Showing posts with label Hindu. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Hindu. Show all posts

Hinduism - Where Are The Vindhya Mountains? What Is The Mythology Of Agastya Muni And The Vindhya?

 



Central India has a mountain range that runs east to west known as the Vindhya.


Despite their diminutive stature, they have long served as a cultural barrier between northern and southern India.


As per mythological scriptures the Vindhya were long seen as an uncivilized and potentially dangerous place, inhabited by ghosts, demons, and tribal peoples; these dangers were exemplified by Vindhyavasini, the presiding goddess.





The Vindhya Mountains and Agastya Muni 


Agastya Muni's stories may be found in the Vedas, Puranas, and Itihaasa. 





Both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata tell the story of this episode. 

When they visit the tirtha where Agastya Muni once murdered Vatapi in the Mahabharata, Lomasha Rishi informs Yudhishthira about numerous tales from Agastya Muni's life. 

Mount Meru used to be circumambulated by the sun. 

'O Bhaskara!' protested Vindhya, a rival mountain, to Suryadeva. 

Meru is something you constantly go around. 

'In the same manner, circumambulate me.' 'O mountain!' Suryadeva answered to Vindhya, the ruler of the mountains. 

I don't do it because I want to. 

This is the road that the creator of the universe has chosen for me.' 

Vindhya was enraged, and he started to grow taller all of a sudden. 

He desired to prevent the sun, moon, and stars from orbiting Meru. 

Vindhya grew and grew and grew. 

The devas were terrified. 

All the devas gathered with Indra sought to persuade Vindhya to cease growing, but he refused. 

Finally, the devas came to Agastya Muni's hermitage and told him about their dilemma. 

They begged him to intercede, claiming that he was the only one who could stop Vindhya. 

Agastya Muni and Lopamudra, his wife, set off for Vindhya. 

'O greatest among mountains!' said the rishi to the mighty mountain. 

I'd want for you to pave a way for me. 

For some reason, I need to go to the south. 

Indra, king of the mountains! 'Restrain yourself until I return from there, and then you may grow as much as you want.' — p. 

86 (399(102)) of Bibek Debroy's English translation of the Mahabharata. 

Vindhya consented and shrank in size to allow Agastya Muni to pass through. 

While the writings do not go into depth, one may envision the king of the mountains' admiration for Agastya Muni for agreeing to his request while rejecting all of the devas' requests combined. 

It is stated that Agastya Muni and his wife left in the direction of the south and never returned. 


The Vindhya mountains are still present, but at a lower elevation. 





This might be viewed as a simple narrative, a fable attempting to explain a geographical phenomena. 

Or, as a fable about the pitfalls of ego, Vindhya has been duped into waiting for the rishi who will never come, unable to reclaim its beautiful heights for all eternity. 

A more inspiring and constructive view is that when a person possesses shraddha, or respect, for a knowledgeable entity, he or she will be rescued. 

The Vindhya Mountain lives today because to Agastya Muni's protection; if the king of mountains had persisted in his refusal, it would have been destroyed. 

He was rescued because the monarch of the mountains showed homage to the great rishi. 

There's also one more subtle, interesting component to the story. 

In the south, Agastya Muni says he has 'job to do.' He doesn't say what kind of job it is. 


However, a rishi's word, especially that of a renowned rishi like Agastya Muni, who is considered one of the saptarishi in certain ways, should never be taken lightly or discarded. 

It always contains satyam, or truth. 


Is the true narrative about the humbling of a mountain, or about the trek of a rishi with 'job to do' beyond the Vindhya mountains' range? 

Why did the devas chose Agastya Muni in particular for this task? 

Why did Vindhya choose to rebel at this particular moment?

Were they the circumstances that allowed something else, something more significant, to happen? 

Was this simply the beginning of a larger effort to promote the Dharma? 


