Showing posts with label Yogic Exercises. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Yogic Exercises. Show all posts

CONNECTION BETWEEN SLEEP AND DEATH.



We die to everything we know every night when we fall asleep. Sleep, like death, is a passage from the plane of material reality to a more subtle realm. 


Our perception of change over which we have no control is what we term death. Sleep is a transformation as well, but unlike death, we willingly yield, relax, and ‘let go' into it. What is the reason behind this? 

We know how to do it since we've done it before and recall sleep as being pleasant and rejuvenating. However, do you recall ever dying? 


  • Consciousness awareness is constant; we feel as though we exist even when sleeping, and when we wake up in the morning, we are aware of the same ‘I' consciousness that existed before we went to sleep. 
  • The ego, or ‘I' awareness, has remained unchanged. We may feel disoriented for a few moments after waking up after a night's sleep, especially if we have experienced a particularly unconscious sort of slumber. 
  • We become more oriented and aware of our environment as a result. We wake up from our night dreams to begin our day dreams, and so it continues, much like the birth and death cycle. 
  • We are conscious of sensations, smells, touch, and noises as we settle down to sleep. We then fall asleep as our consciousness begins to fade. 
  • The mind-ego and ideas fall into a subtle condition as the subtle body withdraws from the physical form. There is no consciousness of the physical body and no sensation of discomfort when sleeping. 
  • Only when the mind and senses are linked to the body can pain occur. 


Pleasure or misery have no effect on the Self, our essential spiritual essence. Lord Krishna reminds us of our everlasting and eternal real nature in the Bhagavad Gita's second chapter. 

  • As we see in this life with the transformation of a young body into an aged one, the soul takes a new body after death. These changes do not deceive those who have grasped the actual nature of existence. 2:00:13 
  • The indwelling Self is eternal and never gives birth or dies. It has always existed and will continue to exist indefinitely. It has no beginning, end, or change since it is eternal, everlasting, and immutable. When a body is killed, it is not slain. 2:00:20 
  • As a person discards worn-out clothes and replaces them with new ones, the embodied soul discards a worn-out body and replaces it with a new one. 2:00:22 
  • The Self is beyond the ability of any weapon to harm it or the ability of fire to burn it. Water does not wet it, and the wind does not dry it. 2:00:23 
  • The Self is indivisible and indissoluble, and neither fire nor air can modify it. The soul is eternal, omnipresent, unchangingly stable, and ever-present. 2:00:24 
  • Recognize that the soul, or spirit-self, is un-manifested, beyond the mind's capacity to comprehend, and unchangeable. As a result, recognizing this allows you to overcome your unwarranted fears and pain. 2:00:25


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SAMSKARAS, DEATH, AND KARMA



The soul, or self, which animates the body, withdraws from the physical form clothed in the astral and causal bodies at the time of physical death (which is not the end or destruction of an individual). 

The lifeline that carries life-energy (prana) to the physical body is broken, and awareness is released from bodily limits and linked with the subtle body. 

The soul continues to remain in the astral body as a vehicle (mind, ego, subtle sense organs and vital airs). 


All of one's acts, ideas, and aspirations are associated with samskaras (previous imprints) or karma. Samskaras are buried memories (actions, desires, ideas, and memories) from previous lifetimes that are linked to the soul through the subconscious mind. 


  • Our previous karma guides our present behavior - we reap what we sow. 
  • Karma is derived from the sanskrit root kri, which means "to do," "to make," or "to act." 
  • Not only is karma the reason and seed for the continuation of the life process after death (rebirth), but our acts or karma also generate positive and negative effects in this life, having a significant impact on our current character and destiny. 


There are three sorts of karma that affect the soul. 


• sanchita karmas — those that have built up over multiple lives 

• prarabdha karmas — the effects of previous deeds that are bearing fruit now 

• agami karmas — the activities that are being done now and will bring fruit in a future life Self-realization (God-realization) destroys sanchita and agami karmas, but prarabdha karmas can only be exhausted by experiencing their rewards in this incarnation.


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WHAT IS ANANDAMAYA KOSHA?



The causal body is referred to as the Ananda(pleasure)-Maya kosha. 

The bliss sheath (anandamaya kosha) is the subtlest and deepest of the three bodies that represents the soul's blissfulness. Both the subtle and gross bodies are caused by it. 


  • The mind recedes from the physical waking state and the astral dream state to the causal body in dreamless sleep. 
  • In deep dreamless sleep, it enters a delicate condition in which the mind's and sense organs' functioning are paused. 
  • There is no ego and no thinking in this beautiful, resting condition. 


THE SOUL


  • The soul, also known as the indwelling self or spirit, is present in all three bodies (physical, astral, and causal) and observes their activity. 
  • The soul is an ever-shining consciousness that is flawless and complete, with no beginning or end.


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WHAT IS VIJNANAMAYA KOSHA?



  • The sheath of knowledge or intelligence is called the Vijnanamaya Kosha. 
  • The intelligent sheath is the knower and doer of the mind, and it reflects the light of soul awareness as the subtlest of all the mind's characteristics. 
  • It is made up of the five subtle sense organs of perception, as well as the cognitive mind (buddhi), intellect, and ego.


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WHAT IS MANOMAYA KOSHA.



Manomaya Kosha is the mental sheath we all possess. The mental sheath is a more delicate version of the vital pranic sheath. It binds the annamaya and pranamaya koshas into a single entity. 


  • The mental sheath serves as a messenger between each body, relaying exterior world events and feelings to the intellectual sheath and causal and astral body effects to the physical body. 
  • The mental sheath is made up of the astral form of the volitional mind (manas), the subconscious, and the five sense organs of perception (sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch).


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WHAT IS PRANAMAYA KOSHA?



The vital or etheric sheath (the pranic body) supplies energy and vitalizes the physical body. It is roughly the same size and form as the human body. There are three sheaths that make up the astral body.

Further, the vital sheath is made up of five pranas (life-energies) that each serve a different purpose in the physical body's operation. 


Vyana, which means "outward moving air," is the vital air that governs the body's general motions and coordinates the other vital airs. It pervades every cell in the body. 

Udana, or 'upward flowing air,' works between the throat and the top of the head, stimulating the sensory organs such as the eyes, nose, ears, and tongue. 


It moves upward, carrying kundalini shakti (a person's potential spiritual energy or vital energy force, which is latent at the base of the spine in the muladhara chakra or base energy center). 

When the primary subtle nerve channel (sushumna nadi) at the center of the spinal cord is awakened, this creative, vital energy force flows to the crown chakra (sahasrara), the seventh energy center at the crown of the skull. 


The astral body is separated from the bodily form by udana during death. 

Prana (life-sustaining energy) is a manifestation of cosmic prana (the cosmic life-energy that pervades both the macrocosmic universe and the microcosmic unit of the body). The medulla oblongata at the base of the brain is where cosmic prana enters the body. 

