Showing posts sorted by relevance for query bhajan. Sort by date Show all posts
Showing posts sorted by relevance for query bhajan. Sort by date Show all posts

Hinduism - Who Was Yogi Bhajan Or Harbhajan Singh Puri?

 

Yogi Bhajan or Harbhajan Singh Puri, was the 'Sikh Dharma Brotherhood' founder and modern Hindu missionary.

In 1969, he arrived in the United States, leaving behind a job as a customs agent at the Delhi airport.

His first teachings were classical hatha yoga and kundalini yoga disciplines, with his followers grouped into the "Happy, Healthy, Holy Organization" (3HO).

Hatha yoga is a religious discipline (yoga) based on a sequence of body postures known as asanas.

It is commonly thought that this practice provides a variety of physical advantages, including enhanced bodily flexibility and the potential to treat chronic diseases.

Kundalini yoga is a spiritual practice whose main goal is to awaken the kundalini, the dormant spiritual power that lives in everyone's subtle body.

The kundalini is supposed to be awakened by a mix of yoga practice and ritual action, and it is said to provide further spiritual capacities and, eventually, total soul liberation (moksha).

Yogi Bhajan claims to be a master of tantra, a hidden, ritually based religious practice, but his teaching expanded in the 1970s to incorporate ancient Sikh beliefs and symbols.

The most visible of these symbols are the "five Ks," which include uncut hair (kesh), a comb (kangha), a jewelry on the right wrist (kara), shorts (kacch), and a ceremonial sword (kacch) (kirpan).

Many of Yogi Bhajan's followers adhere to Sikh symbols considerably more rigidly than most individuals born as Sikhs, yet there are two major differences between the movement and the traditional Sikh society.

One of them is its concentration on tantra, which isn't very popular with Sikhs.

The most notable distinction, however, is Yogi Bhajan's religious authority over his followers, which is considerably different from the traditional Sikh community's decentralized, essentially democratic structure.


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Hinduism - What Is Bhajan?











Bhajan is a Sanskrit word that means "sharing." 







A religious or devotional hymn is nearly typically sung in a vernacular language under this term. 



  • Bhajans have no defined forms as expressions of personal devotion, although they are often adapted to the melodies of cinema songs in modern times. 
  • Bhajans can have any or all of the following themes as a genre: detailing the deeds of a particular deity, praising the deity, addressing the god in a tone of complaint or humble supplication (vinaya), reminding the deity of the speaker's internal or external sources of difficulties, or warning the listeners to examine and reform their lives. 





In the bhakti (devotional) movement, singing and listening to such songs was and still is a significant form of religious practice. 





  • Devotees (bhakta) "exchange" their songs and experiences with one another during these sessions. 
  • Although there are bhajans devoted to all of the gods in the pantheon, this singing tradition has been greatest among Vishnu worshippers historically. 
  • Because the company of his followers is considered to be paradise on earth, Vaishnava devotional literature is replete with stories of Vishnu appearing in disguise to participate in bhajan sessions.






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BHAKTI YOGA



The reverence of elements and dead deities is the lowest rung on the Bhakti Yoga ladder. This is the most obscene form of worship. The worship of Rishis, Devas, and Pitris follows. Each person's confidence is influenced by his or her personality. The guy is made up of his religion, and he is even that. 

Those who worship Avataras such as Sri Rama, Krishna, and Narasimha belong to the third class. The Saguna method of worship is practiced by the four groups of Bhaktas mentioned above. The Bhaktas are the next group, who perform Nirguna Upasana on an attributeless Brahman. This is the highest level of worship, and is appropriate for educated people with good willpower and bold knowledge.

Ahamgraha Upasana or Jnana Yoga Sadhana is the name for this pose.

Bhakti is a skill that can be learned and developed. Bhakti can be infused by the practice of the Nava Vidha Bhakti (nine ways of devotion). Constant Satsanga, Japa, Prayer, Reflection, Svadhyaya, Bhajan, Svadhyaya, Svadhyaya, Svadhyaya, Svadhyay


Bhakti will be developed by service to saints, Dana, and Yatra, among other things.


 The 9 strategies for improving Bhakti are as follows:


  1. Sravana:—hearing of the Lilas of God
  2. Smarana:—remembering God always
  3. Kirtan:—singing His praise
  4. Vandana:—Namaskaras to God
  5. Archana:—offerings to God
  6. Pada-Sevana:—attendance
  7. Sakhya:—friendship
  8. Dasya:—service
  9. Atma-nivedana:—self-surrender to Guru or God


Sri Ramanuja suggests the following 10 Bhakti-development measures:


  1. Viveka:—discrimination
  2. Vimoka:—freedom from all else and longing for God
  3. Abhyasa:—continuous thinking of God
  4. Kriya:—doing good to others
  5. Kalyana:—wishing well to all
  6. Satyam:—truthfulness
  7. Arjavam:—integrity
  8. Daya:—compassion
  9. Ahimsa:—non-violence
  10. Dana:—charity