This story may have served as a pretext for Agastya Muni to introduce his Dharma teachings to the southern areas, much as Padmasambhava journeyed from India to Tibet to establish Buddhism in Tibet and Bodhidharma brought Buddhism to China. 

A Fascinating Dialogue Begins When Jaimini Rishi Meets The Four Birds Now, let's return to our main narrative. 

Jaimini Rishi visits the Vindhya Mountain and enters a tunnel where the four birds are residing. 

The stone floor of this hallowed hole is wetted by drips from the Narmada River. 

When the rishi sees the four birds, he thinks to himself, 'This is a lovely area.' They have maintained control of their respiration without taking any interruptions. 

These magnificent birds are reciting clearly and flawlessly. 

These sage's sons have now given birth to a new species, and I believe it's fantastic that Sarasvati hasn't abandoned them. 

A person's vast number of relatives and friends, as well as everyone else who is treasured at home, might forsake and leave them. 

But Sarasvati remains.' — Bibek Debroy's English translation of Markandeya Purana, p. 19 


In their position as Panchama Veda, the Itihaasa and Puranas are tasked with instilling vairagya (compassion) and viveka (discrimination between nitya (that which is everlasting, or more accurately, beyond the purview of Time) and anitya (that which is not). 

It does this not just via logical ratiocination, but also through the power of rasa, the development of a field of immersive experience and emotion that we go through when reading or listening to a narrative. 

It is stated that there are three ways to learn that fire burns: being informed that it burns, seeing someone else being burnt, or being burned yourself. 

The uttama adhikara (the most qualified one) is told once and does not need to be told again; the ones of middling adhikara (which most of us can at least aspire to achieve in this lifetime or the next) can learn from others, including through stories; the unfortunate ones (which would be most of us if we do not engage in sadhana and improve ourselves) will have to learn through suffering again and again. 

That is why the Puranas are so important: we may learn knowledge from them without having to go through the same unpleasant experience ourselves. 

When we reflect on the pitiful story of these four birds, who were asked by their father to give up their lives and then cursed by him, who were born on the battlefield and spent the first part of their lives hidden in the darkness of a bell that hung around the neck of a slain elephant, we find that only Sarasvati Devi, only that shining light of vidya through sadhana and study of the shastras, remains with us in the end. 

The birds are introduced to Jaimini Rishi. 

Padya (offering of water to wash his feet) and arghya (offering of food) are two ways they respect him (offering of water to wash his hands). 

They cool him by fanning him with their wings. 

'We have led excellent lives and our births have been successful today,' Jaimini Rishi says, as the birds welcome her. 

We hope that your hermitage's animals, birds, trees, creepers, bushes, bark groves, and grass are all doing well. 

Perhaps by asking this question, we have showed you disrespect. 

'How could those who are with you not be in good health?' — Markandeya Purana English translation by Bibek Debroy, p. 

20 This is the amount of sattva and compassion that our culture embodied. 

When kings and rishis met, or when kings met, they inquired about the well-being of the people in their kingdoms, the status of the treasury, and if the dharma was being kept. 

Even grass blades are being investigated – no living form is left out. 


The sensation of oneness with all existence is referred to as sarvatma bhava. 


The purpose of Jaimini Rishi's visit, he says, is to alleviate his misgivings about the Mahabharata. 

'If it's a topic we're familiar with, we'll make you hear it without hesitation,' the birds say. 

Why won't we tell you what is within our intelligence's scope? 

O lord of the brahmanas! Our intellect can comprehend the four Vedas, the Dharmashastras, all the Angas, and anything else that is in accordance with the Vedas. 

Despite this, we can't make any guarantees. 

So, without hesitating, tell us about your concerns concerning the Bharata. 

Who knows about dharma?

Otherwise, there would be a lot of misunderstanding.' ― p. 21 of Bibek Debroy's Markandeya Purana English version Again, notice the humility that lies behind the knowledge. 

Even while the birds concede that they understand all of the shastras, or Vedic wisdom, they cannot absolutely guarantee that they would be able to answer his questions. 

