Showing posts with label The Creator. Show all posts
Showing posts with label The Creator. Show all posts

Hinduism - Where Is The Champaran Region In India?

 






The Champaran region is located in northern Bihar, between the Gandaki River and the Nepalese border. 



It is now divided into two provinces: eastern and western Champaran. 





The Champaran area is well-known for being the site of Mohandas K. Gandhi's first successful satyagraha (nonviolent struggle) against British authority. 




The province was mainly agricultural at the time, as it still is now, with the majority of the people living in poverty. 

Farmers had historically set aside a part of their property for producing indigo, which they would then rent to the landlords. 

The development of a far cheaper synthetic indigo shattered this arrangement. 

The landlords reacted by ordering the tenants to cease producing indigo, but then proceeded to increase the rent on their property, based on a long-standing agreement that permitted them to do so if a renter did not produce indigo. 



The unrest started in 1912, but it was not until 1917 that Gandhi arrived. 

After a nearly year-long effort, the tenants were able to get concessions from the landlords, including a promise of no future rent increases and a 25% refund on past hikes. 




For additional detail, see Mohandas K. Gandhi's An Autobiography, published in 1993; Louis Fischer's Gandhi, published in 1954, provides a more accessible, though incomplete, narrative.












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Hinduism - The Practice Of Celibacy In Hinduism.

 



Celibacy was highly regarded in old Indian society as both a symbol of holiness and a source of power. 



On the one hand, since sexual desire is often a metaphor for all kinds of want, abstaining from sexual activity is an indication of abstaining from the world in general. 



On a more literal level, the preservation of semen via celibacy is said to prevent a man's essential vitality from evaporating. 

Semen, according to traditional Indian physiology, is distilled from blood and therefore represents the concentrated essence of a man's vitality. 

While semen may and must be used for reproduction, all other losses must be carefully considered. As a result, masturbating is frowned upon. 





Celibacy stores and conserves essential energy, which may subsequently be utilized for spiritual development. 


  • The deity Shiva, whose emblem is the linga, a pillar-shaped figure with obvious phallic connotations, is the model for the celibate ascetic. 
  • Shiva is the epitome of a perfect spouse and ascetic. 
  • As a result of his tapas, the linga symbolizes his hoarded celibacy energy (ascetic practices). 

Similarly, whether a lifelong celibate (naisthika), a student (brahmacharin), or a married man who has already had children, celibacy is a means for human males to preserve their essential energy.




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Hinduism - Who Was Cekkilar, The Nayanar?

 



The Periya Puranam, a hagiographical chronicle of the sixty-three Nayanars, was written by Cekkilar (12th c. C .E .). 



Between the seventh and ninth centuries, the Nayanars were a group of sixty-three Shaiva poetsaints who lived in southern India. 


In contrast to Buddhists and Jains, the Nayanars, together with their Vaishnava counterparts, the Alvars, led the revival of Hindu religion. 

Both the Nayanars and the Alvars placed a strong emphasis on ardent devotion (bhakti) to a personal god—Shiva for the Nayanars, Vishnu for the Alvars—and expressed this love via Tamil hymns. 





Cekkilar was a minister in the court of the Chola dynasty's monarch Kullottunga II (r. 1130–1150 C.E.), according to legend. 


Cekkilar was irritated by the king's love for a Jain epic poem, so he wrote his own to divert the king's attention. 

The Nayanars are portrayed in his book as examples of Shiva devotion, despite their sometimes harsh acts. 

In every instance, however, the devotion between the devotee (bhakta) and the god shows itself in daily life, bringing the saints to ultimate freedom. 




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Hinduism - What Is The Artificial Caves Architectural Style In India?

 











This was a popular architectural style in Maharashtra's western region, especially in the early centuries of the common period. 



The chaitya, or rock-cut cave temple, was the oldest form, and it is linked with Buddhist architectural locations. 


A chaitya generally consisted of a huge room carved into the side of a hill, surrounded by artificial caves carved out of solid rock. 

Featuring a Buddha figure at the far end and a glass above the entryway to let additional light in. 

These caverns were dug and carved from the top down, eliminating the need for scaffolding. 

The sides and central pillars were carved to seem like they were made of wood. 



The chaitya shape was adopted in early Hindu architecture, although it was ultimately abandoned in favor of free-standing temples. 