Namdev, Ramdas, Tulsidas, and others were among the fortunate ones who received God's Darshan. Yoga-Bhrashtas were these Bhaktas. They were born with a large number of divine Samskaras. They worshiped God with heartfelt reverence in many births. In their final incarnation, they didn't do any Sadhana. Because of the force of previous Bhakti Samskaras, their loyalty was normal and spontaneous. Ordinary people should take extreme steps and practice unique Sadhana in order to develop Bhakti quickly. To the greatest extent possible, new grooves and pathways must be carved in the old stony, devotionless middle. A Bhakta should lift his consciousness to a high degree and attain Para Bhakti, highest wisdom, and Supreme peace by daily meditation, Japa, Kirtan, service to Bhaktas, charity, Vrata, Tapas, Dhyana, and Samadhi. The meditator and the meditated, the worshipper and the revered, the Upasaka and the Upasya will merge in advanced stages of meditation. In Samadhi, Dhyana will come to an end. It is important to train on a daily basis.

A Hatha Yogi attains the highest level through the practice of various Mudras, Bandhas, Asanas, and other exercises; a Jnani attains the highest level through the practice of Sravana, Manana, and Nididhyasana; a Karma Yogin attains the highest level through selfless works (Nishkama Seva); a Bhakta attains the highest level through Bhakti and self-surrender; and In either instance, the goal is the same, but the strategies are different.


Concentration and meditation on Shakti, the primal spirit, is merely a variation of Jnana Yogic Sadhana. Raja Yoga is the practice of concentrating and meditating on the various energy centers. Hatha Yoga is characterized by concentration on the various Chakras and Nadis, as well as physical approaches for awakening Shakti. Concentration and concentration on the Devata, the presiding deity of the various inner Chakras, can be done as a Bhakti Yoga advanced course. Different Sadhana strategies should be mixed for swift results.

When the Bhakta meditates on the presiding deity or Devata, he imagines a different kind of God for each Chakra. For each Chakra, detailed explanations of God and the Devatas are provided in Mantra Shastra books. They take on the form of God in various ways depending on the attitude of the students. In any situation, the aspirants' perceptions and emotions differ. As a result, I'm not going to list any of the Devas and Devatas. When a person closes his eyes and meditates on the inner Chakras, he has numerous visions and sees God in various ways. That is the best he can hold on to. Only then is true growth feasible. The general knowledge presented in this Kundalini Yoga's theoretical section would undoubtedly aid concentration and meditation on the Chakras.


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Hinduism - AGAMAS

     



     

    What Are Agamas?

    Agamas refer to sacred Hindu texts recorded in various forms collectively.

    The significance of texts of all kinds—prose and poetry, written and oral, spoken and sung (whether by a single expert or by a multitude), antique and vernacular, stable and fluid—distinguishes Hinduism, if Hinduism can be characterized as a single thing at all. 

    Here we explore the significance of texts in Hinduism, defines various textual categories, and provides links to entries that cover related topics. 

    Agamas can be Stable and Flowing, Written and Spoken. 

    Any utterance, long or short, that can be repeated in essentially the same manner on several occasions is referred to in this context as a "text." 

    There is a propensity to limit the word "text" to utterances recorded in writing, whether in handwriting, printed, or electronic form. 

    This inclination is supported by the nomenclature of mobile phones and text editing software. 

    When discussing Hindu culture, however, where certain texts exist without writing and are conveyed orally from one speaker to another, this limitation is improper. 

    Writing seems to have first arisen in India, apart from the Indus Valley script, about the middle of the last millennium BCE, but was not utilized for religious writings until much later. 

    With the exception of a few later ones, several of these—the Vedic texts—were written down during a period when there is no proof that writing existed. 

    Others, passed down within small communities, are only known to those outside those communities if they are written down or electronically stored by a third party. 

    There are texts in all of the Hindu languages that are interpreted in this broad meaning (including English and other languages of countries outside South Asia). 

    Many civilizations have incredibly stable ritual texts that must always be performed in precisely the same way—the same words in the same sequence, often even with the same vocal inflections—in order to avoid becoming insulting, ineffectual, or even catastrophic. 

    Vedic writings are one example of this. 

    Other texts may be changed by various reciters, scribes, or even the same person at different times by deleting, adding, or modifying specific words. 

    The art of the reciter may include improvised variation. 

    The Mahabharata and Ramayana, which change considerably in various regions of South Asia, are excellent examples of this. 

    Whether a text is written or spoken depends on whether it is stable or flowing. 

    While the Vedic writings have not altered despite being passed down orally for millennia prior to being recorded, there are hundreds of manuscripts and four distinct printed copies of the Mahabharata. 

    The idea that a text should be retained in tact without being recorded in writing runs counter to what literary historians and anthropologists have discovered about the nature of oral literature. 