They also hold him in high regard as a dharma expert. 

The first question is how the formless one (Narayana) could take on a human form (Sri Krishna). 

The birds begin by prostrating before Vishnu, Brahma, and Shiva. 

They go on to say that Vishnu is both nirguna (without characteristics) and saguna (with attributes), and that he exists in four different forms: The first kind is undetectable. 

It seems white to those who have studied it. 

Yogis envision someone whose limbs are encircled in flame garlands in this shape. 

It is distant; it is close; it is beyond the gunas, the shape and colour conjured up by the mind. 

Vasudeva is my name. 

Shesha, the serpentine one who supports the ground, is the second form. 

Tamas are a feature of this type. 

Sattva is embodied in the third form. 

This is the form that creates and maintains dharma, as well as caring and safeguarding mortals. 

Vishnu slays asuras and rakshasas in this form before descending into his avatara forms. 

Pradyumna is his name when he descends as the guardian in a form of pure sattva. 

Narayana, lying in the sea on Shesha's back, is the fourth form. 

This shape is continually in the phase of production, steeped in rajas.



~Kiran Atma


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.


Human Well-Being From A Hindu Perspective: Care, Healing, And Wellness





     

    It is reasonable to conclude that religion and spirituality in general contribute to human life fulfillment and pleasure in all civilizations. 


    Due to the increasing complexity of everyday life, providing care for persons' physical and mental needs has become a growing problem. 

    Indeed, life has become a source of worry, bringing significant challenges to religious thought and spirituality. 

    As a result, care and human well-being are prioritized in modern India, particularly among Hindu civilizations. 



    Hinduism, the world's third biggest religion, is very important to the people of India. It is considered "a way of life" (Chaudhuri 2012: 28). 


    As a result, it's critical to look at how Hindus see care, healing, and human well-being, as well as what their practice includes among their followers in India. 

    The current research begins with an overview of Hinduism as India's major religion. 

    It is descriptive and attempts to elucidate the notions of care, healing, and well-being within Hindu thinking's cultural and religious traditions. 

    The relationship between Hindu thought and how it is operationalized in its rites of passage (also known as "Hindu sacraments"), "goals for meaningful human life," and "five great sacrifices" will be a particular emphasis. 



    Finally, the article discusses care, healing, and well-being in the modern day, with a focus on renascent Hinduism and its ideas on gods and goddesses as its source. 


    Ayurveda as a Hindu science of medicine for holistic well-being, yoga as a path for mental well-being, and asrama-dharma as care and well-being for the elderly within the domain of gem-transcendence will all be discussed to further investigate modern Hinduism's viewpoints. 




    India's primary religion is Hinduism. 




    Hinduism is the most widely practiced religion in India, the world's seventh biggest nation (3.3 million square kilometres). 


    India, which is expected to have a population of 1.42 billion people by 2023, is noted for its religious variety and cultural diversity. 

    Aside from Hinduism, India is home to Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, and a number of other ancient religious traditions. 

    In addition, India is home to a diverse range of faiths, including Semitic religions. 

    According to the 2011 census, Hinduism is followed by 79.8% of the Indian population, 14.2% Islam, 2.3 percent Christianity, 1.72 percent Sikhism, 0.7 percent Buddhism, 0.37 percent Jainism, and 0.66 percent Zoroastrianism. 



    Despite the diversity of religious connections among Indians, the Hindu religious heritage plays a critical part in the country's spiritual, cultural, and social makeup. 


    In terms of Hinduism's texts, deities, and belief systems, the concept of 'unity amid variety' (Sarma 1996: 13-27) may be distinctively recognized. 

    The word 'Hinduism' does not refer to a single, closed religion tradition, but rather to a wide range of faiths, beliefs, doctrines, rituals, and practices linked with a variety of gods, goddesses, and cults found on the Indian subcontinent. 