The vital airs (vayus — pranic air currents) descend and ascend through the astral spine, where they are transformed by the chakras and distinguished. Prana, or "forward flowing air," activates breathing between the neck and the top of the diaphragm. 


The kundalini shakti is also raised to udana. 

Prana (life-sustaining energy) is a manifestation of cosmic prana (the cosmic life-energy that pervades both the macrocosmic universe and the microcosmic unit of the body). 

The medulla oblongata at the base of the brain is where cosmic prana enters the body. The vital airs (vayus — pranic air currents) descend and ascend through the astral spine, where they are transformed by the chakras and distinguished. Prana, or "forward flowing air," activates breathing between the neck and the top of the diaphragm. 


The kundalini shakti is also raised to udana. 

The digestive system, the heart, and the circulatory system are all activated and controlled by Samana, which works in the abdominal area between the navel and the heart. 


Apana, which means 'air that flows away,' activates ejection and excretion from the navel to the feet. 

It moves downward, yet it raises the kundalini to join with the prana. These five vital airs (vayus) are linked to the five subtle action organs (speech, hands, legs, organs of evacuation, and procreation), which have gross bodily analogues.


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CHAKRAS AND THE SUBTLE BODY.



Despite the fact that our physical bodies appear to be thick and substantial, they are made up of billions of molecules and atoms, or energy in continual motion. 

The soul (the indwelling pure spirit – the truth of who we are) has numerous interconnected non-physical, subtle bodies or vehicles encircling and interpenetrating the physical form, each of which is a field of energy vibrating at a certain frequency level and density. 


The individual soul manifests itself through five sheaths (koshas), which are separated into three bodies: the physical body, astral body, and causal body. 


Our everyday experiences in the three states of thought — awake (jagrat), dreaming (swapna), and dreamless sleep — are mediated by the physical, astral, and causal bodies, respectively (sushupti). 

The soul exists outside of these three states, seeing them. 


So there are five sheaths divided across three bodies, each of which serves as a vehicle for the manifestation of the soul awareness, which is separate from all of them . 


  • The physical sheath of the gross body, the annamaya kosha (food sheath), is vulnerable to birth, growth, sickness, decay, and death. 
  • The food sheath gets its name from its reliance on gross prana in the form of food, water, and air. 


Prana is the essential life-energy that allows life and creation to exist.


  • Prana pervades the entire universe and may be found in both the macrocosmos and microcosmos. There is no life without prana. 
  • Prana is the connection that connects the astral and physical bodies; when this relationship is severed, the physical body dies. 
  • The astral and prana bodies both leave the physical body.) It's also made up of the five components (ether, air, fire, water and earth). 


THE ASTRAL BODY

The five subtle elements akash (ether), vayu (air), tejas (fire), jala (water), and prithvi (earth) make up the astral body, which creates the five gross elements on the physical plane. There are three sheaths that make up the astral body.


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What Is A Yogi's Life Like? 25 Defining Aspects Of A Yogi's Life



  1. Yoga may be considered to exist when your mind, emotions, and body operate in unison with your true self within. 
  2. Yoga is a science that focuses on the "whole man." Yoga is considered one of the Shat Darshanas, or Six Revealed Views of Life, in India.
  3.  Although each of these Darshanas is considered a kind of Hinduism, Yoga is not a religion in the traditional sense; rather, it is the unifying concept that connects all faiths and philosophies. 
  4. Yoga is the Oneness that all religions and disciplines believe in and embrace. 
  5. There is no contradiction between religion, philosophy, or science in Yoga. 
  6. Yoga has become a worldwide concept in recent years, with Hatha Yoga being the most widely practiced style of bodily discipline. Incorporating Hatha Yoga to your practice is key to progressing in your overall Yogic path.
  7. To get the most out of Hatha Yoga and Pranayama, the practices should be done on a scientific foundation, but Yoga should not be handled in a purely materialistic way. 
  8. Yoga is also a spiritual method aimed at bringing the Independent, Self-Existing, Self-Originating, Indwelling Spirit of Man into individual consciousness. 
  9. The real root of religion is Self-discovery, or the discovery or revelation of man's intimate link with the Supreme Nature. 
  10. Those who believe in God will speak of a "Heavenly Father" or a "Universal Spirit" with whom they have a relationship. 
  11. Those who are not religious by nature may substitute "life" for the phrase "God," as it is just a semantic distinction. There is no ideology or reason in Life that could justify any inhibitions when it comes to you engaging in yoga. 
  12. Yoga isn't about standing on your head, going to a weekly Yoga session, reading a Yoga book, seeing a Yoga TV special, reciting a pricey Mantra, or being a member of a Yoga club. Rather, Yoga is a way of life in which the ideas and practices of Yoga are established the spiritual life's foundation, and one lives Yoga—the Yoga Life—fearlessly! 
  13. Yoga is a very ethical practice. The Ashtanga Rata Yoga method, also known as the Yoga of Eight Branches, begins with five qualities, while you are being taught. Ahimsa, or nonviolence, is one of Yama's attributes. 
  14. Sats a, Asteya, commitment to the truth. 
  15. Bramacharya, or sensual restraint, and Aparigraha, or non-greed, are examples of non-stealing. 
  16. Yoga is a very intellectual practice because it allows the questioning mind to shine. 
  17. Through its traditional aphorisms or Sutras, it advocates the use of reason and provides reasonable explanations for its aims and actions. 
  18. The observation of five circumstances must be tackled at the thought level in Rita Yoga's Niyarna. Saucha is both inner and outside cleanliness, a care for the cleanliness of one's body, clothing, and environment, but also an inner ecology that avoids contaminating one's breath or thinking. Santosha is a state of mind that is calm and peaceful. 
  19. Tapas is a sensible mind-directed discipline. Swadyaya is introspection-based self-knowledge. 
  20. It is the understanding of the veracity of one's sense reports as well as the factual foundation for one's mental constructs. 
  21. Through self-intuition, AtmaPranidhana is immediate obedience to the commands of the Higher Mind. 
  22. Yoga is a scientific activity, and many of its practices may be assessed using established scientific methods. 
  23. As a mental science, it teaches a safe approach of concentration and meditation, as well as a practical application of the human mind's abilities. 
  24. Positive emotions such as friendliness, kindness, love, unity, compassion, and empathy are prescribed in yoga, whereas distractive, destructive, and disruptive emotions are curtailed. 
  25. The Atman, the Indwelling Self, governs the mind and controls and regulates the emotions and body through yoga's Kriyas and Prakriyas, or methods and procedures. Its whole procedure revolves upon awareness.


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What Is Ekakin Vajra Asana?




The top of one foot is placed into the instep of the opposing foot in this version of Vajra Asana. 