    In societies where oral texts are fluid, significant study on oral transmission of texts has been conducted (Chadwick and Chadwick 1932–1940; Lord 1960; Ong 1982). 

    A typical orally transmitted text, like a ballad or an epic, exists as a variety of performances, each of which is somewhat improvised and not an exact replication of any prior performance. 

    This explains, for instance, the Mahabharata's several recensions and myriad modifications. 

    Some theorists (mostly from outside Indian studies) have questioned whether the Veda could have been conveyed unmodified without the use of writing, despite the fact that the oral transmission of the Veda in ancient and contemporary times is thoroughly proven (Scharfe 2002: 8–37, 240–51). 

    According to one anthropologist, the Vedic texts cannot have taken on a set shape before writing was discovered since the concept of a stable text can only exist in a community that is literate (Goody 1987). 

    He claims that the educational environment decontextualizes memory in literate societies by isolating learning from action (Goody 1987: 189). 

    In contrast, this was and is accomplished in India without the use of writing by isolating the study of the Vedas from the context of the yajna, where the texts would be used. 

    The practice of self-study (svadhyaya), in which the Veda-knower recites the texts he has learned, and the learning process are rituals in and of themselves. 

    A class of people who dedicate a major portion of their life to it must be able to do the mental labor-intensive task of oral transmission of a stable text. 

    It was accomplished by brahmans, whose standing relied on their knowledge; monks, similarly, transmitted Buddhist literature (Warder 1970: 205, 294). 

    Some of Paul Ricoeur's (1981: 147; cf. Graham 1987: 15) insights must be amended in a Hindu setting due to the potential of a stable oral text. 

    He contends that the act of writing simultaneously creates the text and distinguishes it from speech, and hence from the setting in which the words were first spoken and in which they had meaning. 

    Recontextualizing the text in the interpreter's own context is the goal of hermeneutics, according to Ricoeur. 

    However, according to the Hindu perspective, the Veda and other writings are not distinguished from speech and are texts even if they are not written. 

    The Veda is speech in and of itself; it is frequently referred to as sabda-brahman, "Brahman as sound," and is a manifestation of the original speech that was spoken at the beginning of the cosmos (om). 

    Not just the Veda, but also the Epics, Puranas, Tantras, and other works that are passed down verbally yet written down in manuscripts are subject to the rule that voice takes precedence over writing (Carpenter 1992). 

    As shown by commentary (see below), recontextualization, or giving a text a new meaning in a new context, did occur in ancient India, but it had previously happened with the Brahmanas and writings like Yaska's Nirukta, completely independently of writing. 

    Until the widespread use of printing in the nineteenth century, other literature relied either on less stable techniques of oral transmission or on perishable manuscripts, or both, whereas the Vedic texts have been maintained stable by a closely regulated methodology of oral transmission. 

    While more well-known writings like the Panchatantra are available in several manuscript and printed copies in various locales, showing the unbridled inventiveness of anonymous storytellers, many ancient Sanskrit texts have been passed down in pretty dependable manuscript form. 

    Similar fluidity may be seen in the Mahabharata, Ramayana, Puranas, and other smrti works. 

    While certain vernacular collections, like the poetry of Kabir, have a very consistent history, others don't. 

    Some academics have tried to reconstruct the original shape of such a work by contrasting the readings of various manuscripts using textual criticism techniques. 

    Others argue that these approaches are unsuitable for works that have always been available in a variety of versions reflecting regional and ideological differences. 

    Others who seek the original text via the variation versions and those who believe that these versions themselves are the appropriate subject of study continue to have disagreements (Narayana Rao 2004: 110–03). 

    Printing altered the situation in the nineteenth century by giving certain copies of previously fluid writings preference and making Vedic texts, which were previously the property of twice-born men who had received upanayana, accessible to everyone. 

    Then then, recording and broadcasting in the 20th century altered everything. 

    Specialist reciters are no longer required because to sound recordings and written volumes of mantras (Buhnemann 1988: 96). 

    The Ramayana and Mahabharata on television have prioritized certain interpretations more successfully than printed copies could (Brockington 1998: 510–13). 

    The Mahabharata, Ramayana, and Puranas have certain stories that have rather solid literary forms, but popular storytelling is still a flexible art. 

    The vrat-katha is a significant kind of religious story that is told to a group of individuals engaged in a vrata

    The traditional form of a vrata includes the telling of the narrative, which explains how the vrata was established and what benefits come from following it. 

    However, a videotape might now take the role of the storyteller (Jackson and Nesbitt 1993: 65–70). 

    Hindu thinking places a high value on speech, as seen by the care with which texts are preserved and the respect accorded to individuals who recall them, both in the Vedic textual tradition and in less formal traditions (Graham 1987: 67–77). 

    However, in non-Vedic ritual writing has a place alongside speech despite the fact that speech is given priority and that the vocal aspect is dominant both in Vedic ritual and elsewhere. 