    Although the name Hinduism refers to a specific religious tradition with a history that spans many centuries, its spiritual foundations date back almost four millennia. 

    Hinduism is considered by its supporters to be a sanatana dharma, or "everlasting religion," since it is founded on the eternal truth enshrined in the Vedas (the primary Hindu scriptures). 




    Hinduism, being one of the world's oldest alive religions, does not honor a single sage or prophet as its creator, nor does it claim a single central authority for its existence. 

    It is, in reality, based on an open canon. 

    It remains an all-encompassing, all-encompassing, and inevitably ever-evolving spiritual tradition in this way. 

    According to Shashi Tharoor (2018: 39), "Hinduism is a characteristically Indian development, a type of 'banyan tree,' as a consequence of its openness and variety. 

    Its branches spread far and wide, sinking back into the ground to take new root in the inviting soil." 

    One of its defining characteristics is the domination of a type of 'religious awareness.' 

    This centripetal perception leads to the domination of a very distinct religious point of view and spiritual sensitivity to all matters of life among Hindu believers (Griswold 1996: 24-26). 

    As expressed in Hindu scriptures, traditional thought, and culture, this complete worldview incorporates a spiritual perspective of care, healing, and human well-being. 



    Hindu themes of care, healing, and well-being are discussed in this paradigmatic context. 




    The themes of caring, healing, and well-being are implicitly ingrained throughout Hindu thought. 



    In Sanskrit (the Hindu tradition's holy language), the term 'care' has many distinct definitions: 


    Raksa Means to guard, look after, save, preserve, or keep away from. 


    Pala(-na) Means to keep an eye on, guard, defend, or govern. 


    Chinta = to consider a thought via contemplation and introspection,  (Williams 1994; 1976). 



    Raksha Bandhan, a prominent Hindu event, is strongly linked to the pledge of care and the safety of the family. 


    • The sisters tie the rakhi, a kind of amulet, around their brothers' wrists as part of the festival's ceremonial to protect them from negative influences and to pray for their long life and happiness. 
    • The sisters are given a gift at this event. 
    • The ceremony's origins may be traced back to a Hindu folklore in which Draupadi tore a piece of her saree and wrapped it to Krishna's wrist, injuring him accidently. 
    • Its purpose was to halt or prevent bleeding. 
    • As a result, a link was formed between them. 
    • Krishna vowed to safeguard Draupadi in exchange. 



    Furthermore, the Raksha Bandhan celebration serves as an annual ritual. 



    It historically authorized the brothers to take duty for the care of their sisters in order to keep them from being harmed, and it signifies protection and caring among siblings. 


    Sama = balanced; when anything in its original healthy nature is injured, it should be balanced, according to Sanskrit. 


    Svastha is the Sanskrit word for "health" or "being in one's natural condition." • Santhi is a Sanskrit word that means "rest," "quiet," "peace," "tranquility," "bliss," and "comfort" (Williams 1994). 

      • The word svastha in Ayurveda refers to a person's overall health. 
      • It typically refers to a "state of being in which one's body, mind, spirit, and senses are all in happy harmony" (Yogapedia Dictionary 2020). 
      • As a result, health is defined as the physical well-being of a person, as well as mental, emotional, spiritual, and energetic inclinations. 
      • As a result, healing is defined as the comprehensive restoration of health. 
      • Despite this holistic approach, doctors' cures for illnesses are different from the spiritual part of healing. 



    Svasti is a Sanskrit term that means 'well-being.' It might also mean 'benefit.' Well-being refers to a sense of fulfillment and happiness in life, as well as an inner sense of harmony with our surroundings. 



    Meditation, according to Hindu belief, leads to an inner feeling of serenity and tranquility. 


    • It promotes a sense of well-being that is rooted deep inside oneself (Lovato 2019). 
    • Hindus are taught to consider well-being, a feeling of pleasure with life, as vital to a sense of purposefulness, rather than the pursuit of artificial kinds of enjoyment (Menon 2012: 2; 4). 
    • Holi, a full-moon Hindu celebration in which married women celebrate their happiness and the well-being of all family members, is an example of this. 



