Showing posts with label Shvetashvatara Upanishad. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Shvetashvatara Upanishad. Show all posts

Hinduism - Who Is Rudra? What Does Rudra Mean?


"Howler" is the literal meaning of Rudra.

A fearsome deity who emerges late in the Vedas, the earliest Hindu holy books, and is eventually linked to the god Shiva.

Rudra is mentioned in many hymns in the Rig Veda, where he is linked to the storm deity Indra and the fire god Agni.

The Shvetashvatara Upanishad, one of the later theoretical books known as the Upanishads, provides a more detailed portrayal of Rudra.

Rudra is designated as the universe's controlling force, as well as the genesis and origin of the gods themselves, in the third chapter (adhyaya) of this scripture.

Rudra's portrayal in this upanishad is ambiguous, referencing both his destructive arrows and urging him to manifest in a form that is auspicious (shivam) and tranquil.

This ambivalence may mirror the theological tensions surrounding Shiva, a god who originated outside of the Vedic sacrifice cult but was eventually integrated into established religion and is today one of the most important Hindu deities.

You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.

Hinduism - What Was The Observable Religion, Religious Beliefs, Vedic, And Pagan Practices Of The Indus Valley Civilization?


Although some academics have made conclusive statements concerning the Indus Valley civilization's religion, it is important to realize that all of these claims are very speculative, since they are based exclusively on the remnants of the cities.

Grains, animal bones, remains of fabric, and building foundations provide a strong foundation for learning about this culture's material life—what people ate, dressed, and the sorts of houses they lived in.

Religion, on the other hand, is a significantly more abstract concept.

Not only is it more difficult to deduce what sorts of religion were practiced from the items discovered, but these same artifacts may also be utilized as evidence for radically disparate conclusions.

The things themselves are deafeningly silent and may be interpreted in a variety of ways.

Nonetheless, there are a few remarkable relics among these items.

Ceramic female figurines with greatly exaggerated feminine characteristics—breasts, buttocks, and genitalia—have been discovered at Indus Valley civilization sites.

These figures are very similar to the "Venus of Willendorf," a Bronze Age European picture connected with the worship of female fertility and procreative power.

Given these parallels, it's possible that the Indus Valley culture had a comparable cult.

The sculptures provide no indication of how prevalent this religion was, or if it was tied to other fertility cults or merely a parallel development.

There is no evidence that this cult served as the foundation for Hindu worship of the Goddess as the highest reality later on.

Such statements, at best, are very speculative; at worst, they are reckless and motivated by a hidden goal.

Seals, of which several hundred have been discovered, are the other remarkable relics from the Indus Valley civilization.

Many of the seals include images of animals or daily things, but three of the Harappa seals have an image of a horned figure sitting cross-legged on a little platform.

Because it bears numerous elements connected with the Hindu deity Shiva—the sitting position is linked with the practice of yoga, and the figure's horns reflect his form as Pashupati, the "Lord of Beasts"—some observers have dubbed it a "Proto-Shiva." Proponents of this hypothesis refer to the Indus Valley civilization as Shiva's origins, correctly pointing out that, although Shiva becomes important in later Hinduism, he is almost completely missing from the Vedic pantheon.

The Shvetashvatara Upanishad, one of the most recent of the mystical books known as the Upanishads, identifies the deity Rudra—later associated with Shiva—as the universe's highest force.

Although it is likely that Shiva worship is rooted in Indus Valley culture, anybody who is not predisposed to accept this at the beginning would find this specific evidence difficult to believe.

There is also cryptic text on the seals, and these connections may become apparent if and when this writing is understood.

Also see Veda.


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.