    Both inside and outside of temples, mantras are painted; home shrines often have metal sculptures of the om symbol, and some temples have neon signs. 

    On holy diagrams, this character and others that stand in for "seed mantras" are engraved (yantras). 

    Both Valmiki's Ramayana and the whole of Tulsidas' Ramcharitmanas are engraved on the walls of contemporary temples in Varanasi and Ayodhya, respectively (Brockington 1998: 506n.). 

    In many temples, a printed copy of the Rigveda Samhita is on display; however, it is not meant to be read, but rather to be revered, much as the Sikhs revere the Adi Granth


    What exactly are "holy texts"? 

    The term "holy texts" is a useful method to distinguish between writings that obviously have a religious purpose within a given tradition and those that do not. 

    The Veda, the Dharmasastra, the poems of the Alvars and Nayan-mar, the mantras spoken or chanted in worship, bhajan songs, or books of instruction like the Siks.patr of Swami Narayana are just a few examples of texts that are discussed in this entry that are used in ritual or that convey religious ideas or precepts. 

    Even though the Pancatantra and the Kamasutra are included in this encyclopedia because of their importance to Hindu culture, we are not concerned with these writings since they are obviously not holy. 

    Although many of them include mythical content or express significant principles like karma or purity, the majority of ancient poetry and contemporary books are also unimportant to us. 

    The Mahabharata and the Ramayana, on the other hand, are the subjects of our interest since they not only include tales but also serve as a repository for religious doctrine and mantras and are dramatized and repeated during certain ceremonial occasions. 

    A priceless legacy of editions, translations, and other works has been left by the study of Hindu writings written in Sanskrit and other languages throughout the nineteenth and most of the twentieth centuries. 

    The belief that every religion had its own "Bible" or "scriptures," serving a comparable purpose to the Bible in Protestantism (in theological theory if not in observable practice), was supported and, to some measure, driven by that scholarly tradition. 

    This presumption, exemplified by Muller's Sacred Books of the East series, ignores the many ways that texts may be employed in various traditions as well as the various ways that their authority or holiness may be perceived (Timm 1992: 2). 

    Like "the holy" itself, the notion of "sacred texts" or "scripture" is imposed from outside and is not always present among participants. 

    We may interpret it as texts that are "considered, in some way, as the primary center of spoken interaction with ultimate reality" (Graham 1987: 68). 

    They can be interpreted as such because they were said by a particularly wise person, like Valmiki, or by a great number of wise people, like the Vedic rishis or a group of bhakti poets, or by a deity, like Siva; or they can be interpreted as wise because they were eternal and independent of any author, which in the Purva Mmamsa view is the assurance of the Veda's authority. 

    Some works (e.g., Bhagavadgta 18, 67-78; S vetas.vatara Upanisad 6. 22f.) make a claim to being holy by offering incentives for hearing or reciting them or banning teaching them to unauthorized individuals. 

    However, the way a text is used, not its contents, can indicate whether it is considered sacred. 

    This includes whether or not it is recited in ritual settings, whether it is treated as a source of truths or moral imperatives, and whether written or oral versions of the text are revered or protected from tampering. 

    Speaking of sacred texts implies that there is a community who holds those texts in high regard (W.C. Smith 1993: 17f.). 

    For various Hindu groups, various texts are sacred in various ways. 

    Adherence to a text may define what is, for convenience's sake, a "sect" in Hinduism (Renou 1953: 91–99). 

    The word "sect" essentially translates to "tradition" in Sanskrit; unlike in European contexts where it may denote anything that differs from a church or societal standards. 

    Even when a sampradaya's founder left no written works behind, later generations continued to produce literary works in both the vernacular and Sanskrit. 

    This was the situation with the Chaitanya-founded Vaisnava tradition, where the six Gosvamins of Vrindavana composed Bengali and Sanskrit texts that were considered canonical for the Sampradaya. 

    Even the non-hierarchical Bauls, who have no known founder, have their own fluid corpus of songs. 


    What Are Smritis And Srutis?

    Smrti and Sruti Although the term "holy texts" or "scripture" is not an indigenous one, Hindus themselves have categorized such books in a number of significant ways. 

    We may start by dividing knowledge into sruti, which means "hearing, revelation," and smrti, which means "memory, tradition." Sruti is the Veda; it is timeless and was comprehended by the ancient r.s.is via extrasensory perception. 

    Even if the writers of Smrti writings were much smarter than modern humans are capable of becoming, they were still humans. 

    The word "sruti" does not relate to a fixed canon of writings since the bounds of the Veda are fluid. 

    Indeed, the phrase was not always limited to the Veda; in Manusmrti (12.95), books that are most likely Buddhist and Jain are condemned as "srutis that are outside the Veda" (Olivelle 2005: 234, 349). 

    Smrti is still not as exact. It contains the Kalpasutras, yet as they are a component of the Vedic ceremonial system, they are not typical of smrti writings. 