    Yoga is another aspect of the Hindu tradition's concept of well-being. 


    • It is said to provide people with a feeling of well-being, encouraging a sense of being 'whole.'

     


    Sources and practices of conceptualization in Hindu thought. 


    The Hindu scriptures and Indian cultural traditions both include notions of care, healing, and well-being. 


    Hinduism is blessed with various texts as one of the world's oldest existing faiths. 

    The benefit is that they all have a canon that is open-ended. 

    There are four Vedas, as well as Sutras, Epics, Codes of Law, and Sacred History, among other sources. 



    Philosophical Manuals and Sectarian Scriptures are also included with the Vedas. 



    In addition to many other literature that Hindu devotees religiously study, all of them are deemed to have either main or secondary scriptural value. 


    Vedangas, or Sutra literature, is taken straight from the Vedas and contains many of Hinduism's theological principles. 

    In Hindu religious thought, the concepts and practices of caring, healing, and well-being are implied in the Grhya and Dharma Sutras

    The former is concerned with household rituals, whereas the latter is concerned with socioreligious rules. 

    Many other Hindu beliefs and practices, such as samskaras, purushartha, paru;amahayajna, and varnaasramadharma, are intertwined with its different elements. 

     



    Hindu rites of passage: the practice of samskaras. 



    Meaningful life and dying via Hindu rites of passage: the practice of samskaras. 



    The Hindu sacraments, or rites of passage, are known as samskaras (Pandey 2001; Antoine 1996c) and span one's whole life span as well as the world beyond (transcendent dimension), starting with prenatal rituals and ending with post-mortem existence. 

    • According to ancient scholars, three key prenatal rituals lay the way for care to be offered to pregnant women and the unborn child in order to assure health and protection against evil. 
    • Early childhood or infancy samskaras are for the child's intellectual well-being, longevity, safety, and even adornment. 
    • With basic and secondary education, educational samskaras secure an individual's profession outside of the family, preparing them for active citizenship obligations. 
    • The marriage (vivaha) ceremony is the most important sacrament, through which a person fulfills socio-religious and family duties. 
    • The penultimate sacrament, the funeral ritual (antyeshthi), takes into account the needs of both the dead and the living. 
      • This ceremony expresses 'sublime feelings' that make death pleasant for the one who dies, as well as for the society to accept death and dying as an unavoidable occurrence. 



    A person's life is made up of a succession of events. 


    • In this way, the sacraments offer people in society with the care and protection they need. 
    • These sacraments are intended to mold one's personality and connect our humanity to religious significance. 
    • As a result, the concept of life passages was born. 
    • Their purpose is to aid in the expression of pleasure and grief. 
    • The sacraments support an individual's well-being in this manner. 



    Simultaneously, they contribute to an individual's growth as a "full-fledged social person" (Dandekar 1996: 142). 




    As a result, the Samskaras provide a complete vision of what constitutes a healthy life and personal well-being in Hindu traditional culture. 

    All of these rites of passage are described and formulated in the Grhya Sutras, which defines and formulates household or domestic rituals, which were historically performed at home and in which priests had a little part. 



    The relevance of these family ceremonies is eroding as a result of modernization of schooling and changing societal attitudes. 


    Even the practice of samskaras has become fragmented and has lost its uniting effect. 

    However, some of the customs are still followed, such as the singing of Vedic hymns and the offering of ceremonial fire during official ceremonies, as well as at private occasions when no religious person is present (Gengnagel and Husken eds. 2005). 




    In reality, only the most devout Hindu households still follow these samskaras to the letter. 


    Fortunately, despite secularization, most Hindus in modern society are still eager to participate in a number of these samskaras, such as the naming ceremony, the first feeding of the infant, initiation into education, marriage, and burial customs. 

