KIRAN ATMA: Qosem
Showing posts with label Qosem. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Qosem. Show all posts

Paganism & Wicca - What Is A Rune?

 

 

Rune is an alphabetic system that is strongly associated with Nordic customs. 

  • However, runes are more than just an alphabet: each one emits a distinct force. 

They're used for divination, casting spells, and other magical or spiritual activities. 


MAGICAL ARTS: RUNES


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Paganism & Wicca - Who Is A Rune Caster?

 

 

A rune-caster is a person who works with runes. 


This typically refers to a diviner—runes are cast or hurled first, then read—but it may also refer to a "spell-caster" or "wizard."


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Paganism & Wicca - Who Is A Scobaces?

  

Scobaces is a Norman term for "witch," literally "ladies with brooms."


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Paganism & Wicca - What Is A Sabbat?

 

The term Sabbat has two totally different meanings: 


• Samhain, Yule, Imbolc, Beltane, Lughnasa, Mabon, Litha, and Ostara are the eight main Wiccan festivals that celebrate the Wheel of the Year. 

• The word used by witch-hunters to denote large gatherings of witches; further information may be found in CALENDAR: Sabbat and under entries for each holy day. 


The most appropriate, neutral equivalent could be “witches' ball,” particularly because participants are characterized as dancing, eating, and generally rejoicing. 


  • Inquisition documents from Carcassonne and Toulouse in the fourteenth century seem to be the first to use the word sabbat to refer to the gathering of witches. 
  • The Sumerian shabbattu, "a soothing of the heart," was celebrated as a holiday every seventh day starting with the Full Moon celebration for the lunar god, from whence this idea migrated to Judaism. 
  • The term for witches was coined by Roman Catholic theologians to suggest that they were doomed heretics like Jews, and/or that Jews were witches. 


Related to - Akelarre and Sabbat in the CALENDAR.


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Paganism & Wicca - Who Is A Root Doctor, Root Woman, Or Root Worker?

 

 

A witch, healer, or magical practitioner who specializes in herbs. 


  • Root workers utilize various parts of plants, but roots are said to have the most potent magical properties. 
  • The word "root-worker" also connotes a unique connection with Earth and her protecting spirits, as well as strength and wisdom. 
  • The capacity of root-workers to "root" about in Earth is a hint to their power: it was previously deemed dangerous to disturb Earth unless one understood appropriate procedures and had permission to dig. 
  • Root-working is a kind of magical activity that dates back thousands of years. 
  • Bears, pigs, and snakes are said to have been the first to teach humans the art: these are creatures that "root" in the ground. 
  • Root-worker is a term that is often used interchangeably with Hoodoo Doctor or Conjurer.


BOTANICALS: Mandrake, Roots; 

DIVINE WITCH: Kybele; 

ANIMALS: Bears, Pigs, Snakes; 

DIVINE WITCH: Kybele


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Paganism & Wicca - Who Is A Santero Or Santera?

 

The terms Santero/Santera refers to male and female practitioners of Santeria respectively. 


  • Santeria priests and priestesses (see below); to attain this rank, one must have a thorough understanding of botanicals. 
  • Santeras are community leaders who conduct divination, rites, and other activities.


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Paganism & Wicca - Who Is A Sagae Or Sage?

 

“Feminine wisdom”; this word properly translates as “wise woman” or “sage woman,” but it was a euphemism for “witch” during the ancient Roman period. 


  • Columella, a Roman writer from the first century CE, urged owners to prohibit their slaves from consulting sagae.


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Paganism & Wicca - What Is Santeria?

 

Santeria is a saints' religion, but not just any saints. Kidnapped Yorubas enslaved in Cuba were adamant about maintaining their ancient spiritual practices and loyalty to the orishas. 



