toy—is emblematic of the play's representation of regular urban life.

It has been translated into a number of languages and is still performed for current American audiences on a regular basis.


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism - What Are The Astrological Influences OF Monday Or Moon-Day Or Somavar In Jyotisha?


(Somavar) The second day of the Hindu week, with the moon as the ruling planet.

Coolness, healing power, and the Vedic god Soma are all connected with the moon.

Somnath, the Lord of the Moon, is a manifestation of the Hindu deity Shiva.

Monday is regarded as one of the week's most powerful and fortunate days.

Worship on particular Mondays, such as a Somavati Amavasya (a new moon occurring on a Monday) and Mondays in Shravan, is said to provide even higher religious blessings (a lunar month specially dedicated to Shiva).

On sixteen consecutive Mondays, the Sixteen Mondays Vow (Solah Somvar Vrat) is performed.

The Solah Somvar Vrat, like other similar vows, requires reciting the vow's charter myth in a ceremonial setting, as well as devotion and a strict diet.


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism - What Is Moneylending And The Role Of Moneylenders In A Traditional Hindu Society?

 

Moneylending is a significant part of the traditional and contemporary Indian merchant families' economic activities.

Farmers must be allowed to borrow throughout the rest of the year since they only make money after the harvest.

In current times, many farmers borrow from banks, but in the past, these merchant families were their main source of funds.

Their interest rates typically mirrored the borrower's credit worthiness: unsecured loans might have interest rates as high as 30 to 50% per year since there was a large risk of default, whilst loans secured by collateral could have interest rates as low as 7%.

These moneylending merchants were financially tied to their farmer-creditors to some level, with one giving capital and the other providing labor.

Moneylenders couldn't reject loans to farmers after a difficult year since it would eliminate any chance of repayment in the future.

See Christopher Alan Bayly's Rulers, Townsmen, and Bazaars, 1983, for more information.


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism - How Deeply Has The Monsoon Influenced Hindu Culture, Life, Mythology, Resilience, And Mentality?

 

A season marked by severe rainfall and named from an Arabic term that means "season" (mausam).

The monsoon is preceded by a period of extreme heat, with daily temperatures reaching above 100°F.

As the hot air rises, it pulls in a large circulation of wet air from southern India's coastal areas.

The monsoon is one of the three primary seasons of the year, and it plays an important role in people's everyday life.

The monsoon rains are critical to agriculture in India since most of the country's cropland is not irrigated.

In addition to being eagerly anticipated in real life, the arrival of the monsoon is also celebrated in Indian culture.

A lady nervously monitoring the sky, watching the clouds roll up as she awaits the return of her lover, is one picture of the monsoon that comes from love poetry.

Rains made travel almost difficult in former times, making it a bittersweet time for separated lovers but a pleasant and joyous time for joined couples.

In the epic Meghaduta by the poet Kalidasa, a man exiled in southern India addresses one of the monsoon clouds, giving it a message to convey to his sweetheart.

The deity Krishna is also linked to the monsoon showers.

His black complexion had the appearance of a rain cloud.

In addition, his birthday falls towards the conclusion of the rainy season, and his heavenly character corresponds to the picture of the rain lover.


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism - What Are The Indications Of The Moon In Jyotisha Or Hindu Astrology?


 A planet connected with fecundity (fertility) in Hindu astrology (jyotisha), albeit its aspect may be either beneficent or malicious—benevolent with the waxing moon, and malevolent with the declining moon.

The full moon is regarded the most fortunate moment of the lunar month.

The new moon, on the other hand, is seen as a ritually uncertain and hence potentially deadly moment.

During the week, the moon rules over Monday, which is widely seen as a lucky day and one that Shiva honors as Somnath, the Lord of the Moon.


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism - Where Is The Archaeological Site Of Mohenjo-Daro?

 

Archeological site on the Indus River, roughly 200 miles north of Karachi, in contemporary Pakistan.

Mohenjo-Daro is one of the Indus Valley towns, a highly developed urban culture that thrived in the Indus Valley area during the fourth and third millennia BC.

Although archeological work is ongoing in other towns, Harappa and Mohenjo Daro have been the most thoroughly explored.

The similarities between these sites give information about this civilization's material culture.

The "Great Bath," a massive water tank made of brick and sealed with pitch, is one of the attractions of Mohenjo-Daro.

Scholars believe it had something to do with ceremonial purity.



You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism - Who Is Mohini In The Hindu Pantheon And Hindu Mythology?


 ("bewitching") A rapturously beautiful celestial enchantress in Hindu mythology, viewed as a manifestation of the deity Vishnu.

Vishnu assumes this shape in order to deceive the demons into giving her a part of the amrta, the nectar of immortality, churned from the Ocean of Milk.

Mohini uses her charms to get the amrta from the demons, which she then offers to the gods, robbing the demons of their opportunity for immortality.

The narrative stops here in most accounts, but the charter myth for the southern Indian deity Aiyappa adds a fascinating twist.

According to legend, when Shiva sees Mohini's enticing body, he can't help but fall in love with her.

Aiyappa, considered the son of Shiva and Vishnu, is the result of this marriage.

However, as with most similar legends in Hindu mythology, Aiyappa's strange paternity has a good cause.

Aiyappa is created to slay Mahishi, a demon who has been cursed with the ability to only be slain by someone who was not born from the union of male and female.

This prerequisite is satisfied by Mohini's "real" identity (Vishnu), and when Aiyappa reaches adulthood, he kills the demon.



You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.