    The Mahabharata, the Ramayana, the Dharmasastras, the Puranas, the Agamas, and the Tantras are what are often meant by the word. 

    There may be disagreements on whether a text is authentic since none of these criteria are clearly established. 

    These works are often structured by a dialogue in which a mythological person learns something from a different figure, with the prestige of these individuals lending legitimacy to the lessons. 

    Conversations are often placed inside dialogues to provide a series of teachers and listeners, most notably in the Mahabharata. 

    As a result, their literary form places them in a setting of verbal instruction from an authoritative speaker to an attentive listener, a scenario that is repeated by a line of speakers and listeners down to the current reciter and his audience. 

    Smrti renders its listeners indirect receivers of linguistic communication from the divine, but Sruti makes audible the everlasting speech at the beginning of the cosmos. 

    The Smrti texts are publicly recited, with the reciter frequently interspersing a vernacular translation, in contrast to the Vedas, which must be protected from being heard by unauthorized people (such as non-twice-born men or women) and recited in a set ritual manner in the exact form in which they have been learned. 

    Despite the fact that printing and manuscripts have made such recitation easier, the majority of people encounter texts via voice. 

    The performance of reciting the Puranas is mostly oral, however it is carried out by a highly educated professional known as the pauranika, who not only reads the book aloud but also comments on it while referencing other works. 

    A similar performance erases the line between oral and written culture (Singer 1972: 150–55; see also Narayana Rao 2004: 103–14). 

    Since the proponents of smrti possessed in-depth knowledge of the Veda, historically, the authority of smrti is drawn from that of sruti. 

    Manu claims that the tradition (smrti) and behavior of people who know it are the second source of dharma after the Veda itself (Manusmrti 2, 6). 

    The Vedic redactor Vyasa is credited with writing the Mahabharata after compiling the Vedas (Mahabharata 1.1.52). 

    According to Mahabharata 1.1.204, "The epics (itihasa) and Puranas should be employed to reinforce the Veda, because the Veda dread an uneducated man lest he may ruin it." 

    The narrative is repeated in the Bhagavata Purana: Vyasa wrote the Mahabharata because women, sudras, and nominal brahman (those who do not fulfill the actual character of brahman by learning the Veda) could not access the Vedas (Bhagavata Purana, 1.5.25). 

    But it also adds a conclusion: Vyasa eventually wrote the Bhagavata Purana to instruct in Krishna worship because he was still unsatisfied (Bhagavata Purana 1.4. 26–31; 1.7.6–8). 

    The historical link between smrti and sruti weakens as we go from the Kalpasutras through the Dharmasastras and epics to the Puranas, Agamas, and Tantras

    The four yugas, the framework on which historical time is traditionally constructed, are used to acknowledge this historical variation in the tradition. 

    Only during the Kreta era could the Vedas be properly followed; during the Dvapara era, they were in danger of being lost, which is why Vyasa set them up. 

    The Vedas are poorly known and understood in the current Kali era, when the brahmans who should preserve them are degenerate and the status of the kshatriyas who once supported the yajna has been usurped by rebels; instead, the smrti texts, which contain the meaning of the Vedas, have taken their place. 

    The Kali era is claimed to outlaw several behaviors that are prescribed in the Vedic writings namely Kali Varjya(or kali-varjita). 

    These practices include animal sacrifice and niyoga, also known as levirate, in which a man's wife engages in sexual relations with his brother in order to produce a son for her dead husband. 

    The belief that the Bhagavata Purana, or any other specific smrti work, conveys the content of the Veda does not imply that specific sentences in one text may be connected to phrases in another. 

    Instead, it conveys the feeling that both have the absolute truth. 

    The Bhagavad Gita, which has been the subject of countless translations and commentaries since the late nineteenth century, is the smrti text that is currently printed the most widely. 

    Long before that, it served as the inspiration for numerous imitations, some of which are included in Puranas like the Ganesagta or the Devgta while the Anugta is contained within the Mahabharata itself (Gonda 1977: 271–76). 

    Although some people object to this, the Bhagavadgta is often utilized in funeral ceremonies and as a book for religious schools (Firth 1997: 84, 87). 

    Numerous smrti writings, whether they promote the worship of Siva, Visnu, or Sakti or another god, are well-known and acknowledged by devotees of other deities. 

    Many of the Puranas support this. 

    On the other hand, there are literature known as Agamas, Tantras, and Sam hitas that are particular to one or both of these deities. 

    The word "agama," which means "tradition," may be used to refer to works that provide guidance on ritual behavior and the pursuit of salvation generally, but it is particularly used to describe books that identify Siva as the ultimate god. 

    Tantra may also be used more broadly, however it is particularly employed in books on Sakti worship. 

    The Vedic Samhitas and the group of works dedicated to Visnu known as the Pancaratra Samhitas are the two principal usage of the term samhita. 

