Showing posts with label Hindu Creator. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Hindu Creator. Show all posts

Hinduism - Where Is Brindavan?

   






(“tulsi forest”) A small village in Uttar Pradesh's Mathura area, where the deity Krishna is said to have spent his boyhood. 



Although every location in Brindavan is connected with Krishna's life and has temples devoted to him, the Chir Ghat is especially significant since it is where Krishna took the gopis' garments when they were bathing (snana) in the Yamuna River. 


(The gopis were female cowherds who were Krishna's friends when he was younger.) 

The Gobind Deo Mandir, which was constructed in 1590 and features a vaulted roof, is an important architectural site. 

This temple is particularly noteworthy for its lack of external decoration, which may have been done to avoid offending the neighboring Moghuls. 




See John Stratton Hawley's 1981 book, At Play with Krishna, for an account of the holy life at Brindavan. 






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Hinduism - What Is A Bride Price?

   





The amount of money given to the bride's family by the groom's family as a condition of marriage. 



The asura marriage, one of eight authorized types of marriage in the Dharma Shastras (treatises on religious obligation), is defined by the exchange of money for the bride (dharma). 




Because it implies selling one's offspring, this kind of marriage is deemed aprashasta (“reprehensible”). 

Despite the fact that it occurs in contemporary India, groups that practice this style have a poor social standing. 



Giving brideprice in contemporary times implies that the bride's family is entitled to compensate for the loss of a wage worker, indicating that her labor is required by the family. 




The Brahma marriage, on the other hand, is a higher-status marriage in which the bride and her riches (in the form of a dowry) are transferred to the groom's family with the assumption that both families have enough money that her paid work is superfluous.




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Hinduism - Who Is Brhaspati?

   






Brhaspati is a sage who was selected by the gods (devas) to be their guru, or spiritual teacher, in Hindu mythology. 




Because Jupiter is the most important planet in Hindu astrology, and therefore the metaphorical "guru" among the planets, Brhaspati is one of the titles given to it.






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Hinduism - Where Is The Brhadeshvar Temple?

   








The Chola monarch Raja Raja (r. 985–1014) constructed a temple in the southern Indian city of Tanjore about the year 1000 B.C.E. 





The temple is devoted to Shiva in his incarnation as Brhadeshvar (the "big lord"). 





It was constructed in the Dravida style, which is characterized by low-rise structures that span a large area and are encircled by a boundary wall with enormous towers (gopurams) above each wall's central entrance. 

The Brhadeshvar temple is well-known as a hub for traditional arts and culture, especially for the Bharatanatyam dance form. 

It also has some outstanding murals, which is a rare feature in Indian temples. 










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Hinduism - Who Is Brhannala?

 








Arjuna, one of the five Pandava princes, adopted this disguise during the year they spent in hiding following a twelve-year exile in the jungle. 








The Pandavas are the protagonists of the Mahabharata, the second of two major Hindu epics that chronicles the Pandavas' battle for dominance against their relatives the Kauravas. 





Arjuna's elder brother, Yudhishthira, had lost all of the brothers' freedom and wealth to the Kauravas in a game of dice at one point during their battle. 

As a result of their defeat, the Pandavas must go into exile for twelve years and then return to society unnoticed for the thirteenth year. 

If the brothers are found during that year, they are expected to be exiled once again. 




Arjuna, the epic's most valiant warrior, assumes the appearance of a eunuch called Brhannala, knowing that no one would suspect him. 


He spends the year as a eunuch, singing and dancing in the palace's women's quarters. 

Arjuna takes part in a major fight at the conclusion of the year, still dressed in his eunuch's attire, in which he destroys the Kauravas' army.





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Hinduism - Where Is The Braj Region In India?

 





The Yamuna River runs across northern India, just south of the modern city of Delhi. Braj, according to Hindu mythology, is the region where the deity Krishna resided during his earthly life. 





The Braj region has no well defined borders, and it has never been used to refer to an established administrative entity. 


Instead, popular piety has come to define it. 

Krishna's devotees (bhakta) place a high value on visualizing his exploits as a means of achieving communion with him, and as a result, locations throughout the Braj region are linked to specific incidents in Krishna's life. 

The region's southern and eastern borders are now little over five miles southeast of Mathura, but the region's northern and western limits are almost five times that distance. 



A. W. Entwistle's Braj, 1987, has a wealth of information about Braj and its culture.




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Hinduism - What Is The Brhadaranyaka Upanishad?

 




Brhadaranyaka Upanishad ("Great Forest Book").




By far the earliest of the Upanishads, the theoretical religious writings that make up the Vedas' most recent layer. 





At least four pieces of evidence support the Brhadaranyaka Upanishad's chronological priority: its length, lack of structure, archaic language, and connection to previous Vedic works. 

The first section of the book compares the world to the sacrifice horse in detail, with obvious similarities to previous Brahmana literature. 



Furthermore, the Brhadaranyaka Upanishad's name ("great forest book") denotes a shift from the Aranyaka ("forest books") literature that preceded Brahmana literature. 


This upanishad is a significant source for the evolution of the tradition since it answers many of the issues addressed in subsequent writings. 

It is written in prose rather than poetry, and the instructions are frequently given in the form of conversation between different speakers, unlike most of the later Upanishads.



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Hinduism - What Is The Braj Bhasha?