  • The colonial rulers banned and prohibited African spiritual practices, and anyone who disobeyed the order faced harsh punishment. 
  • What should We do? Slaves were forced to convert to Roman Catholicism, and the Church provided graphic representations of the Holy Family and saints to aid conversion of the illiterate. 
  • Santeria was created. A repurposed new born faith. Through the usage of matching pictures, each orisha were linked to particular Roman Catholic holy saints. 
  • As a result, Ochossi the Sacred Archer assumed the persona of St Sebastian, whose votive iconography depicts him being wounded by arrows. 
  • This syncretism seems reasonable at times: a saint and an orisha may have a lot in common, but other times the links are strange. 
  • Chango, Master of Thunder and Lightning and Spirit of Male Sexual Prowess, was syncretized with St Barbara, the young virgin martyr, since her votive picture depicts lightning. 
  • Syncretism provides security: one may seem to be praying to St Barbara while really communing with Chango. 
  • Syncretism, on the other hand, leads to complexity. 
  • Santeria in modern times maintains a Yoruba spiritual framework with Roman Catholic influences, as well as influences from other African traditions, indigenous Taino Indian influences, and others. 
  • Some Santeria followers are devout Roman Catholics, while others have abandoned syncretism, feeling that the time for masks is passed. 
  • Many others choose the middle road. In all instances, however, the main emphasis of Santeria is devotion to the orishas/saints and connection with them. 

Related to -  Orisha and Vodoun.


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Paganism & Wicca - What Is Zauberei?

Zauberei is a German word that means "magic." “One who knows,” says Znakhar/Znakharka (m/f). 

Similar to English cunning people, this Russian word denotes a magical practitioner. 


  • Distance healing, dream readings, Evil Eye eradication, the finding of lost or stolen goods, and the identifying of thieves are all services provided by the znakharka. 
  • It's possible that the znakharka is also a midwife. Also see Cunning Folk.


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Paganism & Wicca - What Is A Zar?

 

Zar is the term given to a sub-category of djinn, as well as the rituals through which they communicate and the custom of engaging with them. 

  • Zar often take control of a person without their consent, or they stimulate sickness and disaster for that person. 

Without appeasing the zar, misfortune and sickness cannot be eased. This is important since it is more common to exorcise intrusive demons. 


  • The zar aren't going away, and they're not willing to be exorcized. 
  • Because forced exorcism always causes more damage than possession, a system of appeasement has evolved. 
  • Trance is produced so that the zar may communicate with a trained zar expert, such as a kodia or balazar, who can understand the possessed person's wishes and devise a plan of action. 
  • In return for symptom relief, gifts, donations, or some kind of devotional routine is usually required. 


The zar spirit does not leave after the ceremony; instead, it is transformed into an ally. 

In other words, the individual is still possessed, but the possession has been converted into a mutually advantageous partnership. 


  • Zar spirits may be male or female, but they nearly always attack women. 
  • Many people think that the zar symbolizes pagan customs that have survived. 
  • The rituals are similar to those seen in Vodou or Santeria. It's unclear if these traditions developed separately or have similar origins. 
  • Trance, dancing, and drumming are all used in Zar. 
  • Animal sacrifice or plant offerings are often used as a form of sacrifice. 
  • Zar activity is mostly seen in Muslim communities. 
  • Zar is a contentious practice in many places, and religious authorities are working to eradicate it. 


Related Practices -  Kodia, Santeria, and Vodou.


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Paganism & Wicca - Who Is A Yogini?

Technically, the word Yogini refers to a female yogi, a yoga practitioner; but, it is also used to allude to mysterious ladies (spirits or people) who are able to effect change that is ultimately good, even if it is not always obvious. 


  • One of the yogini's abilities is the ability to turn people into animal shapes. 
  • Female Tantra masters are also known as yoginis. 
  • The term is often used as a synonym for "dakini," which is frequently used as a synonym for "witch."


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Paganism & Wicca - Who Is A Yidoni?

 

Yidoni is a Hebrew euphemism for "witch," which literally translates to "knower."


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Paganism & Wicca - Who Is Yama-Oba, Or Yama-Uba?