    Even while the phrases A gama, Tantra, and Samhita are often used to refer to Saivism, Saktism, and Vaisnavism, respectively, none of them are exclusive to any of these three. 

    However, the specific books they refer to are often just Saivism, Saktism, or Vaisnavism (Gonda 1977). 


    What Are Mantras, Vidhis, And Arthavada?

    The Veda is divided into mantra, vidhi, and arthavada categories according to a different categorization created in Purva Mimamsa. 


    1. A mantra is a passage of text chanted or spoken aloud during a rite. 
    2. A vidhi is a paragraph that instructs ritual practitioners on what to do and how to execute it. It is often translated as a "injunction." 
    3. Arthavada, which translates to "statement of purpose," explains why a ritual should be performed in a certain manner. 


    In practice, it refers to all Vedic texts that are neither mantras nor vidhis. 

    The Samhitas have mantras, but the Brahmanas and Aranyakas also commonly mention them. 

    The Brahmanas, Aranyakas, and Upanishads also contain vidhi and arthavada

    Although the word "mantra" is often used outside of the Vedic setting, this categorization specifically pertains to Vedic writings. 

    Non-Vedic literature may also be categorized into sections that are employed in ritual, sections that prescribe, and sections that offer motivation for ritual action. 

    The phrases vidhi and arthavada are less common writings in both Sanskrit and the local language. 

    The sruti and smrti writings mentioned above are all in Sanskrit, and many Hindus who do not speak the language are acquainted with the sound of Sanskrit due to its usage in ritual. 


    There are holy scriptures in all Indian languages. 

    Bhakti, with its focus on the relationship between the devotee and the divine, which eliminates the necessity for the brahman and his ceremonial writings in Sanskrit, encouraged the use of literature in vernacular languages. 

    However, we need not assume that the earliest vernacular texts, starting with the Tamil poems of the sixth century, were also the first bhakti texts to be made available. 

    The use of vernacular languages from the beginning in Buddhist and Jain texts suggests that Sanskrit's dominance in the religious sphere had long been contested. 

    Along with the bhakti poetry, there are many vernacular Puranas, some of which are completely independent of Sanskrit and others that have been translated or altered from it (Rocher 1986: 72–77). 

    Many regional and educational themes are addressed in vernacular versions of the Ramayana, such as Kampan's Tamil translation Iramavataram and Tulsdas's Hindi Ramcaritmanas. 

    In the Ramlla dramas, especially at Dasahra, these, especially the latter, are not only recited but also performed (Brockington 1998: 505-07; Lutgendorf 1991). 

    It is less common to dramatize the Mahabharata, but South India and Sri Lanka both stage plays centered on Draupad (Brockington 1998: 507; Hiltebeitel 1988-91; Tanaka 1991). 

    Sanskrit writings are explicitly rejected in certain bhakti traditions, as in the tale of the Marathi poet Namdev who had a cow recite the Veda (Ranade 1961: 71). 

    The concept of the fifth Veda and the notion that vernacular texts with concepts such as the Tamil Veda, as well as smrti texts with concepts like the Bhagavata Purana (see above), contain the meaning of the Veda, were both expanded. 

    On the other hand, in many lineages, the creation of vernacular literature has been followed by the development of texts in Sanskrit. 

    For instance, the Sanskrit works of Yamunacarya, Ramanuja, and others came after the Tamil songs of the Alvars. 

    The Alvars were also followed by the Bhagavata Purana, which, because it was written in Sanskrit, made emotional bhakti accessible outside of the Tamil-speaking region. 

    However, the change from the vernacular to Sanskrit was accompanied by a change from an emotional to an intellectual form of bhakti (Hardy 1983: 36–43). 

    Vernacular works must obviously be regional, although this does not preclude their translation into or imitation in neighboring languages; for example, poetry credited to Kabr are also available in Bengali, Panjabi, and Hindi. 

    Tyagaraja's (1767–1847) Telegu songs are popular in areas of South India and the diaspora but are seldom recognized outside of that region (Jackson 1991). 

    Up until the nineteenth century, when English usage started to rise steadily throughout the Hindu world, Sanskrit was the only language in which texts could be made available. 

    The English writings of non-regional, non-sectarian Hinduism pioneers like Gandhi, Radhakrishnan, and Vivekananda—a Bengali, Gujarati, and Tamil—show the significance of English in this process. 

    In the last fifty years, Hindi has surpassed English as the language spoken across all of India. 

    Some Sanskrit writings are regional or even local, while vernacular texts are by their very nature local. 


    What Are Mahatmyas And Sthala-Puranas?

    In addition to texts from locally based sampradayas, there are texts from pilgrimage sites or temples. 

    These texts include Mahatmyas ('glorifications'), which extol the local deity and the advantages of visiting it, and Sthala-Puranas ('puranas of the place, local puranas'), which tell the history of the site's sanctity and the rules for visiting it. 