  • Although technically, the sole of the foot is referred to as "Paadataiam," it is referred to as the "First Skin" of the body and hence "Ekakin." 
  • Start with Vajra Asana. Cross the top of one foot into the arch of the opposing foot by rising to your knees. Sit back on your heels and take a few deep breaths. 
  • Lift up onto the knees and switch the position of the feet after three or four deep breaths. 
  • Then take a couple more deep breaths while sitting down. 


Benefits of Ekakin Vajra Asana


  1. Anyone with shallow or fallen arches, as well as those who stand a lot or walk long distances on pavement, cement, or rock, can benefit from this exercise. 
  2. If sitting in this position aches, the problem isn't with the feet, but with something else. The nerves from the digestive organs come to a halt at this portion of the foot's sole. The nerves allow the tension in the stomach to be released. When you're feeling bloated, flatulent, or experiencing stomach cramps or agony, try this stance.


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What Is Gulpha Vajra Asana?






Crossing the top of one foot across the Achilles tendon of the opposing foot is another version of Vajra Asana. The name of the position comes from the Sanskrit phrase "Gulpha," which means "ankle." 


The pituitary and pineal glands in the brain activate reflex nerve terminals. 

If doing this position causes aches, there is a glandular imbalance that can be resolved by continuing Gulpha Vajra Asana on a regular basis. When sitting in this position is no longer difficult or unpleasant, the disturbance has been rectified. 


  • Cross the top of one toot across the rear of the opposing ankle at the Achilles tendon, starting in Vajra Asana. 
  • Sit on the flat of the upturned toot that spans the opposite foot's ankle. 
  • While sitting in this position, practice deep breathing and trading your feet every three to six breaths. 


Note: Because too much pressure is applied on one side of the body, the knees may deform somewhat in this position.


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What Is Dada Vajra Kriya?



A sequence of actions including both the rising of the knees and the flexing of the feet is the best natural therapy you can offer your feet. 

One such activity is the Dada-Vajra Kriya. I doubt any chiropodist would be able to explain the advantages of this simple action.

1. Take a seat in Vajra Asana. 

2. Raise both knees as in Dwijantu-Uttana Kriya on an entering breath. 

3. Exhale deeply and lower your knees to the floor. 

4. Inhale deeply and rise to your knees, tucking your toes beneath to the floor. 

5. In the posture Vita Asana, the Hero's Pose, sit down on the heels on the outgoing breath. 

6. Come up onto the knees again on an inhale, turning the feet back to the floor. 

7. Take a deep breath and sit in Vajra Asana on your heels. 

8. Repeat the entire cycle, noting that each round of the Pada-Vajra Kriya takes three whole cycle breaths.


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What Is Shava Asana?




The Corpse Pose, Shava Asana, is also known as Shanti Asana, or the Peaceful Pose. Mrita Asana, or Death Stance, is another name for it, however that variant is a much more relaxed posture. 


Shava Asana should always be performed on a firm, level surface rather than a large cushion or mattress. 

The Corpse Posture, Shava Asana, is pronounced "Sha-wa." It directly translates to "dead body." 

If one can learn to truly "let go" of all conscious tension while resting in this pose, it is a helpful Yoga position for relaxation. 

  • While intentionally letting go of any tension you become aware of in any region of your body, repeat to yourself "Relax-relax-relax"
  • For others, thinking or saying "Shanti, Shanti, Shanti—peace, peace, peace" will be helpful. 
  • Make sure your mat or pad is placed in a calm area, away from any insects or noise. 
  • Ascertain that you will not be disturbed by taking the appropriate steps, such as removing loud electrical gadgets and turning off the telephone buzzer. 
  • If you are disturbed while in Shava Asana, you may experience "jangled nerves" instead of the tranquility you seek. 
  • If you are conducting your Yoga practice in chilly conditions, you may want to wrap yourself with a blanket. 
  • To take advantage of the magnetic polarity flow along the earth's surface, lie down supine on your back, preferably with your head to the north and your feet to the south. 
  • The toes should be allowed to relax apart once the heels have been pulled together to contact. Hands should be comfortably close to the side. 
  • As if standing up, the chin should be in a natural position. 
  • The chin should never be pressed up on the thyroid gland in the neck, nor should it be thrusting out as if it were looking for a battle. 


Mrita Asana, or Death Pose, is a version of this posture in which the legs are spread wide apart and the arms are flung out from the sides as if in the throes of death or as if dead. 

For easy relaxation, the Shava Asana is preferred. Mrita Asana is employed in Kaya Kriya.


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What Is Dwi Janu Uttana Kriya?



The fundamental stance is also used to perform the Double-Knee-Lifting Action, Vajra Asana. 

  • On an inhale, both legs are lifted off the floor, and the back is held as straight as possible. 
  • On the outgoing breath, the knees are dropped to the starting position. 
  • While executing this great foot massage and Knee-Lifting Kriya, three to six rounds of deep I breathing like in Sukha Pranayania should be done.


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What Is Eka Janu Uttana Kriya?



From the Vajra Asana stance, the Eka-janu Uttana Kriya is a Single-Knee Lifting Action.  


  • On the tops of the legs, the hands can be put. hands down, or folded together at the breast in the Namaskara Mudra, a prayer-like gesture. 
  • Raise one leg as high as possible while practicing deep Sukha Pranayama, exerting significant pressure on the upper front of the foot. 
  • On the outgoing breath, lower the knee. Use the opposite knee on the following breath cycle. 
  • Try to maintain your back as straight as possible, with all of your weight falling onto your feet. 
  • At each sitting, do three or four rounds of this Single-KneeLift. 


If this causes any discomfort or agony, it may be essential to lay a pad or thin cushion under the feet. 


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What Is Pranayama?



Pranayama is the practice of inhaling and exhaling Yoga is the "science of breath," or the management of the vital force (Prana) in the air we breathe. 

That is precisely what the Sanskrit phrase "Pranayama" means: "Prim a" is the Divine Mother Energy, the Universal Creative Power, and "Yama" is control or control science. The word "Prana" may be deconstructed into two pieces. 


The word "pra" implies "to exist independently" or "to have existed beforehand." The name "Ana" is short for "Anna," which is a cell. "Anu" refers to an atom or a molecule. Atoms, molecules, and cells, together known as "Ana," are the building blocks of all life. 


As a result, prana refers to "something which existed before any atomic or cellular life." "A manifestation of the Divine" is the word used to describe such a life. 

This Divine Energy underpins the "Manifest Creation" of Life, maintaining and maintaining, evolving and adjusting as needed to keep the functions of life in balance. 

The majority of the Prana we utilize comes from the air we breathe, while some comes from food and water, and some comes through basic skin absorption. 

Prana should not be confused with other elements obtained by breathing, such as oxygen, nitrogen, or hydrogen, or nutrients obtained via food and drink. Prana isn't any of these things. 