    These rituals are often carried out with the assistance of a priest, albeit not always at the temple. 


    Well-being in the context of the individual-society interaction: Promoting 'Human Life Goals' (Purushartha). 

     



     The four ideals of purushartha (literally: 'goal' or 'end' of man/human [Antoine 1996a: 155156]), dharma, artha, kama, and moksha form a four-fold network about what life is about and its relationship to the universal human desire for meaning and purpose. 


    Dharma as a life aim encourages people to be virtuous, righteous, and morally and ethically responsible in all aspects of life. 

    • The quest of money and success is the theme of ArthaIt is the source of human life and existence. 

    Kama is a Sanskrit word that means "pleasure" or "enjoyment of life." It denotes the method of procreation and, as a result, humanity's survival. Both artha and kama, or money and pleasure, must be consistent with dharma. 

    Moksha is the Hindu term for emancipation, which is the ultimate purpose of existence. 


    A person who acquires money (artha) and enjoys and fulfills life's wants (kama) via virtuous and righteous ways (dharma) would, in theory, achieve nirvana (moksha). 


    These four life objectives are traditionally taught at the student/learning stage of life (brahmachari) and implemented in the householder stage ( Grhastha )  Purushartha is made up of all of these life objectives. 


    In this way, they establish a set of life objectives that must be met in order to live a meaningful life. 

    Life would be blank and pointless without these objectives. 

    As a result, the purushartha dharma defines an individual's well-being in society and fosters wholeness in the public arena of life, resulting in a healthy society. 



     

    Affectionate treatment of family members, other people, and other living things: The Great Five Sacrifices Or Yajnas (Panchamahayajnas). 


    Every day, a homeowner is obligated to do the five-fold mandatory sacrifices, or duties: 


    (a) Brahma Yajna, homage to Brahman, is performed by reading scripture; 

    (b) Pitr Yajna, homage to the ancestors, is performed by offering water; 

    (c) Deva Yajna, homage to the gods, is performed by offering homa sacrifices

    (d) Bhuta Yajna, homage to elements or other beings, is performed by feeding animals and birds; and 

    (e) Manusya Yajna (Antoine 1996b: 203). 


    Both Bhuta Yajna and Manu-D-'a Yajna are closely tied to an individual's obligation as a caretaker to fellow human beings, animals, and other species; failing to do so implies failing to do one's major daily required task, which may destroy the prospect of liberation, or moksha (the ultimate goal of life). 

    Pitra Yajna, according to Wilson Paluri (2020), is the 'reverential connection' with parents and elders, which is particularly important for the 'well-being' of family life. 


    In the Hindu family structure, caring for parents and the elderly is both a virtue and an obligation. 


    In Hindu tradition, "may mother be god to you, may father be god to you..., may visitors be god to you"10 is the ultimate state of being. 

    Bhuta Yajna, or the offering of food to all creatures, decreases egomaniacal tendencies in humans and cultivates the practice of giving one's assets for the benefit of all sentient beings in need (Dandekar 1996: 139). 

    Hindu traditional societies reflect these mahayajnas. 

    They place a premium on caring for parents and seniors, respecting visitors, offering hospitality to everyone, and defining the pursuit of human well-being. 


    Troublesome Issues to Consider 




    Without mentioning its limits, a discussion of care, healing, and well-being in Hindu thinking and traditional practices would be insufficient. 

    The majority of traditional customs are geared at men and the upper caste. 

    Many people from the disenfranchised, so-called lower caste populations, have been denied access to Vedic traditions because they had to settle for a 'lower religion.' Early Vedic religion is supposed to be simple yet deep, promoting society and gender equality. 

    It has generated hierarchical structures and inequalities throughout its history in order to serve the entrenched interests of rich groups. 

    The most exploited victims of such a discriminatory practice are women and members of indigenous groups (Tribals, adivasis, Dalits) (Devi 2000: 15). 