Yama-Oba, Yama-Uba, Her name means "old mountain lady," and she is variously described as a benign ghost, a demon, a witch, a cannibal-ogre, or all of the above. 


  • In Shinto mythology, mountains are very holy and strong, thus deity may have lurked in the Yama-past. 
  • Oba's - The name may possibly be a reference to the ancient Eurasian deity Kybele, who is known as "The Mountain Mother."
  •  Yama-Oba (one or more) appears as a lady with long, unkempt hair. 
  • Her hair turns into snakes and back as requested, according to legend. 


DIVINE WITCH: Kybele 


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Paganism & Wicca - Who Is A Xorguinera?

Xorguinera is a Basque (Euskadi) term meaning "witchcraft." 


  • Women's Mysteries, especially spinning, had a significant influence on traditional xorguinera. 
  • At night, in the moonlight, the xorguina weaves her spells at the crossroads. 
  • Many xorguinera traditions seem to have evolved from Basque witch-deity Mari ceremonies. 

Mari is a DIVINE WITCH.


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Paganism & Wicca - Who Is A Xorguina?

Witches, fortune-tellers, and other magical practitioners are referred to as Xorguina in Basque (Euskadi). 

  • The term is also used to refer to fairies, but whether these fairies are meant to be interpreted as spiritual beings or as human women is debatable. Jurgina is another spelling of the term.


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Paganism & Wicca - Who Is A Worker?

Worker is a term for a Hoodoo or other magical arts practitioner.


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Paganism & Wicca - Who Is A Wizard?

 

The word "wizard" comes from the Middle English wizard, which means "one who is habitually or abnormally wise," and may be derived from the same Indo-European origin as "witch," "wicca," "ved'ma," and other esoteric terms. 


  • It was originally used to describe rural sorcerers in fifteenth-century Britain and continental Europe. 
  • The word "wizard" has mostly devolved into a literary phrase, with few people claiming to be "wizards" (although this may change with the advent of Harry Potter). 
  • In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, however, it was a popular word that was used to both male and female practitioners.


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Paganism & Wicca - Who Is A Witch-Doctor?

Originally, this word referred to a magical practitioner capable of counteracting evil magic. 

Doctor is a respectful title given to magical practitioners in the African-American community and in white cultures who have been inspired by their practices. 


  • Doctor is not just a respectable title, but it also denotes a healer, since curses and hexes are thought to appear as physical diseases in many cultures, which are difficult to treat with traditional medicine. 
  • The target's body is really injected with harmful chemicals (either by magical or actual physical methods). 
  • The witch-doctor must eliminate these toxic elements in order to heal the patient. 

Although the name "witch-doctor" has become a derogatory word for shamans and traditional healers, some contemporary magical practitioners (such as author Draja Mickaharic) accept it. 



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Paganism & Wicca - What Is A Wild Hunt?

A spirit procession known as the "Wild Hunt." On windy, stormy evenings, as well as on certain days throughout the year—Halloween, May Eve, Midsummer's Eve, and the period now known as the Twelve Nights of Christmas—the Wild Hunt rides. 


  • The public's reaction to these processions varies: these spirits are strong and unpredictable, so it's best to keep out of their path. 
  • Magical practitioners, on the other hand, often want to watch, participate, or somehow interact with this procession of spirits. 
  • The custom of a procession of spirits, accompanied or not by spirits of the dead and living followers, may be found all throughout the globe, even in places as remote as Hawaii. 

In certain European traditions, departed spirits go in procession to visit family and loved ones over the twelve intercalary days before the start of the New Year. 


  • They are usually headed by goddesses of fertility and death, such as Freya, Herta, and Hulda, who all act as leaders of the Wild Hunt. 
  • In some places, the twelve intercalary days are associated with the Winter Solstice or Yuletide, whereas in others, they are associated with Halloween and the start of the Dark Half of the Year.
  • This period predates the Vernal Equinox in certain places, and therefore correlates to different purification ceremonies in February. 