The catalytic activity of Prana, on the other hand, is responsible for the diverse combinations of gases in the atmosphere and the arrangement of nutrients in food. 

The Prana is absorbed by the body's exposed nerve endings, primarily through particular nerve ends within the nostrils from the air that flows over them, and similar nerve ends in the mouth and back of the throat from food and drink. 


Breathing should be slow and calm to allow enough Prana to be absorbed for the neurological system's needs. 

Food should be chewed fully to release the Prana it contains, and water should be drunk gently and left in the mouth and gullet for a few seconds for the same purpose. 


Dirgha Pranayama, or deep slow regulated breathing, must be learned from the beginning. 

Most of us take short breaths, not getting enough Prana or oxygen to maintain normal health in the nervous system and bloodstream. Most chronic diseases are caused by breathing problems, which may be avoided or reduced by learning effective breathing techniques. 


Pranayama is the yoga term for appropriate breathing. The Yogi genuinely learns to breathe consciously, and the breath is deeper and longer even when the neurological system takes over autonomic or automatic breathing. 

Improper breathing and issues associated with dyspnoea, the medical name for difficult or labored breathing, are not new. However, it has grown more obvious as a result of the widespread prevalence of severe breathing diseases. Gorakhnath, an ancient Yogi, traveled extensively throughout India. His appeal to the public at the time was as follows: "Indian men and women! You've set yourself up for excellent health by taking short breaths." 

According to this Yoga rishi, individuals in his day were only breathing into one-eighth of their lungs. 

This well-known guru taught Asanas and Pranayama to thousands of individuals, curing them of their ailments. Gorakhnath would be dismayed to learn that modern man only uses a tenth of his breath capacity. 

Special nerve receptors buried deep in the lungs are unaffected when we take brief breaths. These inspiratory receptors and expiratory receptors are only activated when we take deep breaths in and out. 

That activity is a reflexo-genic feed-back from the lungs to a specific breathing center in the brain, the respiratory center. This respiratory center controls not only our capacity to inhale and exhale, but also our capacity to hold our breath. 

Pranayama Yoga is a deliberate skill of gaining mastery over this center. It's worth noting that the terms we choose to describe our breathing are linked to our relationship with the Universe in which we exist. 


The German term for "to breathe" is "Atman," which is the same as the Sanskrit term for "Self," "Soul." 

"Brahman" or "God" is the Sanskrit term for breath. The word "inspiration" comes from the Greek word "in-spiro," which means "to inhale." to be in the spirit world or in the presence of God In the same way, "ex-spiro" means "out of spirit" or "death." 

When a guy passes away, we say he has expired. He's "lost his Prana" in the literal sense. The phrase "to die" is "Aprana" in all Indian languages, which refers to the loss of life power. 

The nerve terminals of the lungs also absorb or digest a large quantity of Prana. As a result, ancient Yogis coined the term "Hawaii Khanna," which literally translates to "eating air." 


These Yogis also discovered that the Prana contained in food and drink was of immense significance, and this realization eventually led to the birth of the "Breatharian," or someone who survives solely on breath, without food or drink.

 Although everything we get from food is already in the air we breathe, it may be conceivable, if not ideal, to survive just on breath. 

There are men and women alive today who do not consume food or, in certain circumstances, water and nevertheless have a healthy lifestyle. 


Breatharians are eleven folks I personally know in India. Such is the pinnacle of Prana control by mystics of many religious disciplines, particularly Yoga. 


  • Sit on your heels. Under the buttocks, the heels should be snug. 
  • In this first posture, do not allow the feet or heels to separate. 
  • Because of the vertical rise of the spine, this posture is also known as Uttitha Vajra Asana, or High Thunderbolt Posture. 
  • Hands should be along the turned back, palms facing the head, down shoulders onto upper and buttocks thighs, and would the deep be in breathing a straight proposed line if a measuring rod were set. 
  • Sukfla the Pranayama should be done for three to six minutes for the time being. 
  • The Vajra Asana has a relaxed version in which the heels splay outwards and the practitioner sits on the instep of the foot. 
  • The sitting-on-the-heels asana is a "sit-at-ease" stance, whereas the paravritti Vajra Asana is a "sit-at-tension" stance.


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What Is Vajra Asana?



The thunderbolt of lndra is Vajra. lndra is Lord of the Heavens in Indian mythology. 

The sciatic nerve is known as Vajra Nadi in Ayurveda, our ancient medicinal discipline of wellness. 

The Vajra Asana impacts a wide number of nerves that originate in the lower lumbar region of the spine and travel through the buttocks, back of the thigh, calf of the leg, and foot. Sciatica is a painful ailment that lends Indra's thunderbolt a bad connotation. 

Vajra can alternatively be interpreted as a diamond, which refers to the triangular position of the body in this example. The triangle can also symbolize the pelvis or sacrum of the spine, as both are greatly influenced by this excellent Asana. 

Because of the strength of this viewpoint, the term "adamantine" is frequently employed. 

The Adamant Pose also has the connotations of unyielding and steadfast. 

  • If the shoulders are maintained upright when in the ideal sitting position, the posture has a positive influence on the lower back and can also benefit the mid and upper back. 
  • A consistent usage of this position corrects both lordosis, an excessively forward, convex curvature of the lumbar region, and scolosis, a lateral curvature of the spine. 
  • Spondylitis, or Pott's disease, is also treated. Spondylitis is a kind of spinal caries that causes the bones of the spine to pit and become honey-comb-like. 
  • It was once known as spinal tuberculosis. The usage of this position greatly improves circulation to the buttocks, backs of the thighs, behind the knees, and into the calves of the legs. 

Even the most severe instances of varicose veins can be treated with Vajra asana. Varicose or dilated veins occur when the valves of the blood vessels become ineffective, preventing blood flow from returning to the afflicted body region. 

The backs of the lower limbs, as well as the rectum in the case of haemorrhoids or pies, are the most usually affected areas. 

A uncommon ailment that affects the lower oesophagus would not be considered a benefit for this disease. 


  • If your legs weary when sitting in Vajra Asana or your calve muscles cramp due to the "newness" of the sitting position, get up onto your knees every few seconds and "re-sit." 
  • If a cramp continues, sit down and "thump the thighs" on the mat until circulation improves and you may re-practice the posture. 
  • Attempt to sit for thirty seconds at first, then one minute, then two to three minutes, and so on. Don't put too much pressure on yourself. 

Take your time, and nature will assist you. 

Where do I begin? "How do I begin?" 

That is the first question that comes to mind when preparing to begin a Yoga practice. Some people recommend starting with meditation, while others recommend doing Asanas (warm-up postures) and exercising. 

This inquiry, like all good inquiries, should be followed up by another, "Where did life begin?" 

The answer to both of our inquiries is "with the breath of life." Our Yoga should continue with breathing exercises that will eventually take us to traditional Pranayama. 