The caves of Ellora, especially the Kailasanatha temple (late 8th century), devoted to the deity Shiva in his guise as the Lord of Mount Kailas, are the most magnificent Hindu rock-cut temples. 

The Kailasanatha temple was cut out of solid rock to appear like it was constructed of masonry. 

Although the temples at Elephanta were completed later, this temple represented the pinnacle of the artificial cave as an architectural form. 

After this time, the focus shifted to free-standing temples. 




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Hinduism - Where Is The Cauvery River In India?

 











The river flows east through the state of Tamil Nadu before joining the Bay of Bengal, originating at the foot of the western ghats in the state of Karnataka. 



Along with the Ganges, Godavari, Indus, Narmada, Saraswati, and Yamuna, it is regarded one of India's seven holy rivers. 


Shrirangapatnam and Tiruchirappalli, as well as the Cauvery Delta in Tamil Nadu's Tanjore district, which is full with temple towns, are important holy places (tirthas) on the Cauvery. 

Since India's independence in 1947, the rights to the Cauvery's water have been a source of contention between Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. 





Farmers in Tamil Nadu have been clamoring for a larger share of the water held in Karnataka reservoirs. 








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Hinduism - What Is A Caste In Hindu Society?









The most well-known name for the ancient Hindu social system in which groups are placed in a hierarchy of rank based on the perceived purity of each group's customary profession. 




The term "caste" comes from a Portuguese word that means "chaste." 

Different groups in Indian culture maintained their distance from one another, especially while dining and marrying, according to the Portuguese. 

This social phenomena was referred to as "caste" by them. 




The most significant notion for social organization among Hindus is known as the jati ("birth"). 




A person is born into a jati and becomes a member of it. 

The jatis were typically split into groups based on their traditional occupations, which were supposed to be done only by that jati. 

The social standing of a jati was usually determined by its profession, and jatis who worked as latrine cleaners or tanners were considered to be polluted by their work. 





The body was used to represent society as a whole, with various jatis corresponding to different bodily parts. 



While each component had a unique status and purpose, they all had to work together for the entire to operate properly. 

To keep one group separate from the others, rigorous regulations were used to designate and enforce these distinctions in rank



The most stringent rules applied to marriage, and members of a jati would only marry inside that group in the past. 


It was almost as though the jatis were considered a distinct "species" of human beings who needed to be kept apart. 

Although there is currently much more intermarriage than in the past, marrying within one's jati is still the ideal. 




The four main social classes (varna) outlined in the dharma literature: 


  • brahmin (priest), 
  • kshatriya (warrior-king), 
  • vaishya (merchant), 
  • and shudra (slave) are the best-known model for organizing Indian society (servant). 




The multitude of distinct jati groupings, on the other hand, makes the social order much more complicated. 



A small hamlet may have dozens of jatis, each providing a specific function, while a metropolis may have hundreds of jatis, some of which are extremely specialized. 


There are various brahmin jatis even within the brahmin varna (for example, Saraswat, Chitpavan, Kanyakubja, and Kanaujia). 

The situation is much more complicated for other varnas. 

Some jati groups, for example, lie between the vaishya and shudra varnas, while modest jati clans with political success may claim kshatriya ancestry. 


The social standing of the same jati may differ from area to region, depending on whether they are a majority or minority of the population, or whether they are a land-holding group. 


The status of a group is typically determined by local circumstances, as it is in most aspects of Hindu life; but, in the last fifty years, such status determinations have also been influenced by changes in Indian culture, which have tended to loosen social differences. 





See McKim Marriot, “Hindu Transactions: Diversity Without Dualism,” in Bruce Kapferer (ed.), Transaction and Meaning, 1976, for more details. 


Hinduism - Castration In A Hindu Society.










With the noteworthy exception of the hijras, castration of human beings has been nearly entirely absent throughout Indian history. 



Hijras are male cross-dressers who dress and act as women and have typically had their libido castrated as a ceremonial surrender. 


Hijras are typically gay prostitutes, and they are a well-established component of most Indian towns' decadent underbelly. 

Their primary ceremonial role is to sing and dance at the birthplaces of male children, although they may also be called upon to perform on other fortunate occasions. 



Despite their connections with some auspicious events, the hijras are socially marginalized and have a poor social position. 




Serena Nanda's Neither Man Nor Woman, published in 1999, is a credible study of the hijras. 





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