    Examples of these two types that overlap may be found in vernacular and Sanskrit languages (Rocher 1986: 71f. ; Gonda 1977: 276-81). 

    The readers or listeners of vernacular texts are not always able to understand them; Sanskrit is not the only language that is used in ritual without being fully understood. 

    The language of the Tamil bhakti poetry is not current spoken Tamil, although they are nevertheless widely performed in temples. 

    Tulsıdas’ Ramcaritmanas may have owed its popularity originally to its being in language familiar to its hearers, but it continues to be repeated in its original, now archaic form, its worth consisting in its holiness rather than its accessibility. 


    Sacred Poetry And Prose. 

    Most of the works we are interested in are in verse, however numerous mantras from the Yajur veda, all of the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas, certain Upanisads, and the Kalpasutras are in prose (interesting as the earliest instances of prose in any Indian language). 

    Also written in prose are the non-Vedic sutras. 

    There are a few portions in the Mahabharata and Puranas that are written in prose. 

    Sanskrit literature, especially technical works like the Sam. 

    hyakarikas, the founding book of the Sam. 

    khya philosophy, was and remains heavily verse-based. 

    The sloka, a stanza of thirty-two syllables split into four halves, is by far the most popular poetry form. 

    Unlike the other meters employed in the complex literature known as kavya, it is adaptable and simple to utilize (see below). 

    Slokas have been written by countless anonymous authors of the Puranas and other texts, in addition to well-known poets, and are used even for quite unpoetic subjects were cited in prose works of religion that inspired debate, such as:

    1. Swami Narayan's Vacanamrta ('Immortality in words') in Gujarati, 
    2. Dayananda Saraswati's Satyartha Prakasa ('Light of truth') in Hindi, 
    3. or Vivekananda's writings in English. 


    What is Kavya?

    Even though kavya can be in prose, the term is occasionally translated as "poetry." It takes a significant amount of literary training to compose and appreciate this particular genre of Sanskrit literature. 

    It contains a variety of literary genres, such as verse epics, dramas, and one-verse epigrams. 

    Even today, despite the fact that few people are sufficiently educated to appreciate it, it is still being developed under the patronage of kings. 

    The Buddha-charita (also known as the "Life of the Buddha"), written by Asvaghosa in the first or second century CE, and inscriptions from the second century CE forward are the earliest instances that have survived. 

    Although textual scholars consider the Ramayana's only passages in which it claims to be the original kavya to be late and that it lacks the stylistic elaboration typical of kavya, it is still hailed as the genre's founding work (Brockington 1998: 23, 361). 

    Kavya, in contrast to smrti and other works, rigorously adheres to the grammatical rules established by Panini and other grammarians and makes use of sophisticated meters and aesthetic embellishments that are outlined in literary guides. 

    A thorough understanding of mythology as well as other disciplines is required to fully comprehend kavya, even though it generally does not come within the category of holy literature. 

    Kavya works frequently start with a prayer or deity's invocation. 

    Some, like Kalidasa's Kumarasam Bhava on the birth of Skanda, are based on mythological stories, while others, like his play Sakuntala, use epic tales. 

    The Gtagovinda and the Karnandana ('Delight of the ears'), poems from the Radhavallabh Sampradaya, which was formed by the poet's father, Hita Harivamsa, and focused on Krishna's beloved, Radha, are two instances of kavya compositions that are devotional throughout (Gonda 1977: 25–29; Entwistle 1987: 168). 

    The Kuncitan ghri-stava, written by Umapati Sivacarya in the year 1300 CE and translated as "Hymn of praise to [Nataraja's] curved foot," is one particularly intriguing example. 

    Each of its 313 verses concludes with a refrain that alludes to Siva's foot being raised in the dance and does so by way of a clever and moving fusing of mythological, theological, and philosophical ideas (D. Smith 1996). 


    What Is a Stotra?

    The stotra, a hymn of adoration to a deity, is a common type of religious text that is written in both Sanskrit and vernacular (Gonda 1977: 232–70). 

    In contrast to sloka or the meters used in kavya, many stotras use rhyme and a metre with a strong recurrent beat, and they frequently contain a refrain. 

    Many stotras are credited to Sankara (Mahadevan 1980; Hirst 2005: 24f.). 

    The Gtagovinda contains stotras, which are songs. 

    Another example is the poem Bande Mataram by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, which was originally written to honor Bengal as a mother goddess but was later changed to refer to India. 

    Its grammar is so straightforward that anyone who knows Bengali or Hindi can understand most of the poem (Lipner 2005). 

    The nama-stotra is one kind of stotra, and it consists mostly of a list of names, epithets, and descriptions of a specific god (Gonda 1977: 268–70; Gonda 1970: 67–76). 

    An early example is the Sata-rudrya ('[hymn] of a thousand Rudras'), which is still chanted in Siva temples and is part of the Black Yajur veda (Vajasaney Samhita 4, 5). 