At its most basic level, Pranayama is just moving air in and out of the body, or Vayu-yama. 

Pranayama is a higher kind of regulated breathing that brings the Divine Lif e Force, symbolized by the Prana, under control. 

The first Pranayama to learn is a simple, uncomplicated method of breath inhalation and exhalation that is engaged, deep, and regular. 

Sukha Pranayama is a type of breathing exercise that is best done while sitting in Vajra Asana. 

Sukha means "pleasant," and this breath should always be treated with a positive sense of delight, especially if the breath is deep or Dirgha, which sends powerful reflexogenic feedback signals to the brain informing the "respiratory center" that Pranayama is being practiced.


You may also want to read more about Yoga here.

You may also want to read more about Yoga Asanas and Exercises here.



What Is Sukha Pranayama?



Sukha Pranayama is a kind of pranayama. 

  • Sit in Vajra Asana, however any sitting position can be used if heel-sitting is problematic. 
  • Thunderbolt the way you stand. Place the palms of the hands on the legs, close them in against the body, or fold them together and lay them in the lap. 
  • Inhale and exhale deeply. six to 10 times slowly 
  • The entering breath should be at least six counts long, as should the exiting breath. 
  • Extend the number of rounds after a few days of practice until five to six minutes of deep breathing is effortless. 


Sukha Pranayama and the four-part Sukha Purvaka Pranayama that follows have three guidelines to follow. These are the rules: 


1. The inhale and exhale should be done at the same time. 

2. The amount of body lung gases released should be equal to the volume of ambient air taken in. 

3. Breathing should be evenly distributed throughout the three sections of the lungs: low, mid, and high. 


This may be difficult at first, and a particular partial pranayama known as  Vibhaga Pranayama will need to be done initially.

You may also want to read more about Yoga here.

You may also want to read more about Yoga Asanas and Exercises here.


Diet plan based on yoga.



The Indian Yogis, who are pure vegetarians, are the best models of health anywhere in the world today. 

Many of these folks live at elevations and in severe weather circumstances that others would fear, yet they do so in plain clothing and without sophisticated protection from the cold, nature's whims, or man-made terrors. 

They consume a basic but diversified diet that excludes meat, poultry, and fish, as well as animal by-products in many circumstances. 

The majority of the world's population has been duped into believing that they can only thrive on a diet heavy in animal protein. 

Despite the fact that a large section of the world's population is vegetarian, this completely incorrect belief has been allowed to spread. 

To satisfy the "Varna" of nonviolence and abstain from killing life in kingdoms near to their own, most Hindus are vegetarians. 

The man whose diet is high in animal protein claims that this protein is essential for good health, and he is accurate. 

We require a lot of protein, but we can obtain it from practically every meal we eat, and we don't need animal protein at any age as an adult if we eat a well-balanced diet. 

Allow the skeptic to respond to the following question: "Where does the cow acquire its protein?" Why would you want to acquire yours second-hand?


You may also want to read more about Yoga here.

You may also want to read more about Yoga Asanas and Exercises here.

POP YOGA! Yoga in Popular Western Culture

 

Yoga has explicitly entered mainstream culture in the United States. Every few years, Yoga Journal conducts a survey to gauge the importance of yoga. This is self-serving—the paper wants to know if it has a suitable audience—and the survey model is skewed because it stands to profit from the results. Nonetheless, the findings are eye-opening: according to Yoga Journal's 2012 poll, 20.4 million American adults practice yoga, they spend $10.3 billion a year on "yoga lessons and merchandise, including supplies, clothes, holidays, and newspapers," and 44.4 percent of non-practicing Americans are interested in giving it a shot. In my own research into the cultural past of yoga in the United States, I look at how yoga has been marketed as "Eastern" and mystical; as non-Hindu, universal, and scientific; and as a health-promoting activity.

This 150-year process has aided Americans in envisioning yoga as a secular discipline that has been gendered, culturally classified, and socially classified in a specific manner, free of any religious practices or convictions. This categorization entails both buy-in and push-back, and in this segment, I look at three examples of buy-in and push-back, as well as the resulting tensions and dialogues. Examining the popularity of yoga pants, Christian Yoga, and the Hindu American Foundation's (HAF) protests can demonstrate how mass culture and faith intersect to build pockets of unity and tension.


A pair of yoga pants



In the United States, yoga reveals the blurred boundaries between religious and secular practices (and in fact calls into question the many ways in which religion is defined). Yoga is debatable as to whether it belongs to any faith or whether it may be done by all. These issues will be addressed in the second and third sections of this series. But first, I'd like to look at how many of you might have discovered yoga—the cozy yoga pants that many of us wear even though we aren't practicing yoga.

The material and visual exploration of yoga pants reveals how they reify gender, age, and race categories and normativities. In other words, while yoga is not readily classified as religious or secular, it is more accessible to white/Euro-American, upper middle-class people, and yoga's visual culture in the United States represents and reproduces this construction of yoga. The easiest way to explain this phenomenon is to look at yoga pants in popular culture.

What is the ethnicity and ethnicity of most people portrayed wearing yoga pants if you do a short Google search for “yoga pants” and click on “images”? What part of the body is the subject of most of these photos? How many of these photos really feature someone doing yoga? If you see any pictures that are identical or different in terms of race and gender? What are the costliest and least expensive yoga pants, and how much do they cost? Now, just for kicks, look up “male yoga pants” on Google. What are some of the similarities and variations you find in terms of pant styles, body representation, and pricing? When I do this search, I find that most of the photographs are of white, slender women, with an emphasis on the lower half of her body. These trousers are also short and can cost anything from $14 to $120.

Many of the men's trousers, on the other hand, are loose, but the pictures also depict white, very healthy, athletic men, and the price range is close. Lululemon has been the brand most associated with yoga pants in recent years, owing to their appeal and affordability. It does not make men's yoga pants, but it does market men's kung fu pants. Its yoga pants for women range in price from $88 to $118. As women protested about their pricey yoga pants pilling, Chip Wilson, co-founder of Lululemon, said, "Frankly, those women's bodies just don't fit for it." They don't suit the bodies of those ladies. It's all of the rubbing on the elbows, how much friction is applied over time, and how much they need it.”

As a result, a Lululemon client would have not only a lot of discretionary money, but also a thigh gap. Lululemon would not make trousers bigger than a size 12, according to Wilson, since plus-size clothing needs 30% more fabric. “It's a money loser, for sure,” he said, trying to be sympathetic. I understand their situation, but it's difficult.” Women of color have begun to feature in Lululemon's catalogs in recent years, but the visuals and staff in each of the company's shops make it plain that the target buyer is a white, thigh-gap-thin woman who can afford to spend at least $200 on yoga jeans, top, and bra.