    Although the dynamic position of people from disadvantaged groups and women in general can be traced throughout Hindu history, the society adopted hierarchical and patriarchal structures (Krishnan 2020a). 

    Current Hindu cultures, on the other hand, are not static, but are subject to social development, which has an impact on the dynamic position of women and indigenous people in religion and society.



    Kiran Atma





    References And Further Reading.



    Antoine, R. 1996a. "Hindu Ethics: 1. General Ethics." In Religious Hinduism, edited by R. DeSrnet and J. Neuner, pp. 149-158. Murnbai: St. Pauls. 

    Antoine, R. 1996b. "Rituals and Worship". In Religious Hinduism, edited by R. DeSrnet and J. Neuner, pp. 200-209. Murnbai: St. Pauls. 

    Antoine, R. 1996c. "The Hindu Saril.skaras." In Religious Hinduism, edited by R. DeSrnet and J. Neuner, pp. 210-219. Murnbai: St. Pauls. 

    Arulsamy, S. 2000. Religion for a New Society. Delhi: ISPCK. 

    Bowker, John. (ed.) 1997. The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

    Braam, Arjan W., et al. 2006. "Cosmic Transcendence and Framework of Meaning in Life: Patterns Among Older Adults in The Netherlands." The Journals of Gerontology- Series B 61 (3),pp. 121-128. DOl: 10.1093/geronb/61.3.Sl21. 

    Capistrant, B.D., et al. 2015. "Culture and Caregiving for Older Adults in India: A Qualitative Study," The Gerontologist 5(2), p.ll2. DOl: 10.1093/geront/gnv504.06. 

    Chaudhuri, Nirad C. 2012. Hinduism: A Religion to Live By [1st edition 1979]. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. 

    Dandekar, R.N. 1996. ''The Role of Man in Hinduism." In The Religion of the Hindus, edited by Kenneth M organ [first published 19 53], pp. 11 7-153. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas. 

    Dasgupta, Surendranath. 1975. A History of Indian Philosophy, Vol. II [Cambridge Edition 1922], Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas. 

    Datta, Sukurnar. 2001. "Monasticisrn in India." In The Cultural Heritage of India, Vol. II, pp.582-593. Calcutta: The Rarnakrishna Mission Institute of Culture. 

    Devi, K.Urna. 2000. Women's Equality in India: A Myth or Reality? New Delhi: Discovering Publishing House. 

    Gautamananda, Swami. 2019. "Holistic Health." In Healthy Mind, Healthy Body: New Thoughts on Health [first published 1997] Chennai: Sri Ramakrishna Math, pp. 1-8. 

    Gengnagel, Jorg and Ute Hiisken (eds.) 2005. Words and Deeds: Hindu and Buddhist Rituals in 

    SouthAsia. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. 

    Griffith R. T. ( ed.) 1899. The Texts of the White Y ajurveda. https://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/wyv/index.htrn (accessed 13 Sept 2020). 

    Griswold, Harvey De Witt. 1996. Insights into Modern Hinduism. New Delhi: Aryan Books International. 

    Hall, C. Margaret. 1985. "Religion and Aging." Journal of Religion and Health 24(1 ), pp. 70-78. 

    Hinduscriptures. corn. 2021. "Hindu Samskaras." https://www.hinduscriptures.corn/vedic-culture/rituals/sixteen-sanskara/hindu-samskaras/11992/ (accessed 29 Sep 2021). 

    Ketchell, A., L. Pyles, and E. Canda. 2013. World Religious Views of Health and Healing. http://spiritualdiversity.ku.edu/sites/spiritualitydiversity.drupal.ku.edulfiles/docs/Health/World%20Religious%20Views%20of"/o20Health%20and%20Healing.pdf (accessed 10 Nov 2020). 

    Kimble, Melvin A., et al. (eds.) 1995. Aging, Spirituality and Religion: A Handbook. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. 

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