Odin, according to Nordic legend, rides his horse at night, leading a massive procession of gods, spirits, heroes, and heroines. 


  • Storms with lightning, thunder, and strong winds foreshadow his demise. 
  • It was advised that people remain indoors since these spirits had the ability to compel you to join them if they came across you. 
  • This may be due to concerns of involuntary possession or the fact that being discovered celebrating the Wild Hunt could lead to charges of witchcraft and the practice of now-forbidden customs.


This Wild Hunt—Host Odin's of Spirits—met up with Dame Hulda's Host of Witches in ancient Germany and Scandinavia, particularly during the Twelve Days of Yule. 


  • Odin's Yule Host is the name given to the twelve days of Christmas in Iceland. 
  • Santa Claus traveling alone through the skies in his reindeer-drawn sleigh might be regarded as Odin. 
  • A Danish runestone (gravestone inscribed with runic words) ends with the warning "a rati be he who destroys this stone."
  • The rati is a human whose soul has been stolen by the Wild Hunt and driven. 


The character of the Hunt altered with the impact of Christianity; it was no longer regarded acceptable to just avoid the Hunt for fear of being swept up; it was now deemed immoral to even watch the Hunt pass by. 


  • Witchcraft and evil were linked with the Hunt. 
  • Human participants were said to be witches who were being punished by God for their satanic, pagan activities. 
  • The Wild Hunt came to be linked with Hell's punishments; the spirit that led the hunt was literally a head hunter, on the lookout for Christians who would be compelled to join the Host for all eternity.

  •  The Hunt's Host were individuals who had somehow fallen outside of the Church's sacraments:
    •   unbaptized infants, illegitimate children, big sinners, and those who died violent deaths and/or were denied burial rites. 


The Hunt is said to have included heathens, Jews, and witches among its non-Christian riders. 


  • If shamans' wandering souls (double, fetch, dream-soul) are unable to return to their bodies, they are said to be doomed to join the Wild Hunt. 
  • Depending on one's perspective, there are two ways to read this. 
  • Either disobedience to the Church will condemn you to this procession of the damned, or those who are disinterested in the Church's sacraments will enjoy this holy carnival. 


This procession of spirits is known by various titles. The Wild Hunt is one of them.


 • Asgard's Chase

 • Spirit's Ride

 • Holla's Troop are some of the others.

 • Cain's Purse Dame Goden, Diana, Freya, Harlequin/Herlichinus, Herne the Hunter, Herodias, Herta, Hulda, King Arthur, Odin/Wotan/Woden, Perchta, and St Lucy are among the Hunt's commanders. 

 

CALENDAR: Day of the Dead, Festivals of the Dead is another option.


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Paganism & Wicca - What Is Widdershins?

Widdershins literally means, "the road on the left." 


  • When walking or dancing counter-clockwise, one is circling widdershins, walking or dancing in the opposite direction of the sun. 
  • The moon, ladies, and yin energies are associated with the left side in traditional magical knowledge. 
  • Dualist philosophy linked "left" with the evil side of the everlasting chessboard of warring forces, while non-dualist cultures view "left" as neutral and necessary: there is no "right" without "left" and vice versa. 

Mr. Right, the right choices, and the right route vs left-handed praises and the left-hand road are examples of modern use that reveal these meanings. 

The left side is the sinister side in Latin; do we need to explain more? 


Circling widdershins became known as the "witches' path" and the "devil's way" after Christianity. 

It was enough for a witch to be accused of witchcraft if she was seen circling widdershins. 


Those who believed witches were wicked malefactors were terrified when they saw someone circling widdershins. 


  • Many spells use widdershins movement in the same way as deasil does. 
  • When one of them is removed, the equilibrium is lost. 
  • However, there is still a fear of widdershins among many Wiccan traditions, though not all, who connect widdershins with evil magic. 
  • Widdershins is often used for banishing by those who integrate it into their magical practice.


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