Lululemon's ads (aimed solely at slim women) and high costs aren't the only things that make the brand notorious. Some also questioned its success due to alleged unfair labor practices. Lululemon began manufacturing in a nonunion shop in Vancouver, Canada, in 1998, although it has since shifted all its production abroad, mostly to China. “Third-world children should be able to work in factories because it provides them with much-needed wages,” Chip Wilson is quoted as saying at a business conference in Vancouver. Furthermore, he claims that "ninety-five percent of the factories I've seen in the Orient are much stronger than factories in North America."

“Many people in China come from the western provinces, and their ambition is to work seven days a week for 16 hours a day in order to have enough money to go home with and start a company in five years.” “In Canada, for example, 99 percent of our factory workers are Chinese woman sewers,” he said. They would be furious if you worked them eight-hour days. They'll ask, "What are you doing?" if you just work them five days a week for eight hours. I'm not interested in working with you.' If you just work them for so long, they'll leave at 4 p.m., walk across the street to another warehouse, and work for another six hours. This is in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.” Wilson made no mention of salaries, working conditions, unions, or benefits in his speech. Such marketing policies have sparked controversy, and Lululemon has received negative press as a result.

They also pose a threat to the yoga culture, which is known for being socially and politically liberal. The fact that their favorite yoga pants are made by a self-described libertarian whose labor policies may be construed as abusive has opened the door for other brands. Lululemon does not own the yoga pants market—as our Google search revealed, yoga pants can be purchased for $14, making them affordable to a wide range of people, and since they are comfortable, many women of all ages, styles, and sizes choose to wear them. However, this is not without its own collection of issues about women's bodies. Yoga pants are always too tight, and schools are enacting legislation prohibiting them.

In 2014, officials at Devils Lake High School in North Dakota held a girls-only assembly to clarify the current dress code, during which they demonstrated footage from Pretty Woman to highlight how women can be treated differently based on their clothing choices. This is not the case at Devils Lake High School. Yoga pants and leggings were banned at Cape Cod Regional Technical High School in 2015 unless they were protected with skirt or trousers, as the school believed students should dress more professionally; however, the students were not persuaded. Female students have been advised that their casual attire is a distraction to male students and instructors, and they have responded by demonstrating. “Hundreds of students signed a petition, and some marched—one holding a banner that demanded ‘are my jeans dropping your test scores?'” after a middle school in Evanston, Illinois, outlawed leggings and yoga pants.

To oppose the surveillance and sexualization of girls' bodies, several students launched the hashtag #iammorethanadistraction. Given how disputed female bodies have long been, the controversy over yoga pants is unsurprising, but it does highlight how popular yoga and exercise accessories have been in the United States. Yoga can be done in any outfit—I've seen women in saris do asanas (poses) that I could only imagine. Yoga skirts, on the other hand, have been the staple yoga attire for American women in the last fifteen years. It's almost as if the material and sensation of yoga pants psychologically prepares us for yoga practice and healthier health—or maybe only to be relaxed.

However, we struggle with the objectification/sexualization of the female body in American popular culture, as well as the need to keep the body sacred, as well as reminders that it must be healthy, slender, and shapely. This conversation has found a new home in yoga pants. It's not so much a question about who should and shouldn't wear yoga pants as it is about who should and shouldn't do yoga—and how.

Yoga by Christians


Yoga and Christianity have a long history together. Swami Vivekananda and raja yoga came to the United States thanks to the Unitarians, who founded the World Parliament of Religion in 1893.

They held the International Congress of Religious Liberals twenty-seven years later, and it was through that conference that Paramahansa Yogananda and kriya yoga were brought to the United States. Yogananda, following in the footsteps of Swami Vivekananda, refers to Christian scripture and uses Christian imagery in his Autobiography of a Yogi to position kriya yoga as an interdisciplinary activity. Both Vivekananda and Yogananda came to the United States to collect funds for their ventures in India, and they had to make yoga appealing to Christians and their values while being nonthreatening. Pranayama (yogic breathing) is a form of yoga.

 

Yoga, especially pranayama (yogic breathing), was a complement to Christian activity rather than a replacement.

Yoga practice in the United States began to move away from pranayama and toward asanas (yogic poses/postures) in the 1940s and 1950s, signaling a shift away from pranayama and toward asanas (yogic poses/postures). Yoga began to make its way into American living rooms in the 1950s and 1960s, thanks to books and regular television shows. Yoga was now a pagan discipline because of market forces. Hindu yogis, on the other hand, tended to advocate yoga as a discipline that was "ident with all of the world's great religions." In the summer of 1971, the second annual Yoga Ecumenical Retreat was held at Annhurst, a Catholic Women's College, where nuns, priests, monks, rabbis, and "long haired young people" all came together to practice yoga based on Swami Satchidananda's teachings.

Sister Maria explained, "Deep prayer often entails transcending the body and the senses." “Yoga is a huge support in this regard. It aids in the relaxation of the body and mind, as well as the integration of the entire person.” Sister Rose Margaret Delaney considered yoga to be a practice for prayer rather than prayer itself: “I don't use a mantra. She explained, "I meditate on the Gospel of the day and use Yoga to prepare myself for prayer." Christians are still using their biblical origins to reformulate yoga today. Many Christians participate in yoga courses at gyms or yoga centers, but others are turned off by the overtly Hindu comparisons, meditation, and chanting. Parishioners at Washington, DC's New Community Church sing "Sha-LOM," not "OM" or "AUM."

Many Christian yoga classes, including Sister Rose Margaret Delaney's, repeat Bible verses during those poses to keep their minds on God and Jesus Christ rather than Isvara, the Hindu Lord of Yoga. The Sun Salutation, or Suryanamaskara, is a twelve-step sequence of asanas and pranayamas. “Sun,” S-U-N, is replaced with “Son,” S-O-N, in many Christian yoga courses. As a result, when they do the twelve steps, it is to prove devotion to Jesus rather than Surya. The teaching of Christian yoga is known as "Yogadevotion" at St. Andrew's Lutheran Church in Minnesota, and while some participants are suspicious, one of the pastors, John Keller, is positive because "it attracts future converts into the church's doors"; "about a quarter of Yogadevotion students are not churchgoers."

This blending in practices does not sit well for everyone. Many Christian yoga critics are troubled by the combination of Christianity and yoga. According to one critic, using yoga to entice people to church is not harmless, but rather "dancing with the devil." A increasing number of books are advising Christians against combining yoga with Christian practice. “Yoga originated in India as part of the paganism practiced there,” writes Dave Hunt in his book Yoga and the Body of Christ, and argues that yoga is one way the West is being invaded.