 





The "language of Braj" is a medieval Hindi dialect spoken mainly in the Braj area, south of modern-day Delhi. 



Braj is the region of Krishna, and the devotion that thrived there between the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries helped to establish Braj Bhasha as a significant literary language. 





Apart from being the language of Krishna followers, it also served as a lingua franca—a common language spoken by a wide range of people—for religious adherents (bhakta) throughout a much wider region of northern India, but dialects differed at the boundaries.





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Hinduism - What Is The Brahmo Samaj?

 






Brahmo Samaj is a Hindu religious organization.




Ram Mohan Roy (1774–1833) established the first Hindu reform organization in Calcutta in the early nineteenth century. 




His goal was to rid modern Hinduism of “corrupt” traditions including sati (widow burning), widow remarriage bans, image worship, and caste systems. 

He selected the Upanishads as his primary religious books in his search for a traditional authority for such changes. 

Following his death, the movement was led by Debendranath Tagore (father of Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore) and subsequently by Keshub Chander Sen; nevertheless, disputes over ceremonial issues caused the organization to split under both leaders. 



The Samaj's influence had faded by the late 1800s, but it did provide as a conduit for the mystic Ramakrishna to meet many of his followers in an intriguing twist. 



The social agenda of the Brahmo Samaj mirrored and reacted to current European criticisms of popular Hinduism, some of which were leveled by Christian missionaries and others based on the Enlightenment's rationalist focus. 

Because of its transparency, the Brahmo Samaj was at the forefront of legal reform, influencing the 1829 legislation against sati. 

However, its members were mainly Westernized metropolitan intellectuals who were disconnected from Hindu life and religious concerns. 





Spencer Lavan, “The Brahmo Samaj: India's First Movement for Religious Reform,” in Robert D. Baird (ed. ), Religion in Modern India, 1998, for further information.




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Hinduism - Who Is A Brahmin?

 




The brahmins are the highest rank group in the ancient Hindu idea of the four main social groupings (varnas), based on the assumption that they are purer than all others. 



This concept is based on the Purusha Sukta, a creation myth in which the brahmins are produced from the mouth of the Primeval Man. 






The mouth is a portion of the head, which is the highest part of the body, and it is also linked to speaking, which is one of the distinctively human abilities. 

Brahmins have been connected with speech and the holy word from the beginning of Hindu recorded history; they were academics, priests, ritual technologists, and guardians of sacred learning. 

This is still the case in contemporary times, however many brahmins work in other fields such as commerce, business, and government service. 



Aside from their historic connection with holy learning, their ceremonial purity, which is thought to be higher than that of all other humans, is another source of social prestige. 




This ceremonial purity is innate and passed down through the generations. 

Much an ignorant brahmin should be regarded a "god on earth," according to tradition, while a knowledgeable brahmin is even more holy. 

Because brahmins are regarded the greatest mediators to "insulate" the gods from regular people, they are preferred for service to many of the gods of the Hindu pantheon. 

Although brahmins as a whole hold the greatest rank, there are strongly defined subgroups (jatis) within the brahmin society, which are typically characterized by place of origin.





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Hinduism - What Is A Brahma Marriage?








According to the Dharma Shastras, religious treatises, there are eight methods to conduct a marriage (dharma). 





In a Brahma marriage, the bride's father presents his daughter to an educated man of excellent reputation, along with whatever decorations he can afford. 


This guy is politely asked to accept her without any strings attached or costs. 

Because it is devoid of desire and money inducements, this type is regarded the most appropriate for Brahmans, thus the term Brahma marriage. 

It is also regarded as the finest of the four authorized (prashasta) types of marriage for these reasons. 





In contemporary India, there are two types of marriage: Brahma and Hindu. 


It is much more socially acceptable, since an asura marriage—in which the husband pays money to the bride and her family—connotes the woman being sold

Nonetheless, even with the Brahma marriage such exchanges can be observed to a lesser extent to this day.



Hinduism - Who Is A Brahmana?





The Vedas' second literary layer, the oldest and most authoritative Hindu religious writings, is known by this term. 





The Brahmanas usually follow after the samhitas, or songs of adoration to the gods, and before the theoretical writings known as the Aranyakas and Upanishads, despite the fact that the Veda's creation is not entirely linear. 





In principle, each Veda includes an appendix called a Brahmana that explains the Vedic rites in more detail. 

Although this is exclusively true for the Yajur Veda, this understanding bestows on the Brahmanas the authority of revealed text (shruti) and therefore renders them infallible. 


The Aiteraya Brahmana and the Shatapatha Brahmana are the two most significant Brahmanas; the latter's tone and contents (which include the Isha Upanishad) plainly identify it as the most modern of the Brahmanas. 



The Brahmanas are mainly ceremonial texts that provide detailed, laborious instructions for carrying out Vedic rites. 


These writings show a major change in religious practice, from a focus on sacrifice as a method of summoning and pleasing the Vedic gods to a focus on the power of ritual itself. 

Because even the gods are susceptible to the rites, the sacrifice priests become the most powerful individuals in the world. 





The Aranyakas and Upanishads, which raise more speculative questions regarding the rituals themselves, are influenced by the force of well executed ritual. 



These many religious genres are often juxtaposed, like in the Shatapatha Brahmana, which contains the Isha Upanishad. 

These juxtapositions show that, although the emphasis in different kinds of writings differed, there was some overlap in the period they were written.