Laurette Willis, the founder of “PraiseMoves,” a Christian alternative to yoga, which, along with “Fitness to His Witness,” is a trademarked system of exercise for good health, plus the blessing of Jesus, offers perhaps the most innovative and interesting critique of Christian yoga. Willis, a former "New Age" believer who came to faith in 1987, grew up doing yoga with her mum, but says, "From experience, I can tell that yoga is a risky exercise for the Christian and takes seekers away from God rather than to Him." Willis, like Hindu opponents of Christian yoga, claims that yoga and Hinduism are inextricably linked because all "yoga postures are sacrifices to the 330 million Hindu gods."

Christian yoga, on the other hand, is a "oxymoron" for Willis, who defines syncretism as "an effort to combine contradictory belief, religions, or doctrines." Willis also developed the proprietary "PraiseMoves," which is not Christian yoga but a "Christ-centered approach to the discipline of yoga," as an alternative to Christian and Hindu yoga. Willis claims that, while the class appears to be yoga and is structured similarly to many yoga classes in the United States and India, it is not. Since she's "discovered there's not an unlimited amount of ways the human body can move," she admits that some of the PraiseMoves postures mirror yoga postures, and she tells us that these postures were formed by God, and that PraiseMoves is "a way to untwist these advantageous postures back to glorify God."

Willis' trademarked methodology claims to strip yoga of its Hindu jargon, revealing a fundamentally Christian tradition. The irony of this controversy over yoga in popular culture is that when Indian yogis first arrived in America, they courted Christian yogis. Many Christians today do not see yoga as a conflict; they happily practice it in gyms, church basements, retirement homes, and community centers. Yoga refers to a wider audience because it is non-Hindu, universal, and empirical, as well as a discipline that is sure to improve one's fitness.

Christians like Dave Hunt and Laurette Willis, on the other hand, demonstrate that combining religious, spiritual, or international beliefs and traditions can lead to controversy and discomfort in this region. What effect does yoga have on Christianity? Can it strengthen or weaken Christian commitment? Is it causing Christians to become less religious, or is it allowing Christians to dive further into their faith? Not only Christians debate the purity and roots of yoga; Hindus have also followed this line of investigation in unique ways.

"Take back yoga" and the Hindu American Foundation

Although Christians question whether to practice yoga, a Hindu activist organization claims that yoga is expressly Hindu and launched a "Take Back Yoga Campaign" in 2009.

The Hindu American Foundation (HAF), a Hindu advocacy or lobbying organization, identifies itself as an advocacy group that provides a radical Hindu American voice. The Foundation engages and educates public policymakers, academics, the media, and the public about Hinduism and global problems affecting Hindus, such as religious liberty, misrepresentation of Hinduism, hate speech, hate crimes, and human rights. HAF stands squarely against hate, injustice, slander, and fear by upholding the Hindu and American ideologies of empathy, equality, and pluralism.

In the last decade, HAF has been involved in several scandals. It objected Wendy Doniger's book The Hindus' National Book Award nomination, claiming it was biased and misleading, and it is the first to speak out when a garment manufacturer or designer uses Hindu iconography in "inappropriate" ways. Most prominently, prior to the "Take Back Yoga" movement, HAF filed a lawsuit challenging the methods used to write about Hindu culture and tradition in California social sciences textbooks. The lawsuit was dismissed in court, but the fight over textbook material in California continues, and the HAF has launched #donteraseindia to raise awareness. The "Take Back Yoga" movement is credited with putting HAF on the map of mass culture.

It all began with a blog post on the HAF blog in 2009 called "Let's Take Yoga Back." Sheetal Shah, a young Hindu-American student, laments in this post that the yoga taught in this country lacks the Hindu mark. She is particularly disappointed that Yoga Journal does not promote yoga using the term "Hindu," that there are no Hindus in her yoga courses, and that she was able to find several yoga teachers but none who were clearly Hindu. How do we preserve and encourage yoga's Hindu origins if most yoga studios don't have Hindu students, let alone Hindu yoga instructors, she writes? Our Hindu forefathers recognized the advantages of yoga and spread the word to the rest of the world. The West recognized yoga, fell in love with it, transformed it into a physical and “spiritual” art, removing all metaphysical connotation, and declared themselves experts. While many non-Hindu Americans are enthusiastic about yoga, the majority of Hindu Americans seem to have ignored its value in uniting their mind, body, and spirit, and have given up their understanding and possession of this life-changing activity.

As a Hindu American, I implore you to restore yoga by reclaiming your expertise in its teaching. I strongly advise you to enroll in a beginner's yoga class at a local studio and to invite your girls, siblings, parents, and friends to join you. Many of our nearby Hindu temples offer free yoga classes taught by Hindu teachers, and some of you might even be attending them... bring a friend or family member with you next week. If you practice basic asanas at home, take an advanced yoga class at a studio to take your practice to the next stage.

HAF responded to Shah's call with gusto. Following Shah's blog post, HAF published a position paper on yoga's Hindu roots in 2009: Yoga is an important aspect of Hindu belief and practice, according to the Hindu American Foundation (HAF). However, regardless of religious religion, the science of yoga and the enormous rewards it provides are for the good of all mankind. Hinduism is a set of pluralistic doctrines and lifestyles that recognizes the presence of other philosophical and religious practices. As a non-proselytizing religion, Hinduism never forces yoga practitioners to profess allegiance or convert. Yoga is a path to personal enlightenment for those who seek it. In the Washington Post's "On Faith" blog, HAF co-founder and board member Aseem Shukla engaged pop guru Deepak Chopra in a dispute about yoga's ownership beginning in April 2010.

 

Underneath Shukla's grievances, one senses the indignation of an inventor who found Coca-Cola or Teflon but failed to patent it, wrote Chopra. Isn't that a petty reason for painting such a bleak picture? When most Indians consider the enormous success of yoga in the United States, they may grin at the glitzy facets of the phenomenon, but they believe something positive is happening overall. Shukla frowns in disapproval at the same scene. Shukla retorted that, while Chopra profits financially from Hinduism (which he refers to as Vedic knowledge) and claims to be an Advaita Vedantin, he does not credit the religion in any of his platforms.

This debate drew the attention of many Hindu bloggers, anti-yoga Christian blogs, and non-Hindu yoga blogs, with each viewpoint siding with Shukla or Chopra, depending on whether they preferred or required Hindu yoga. The New York Times and CNN have published articles highlighting the key actors in this movement as the controversy gained national exposure. Although many people have strong feelings on who owns yoga, the HAF has specifically taken measures to frame the discussion. While it claims that everyone can learn yoga and profit from it, it is adamant that the Hindu origins of yoga be recognized.

The questions become, “Is yoga Hindu?” or “To which religion does yoga belong?” when boiled down and distilled, as Internet discussions sometimes are. Scholars can disagree about the Jain or Buddhist legacies of yoga, or even argue that yoga is more European and imperial than Hindu, but in the end, none of this matter in a postcolonial world where religions are divided. Labels have repercussions in mainstream culture, and the increasing popularity of yoga among Hindu South Asian Americans, combined with the fact that it has been turned into a problem by HAF, has given yoga's name, history, and ownership religion, sociopolitical, and economic implications. The bigger question is why "ownership" is still a concern.

We live in a world where trademarks, copyrights, and phantom mortgages enable people to become billionaires. Religion, culture, and even basic fitness are all impacted by inequality and an environment that prioritizes financial stability and dominance above all else. So, it was only a matter of time before yoga became a battleground for names and histories. Aseem Shukla was referred to as a "fundamentalist" by Deepak Chopra.

Non-Hindu yoga instructors who liberally use "OM" in their teaching are often opposed to the HAF movement, and it is easier to label them as fundamentalists and ignore them than to hold an open discussion about the causes, implications, and advantages of colonization, as well as racial exploitation and power contours. To put it another way, I don't believe we should or should dismiss the debate about yoga's location or possession. Rather, I believe it is a good time for us to reconsider our assumptions about Hindus and Hinduism.

White Europeans and Euro-Americans can appropriate aspects of colonized societies and enforce their beliefs on colonized peoples, some of which have come to Europe and the United States, as a result of slavery, patriarchy, and racism. However, when there are little repercussions for this appropriation and subjugation, as groups respond, they react in ways that seem to perpetuate patriarchal ideals of distinction and roots of faith and common culture. Simultaneously, we should consider other Hindu practices that middle-class Hindus in India and the United States have attempted to neglect and abandon.

Tolerance, karma, dharma, and Brahman are listed as core tenets of Hinduism on the HAF website, but Tantra, sacrifice, possession, mosque bombings, female feticide, or dowry burnings are not mentioned. These are just as important to Hinduism as yoga. Since the Protestant British religious borders never made sense in India, yoga, Tantra, and even Hindu worship spaces defy categorization, belonging, and neat histories, it was perhaps unavoidable that they would defy categorization, belonging, and neat histories. HAF, on the other hand, has opted to focus on meditation, demonstrating once again how yoga has become a part of the religious and cultural landscape of the United States.

conclusion The three references presented in this chapter demonstrate that yoga is a contentious topic in modern America, with debates raging about the manufacture of yoga pants, the bodies of women wearing yoga pants, who can/should perform yoga, and the roots and identity of yoga. These debates demonstrate how blurry and sometimes subjective the line between religious and secular is, and how necessary it is to publicly explore this messiness.

Is yoga a religious exercise or a secular one, and how have yoga pants found their way into our daily secular wardrobes?

Also, how does looking at race, gender, and class reveal how yoga has been sold and created exclusively for one category of people in this country?

Why is it necessary to examine the intersections of mainstream culture, female sexualization, and yoga pants to better understand broader conflicts in American popular culture?

Finally, how and when do sects collide? Is this a US-only phenomenon or a worldwide phenomenon? Finally, who owns culture, and how can we draw the distinction between cultural exploitation and appreciation?

Why do you think yoga is so common in America?

What reasons do you believe are influencing its popularity?

In today's America, is yoga a religious or secular activity? When it comes to yoga, is the line between sacred and secular blurry?

What do you make of some Hindus' claim that yoga should not be segregated from its place in Hindu god worship?

What function do gender, race, and class play in the construction and practice of yoga, as well as other aspects of mainstream culture in the United States?

Is yoga practiced in your neighborhood?

Look for yoga-related advertisements or announcements. Is it promoted as a spiritual practice or a form of physical activity? To whom is it marketed?



Bibliography:

 

 1. “New Study Finds More Than 20 Million Yogis in U.S.,” www.yogajournal.com/uncategorized/new-study-finds-20-million-yogis-u-s.

2. Harry Bradford. “Lululemon’s Founder Blames Yoga Pants Problem on Women’s Bodies,” www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/11/05/lululemon-foundersome-wo_n_4221668.html.

3. “Lululemon Founder Chip Wilson Resigns from Board,” Financial Times, February 2, 2015, www.ft.com/cms/s/0/5d16fdd8-aaf2-11e4-81bc-00144feab7de.html#axzz4Eljmiko3.

4. Scott Deveau, “Yoga Mogul Has Critics in a Knot,” The Tyee, February 17, 2015, http://thetyee.ca/News/2005/02/17/LuluCritics.

5. Lindsay Ellis, “Yoga Pants Too Distracting for Boys? A N.D. School Cracks Down on Girls,” Christian Science Monitor, October 1, 2014, www.csmonitor.com/USA/Society/2014/1001/Yoga-pants-too-distracting-for-boys-A-N.D.-schoolcracks-down-on-girls-video. 350

6. Ellis. “Yoga Pants Too Distracting for Boys?”

7. According to Patanjali there are eight limbs of yoga: yama (moral principles), niyama (observances), asana (postures), pranayama (breath control), pratyahara (withdrawal of senses), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi (pure contemplation) (Yoga Discipline of Freedom: The Yoga Sutra Attributed to Patanjali, trans. Barbara Stoler Miller [Bantam, 1998], 52). Only two of the eight, breath control and postures, are overtly popular in the practice of modern Hatha yoga (though there are allusions to yama), partially due to the influence of those that brought new exposure to yoga starting in the nineteenth century. Further, it seems that both pranayama and asana were latched onto by modern yoga “exporters,” for they were easiest to translate into a modern ethos—one that focused on health, control, and ecumenism.

8. Edward B. Fiske, “Priests and Nuns Discover Yoga Enhances Grasp of Faith,” New York Times, July 2, 1971, 35, 55.

9. Phuong Ly, “Churches, Synagogues Mingle Yoga with Beliefs,” Washington Post, January 1, 2006, C1.

10. Lisa Takeuchi Cullen, “Stretching for Jesus,” Time Magazine, August 29, 2005.

11. Trayce Gano, “Contemplative Emerging Church Deception: Christian Yoga, Innocent Activity or Dancing With the Devil?”http://emerging-church .blogspot.com/2007/02/christian-yoga-innocent-activity-or.html.

12. Dave Hunt, Yoga and the Body of Christ: What Position Should Christians Hold? (Bend, OR: Berean Call, 2006), 23.

13. Laurette Willis. “Why a Christian alternative to Yoga?” http:// praisemoves.com/about-us/why-a-christian-alternative-to-yoga.

14. “Hindu American Foundation,” https://plus.google.com/HafsiteOrg /about.

15. Sheetal Shah, “Let’s Take Yoga Back,” www.hinducurrents.com/articles /19969/lets-take-yoga-back

16. “Yoga beyond Asana: Hindu Thought in Practice,” www.hafsite.org/media/pr/yoga-hindu-origins

17. “Shukla and Chopra: The Great Yoga Debate,” OnFaith, April 30, 2010,www.faithstreet.com/onfaith/2010/04/30/shukla-and-chopra-the-great-yogadebate/4379.