    The prayers are interspersed with numerous names and epithets that invoke Rudra (Gonda 1970: 70f.; Gonda 1977: 241; translated Keith 1914: 353-62). 

    Other Sanskrit prose was utilized in theological works such as Ramanuja’s Vedartha-samgraha (‘Compendium of the meaning of the Veda’), and for the huge library of comments detailed below. 

    It was used for literary works such as the Pancatantra, theater, and other literary works that did not fall under the rubric of holy writings. 

    Except for letters and other related documents, little little prose was produced in the common languages until the nineteenth century. 

    The bhakti poems are in verse, though some, like the Marathi abhangs and the Kannad vacans, have a more flexible verse structure. 

    Since 1816, Rammohan Roy and his Hindu and Christian adversaries have contributed prose works in Bengali and English to religious debates that had hitherto only been held in Sanskrit. 

    In his earliest work, Roy noted that many people had trouble reading Bengali prose and offered some brief tips on how to do so (Killingley 1982: 12; Das 1966: 131f.). 

    Newspapers, books, and other advances encouraged the use of prose in the vernacular languages during the nineteenth century. 

    These well-known instances are the Lalita-sahasra-nama ('Thousand names of the luscious [Goddess]') in the Brahmanada Purana and the Visnu-sahasra-nama ('Thousand names of Visnu'; Raghavan 1958: 421-36). 


    What Is The Purpose And Place Of Commentary In Sacred Texts?

    Hindu writings are meant to be analyzed and discussed. 

    Some comments, sometimes referred to as t.ka, just clarify challenging terms; the term for a more thorough commentary is bhasya. 

    Some comments, such as Saya's on Vedic literature, Sankara's on the Upanisads, or the countless commentators on the Manusmrti or Manavadharmasastra, explain every word in the original text on the grounds that nothing is without intent. 

    Some texts, like the Brahmasutras and the Bhagavadgta, have been discussed numerous times from various and frequently conflicting perspectives; one of the commentator's tasks is to disprove competing interpretations. 

    A commentary, particularly one on a sutra, may be a text of original authorship in and of itself, with subsequent commentary by members of the same school of thought elaborating on the first commentary's meaning in light of newer developments within the school. 

    Although it has been argued that the presence of substantial commentaries indicates a text's theological significance, a text that is religiously inspiring but not theologically significant may draw little to no attention (Clooney 2003: 461). 

    In addition to Sanskrit commentaries, vernacular commentaries exist. 

    Tamil commentaries on Tamil texts are one such example (Hardy 1983: 244f.). 

    Oral commentaries on the Puranas have also been mentioned.


    ~Kiran Atma


    You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

    Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.


    References And Further reading: 


    • J. A. B. van Buitenen, trans., Yamana’s Agamapramanyam or Treatise on the Validity of Pancaratra (Madras: Ramanuja Research Society, 1971).
    • Bruno Dagens, Architecture in the Ajitagama and the Rauravagama: A Study of Two South Indian Texts (New Delhi: Sitaram Institute of Scientific Research, 1984).
    • Mark Dyczkowski, The Canon of the Saivagama and the Kubjika Tantras of the Western Kaula Tradition (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1988).
    • Kamalakar Mishra, Kashmir Saivism: The Central Philosophy of Tantrism (Portland, Ore.: Rudra Press, 1993).
    • S. K. Ramachandra Rao, Agama-Kosa: Agama Encyclopedia (Bangalore: Kapatharu Research Academy, 1994).




    Douse the Flames of Desire, and You will Know Your Self



    One who is "steadfast" does not recognize the concept of separation. Surrendering entails letting rid of one's ego and becoming humble. "Sharana" is made up of two words: "shara" which means "arrow," and "na" which means "no." 

    The arrow is represented by the word shara, which also refers to the unyielding ego. 

    As a result, someone who is "Sharana," or submitted, has given up hardness and is ego-free. The company of Saints is a very useful tool for liberation. 

    What exactly is heaven? 

    Being born into a family of knowledgeable people is an achievement in and of itself. If your mind grows tired of material stuff, consider yourself fortunate. 


    The "Goddess of Sensuality" enjoys human sacrifice, especially when it is cooked alive! 

    The Glimpse (Darshan) of God is not available to the slaves of the belly. The person who has no desires is truly blessed. 

    Always keep in mind that we come from the "Abode of God" (Vaikuntha) and that we are Gods who are entitled to the Nectar of Immortality. 

    We are only passing through this strange town, this false life, for a few days. 

    The state of "Desireless-ness" is the sole means to liberation. If you have a large family, consider it a sacrifice to the all-devouring Death. Death eats the harvest of Illusion when it is ripe. Spirituality is born out of devotion to the "True Guru." Treat your body as an illusion and you will find fulfilment in your life. 

    The Master is overjoyed when the pupil succeeds in escaping Illusion. Devotion should be used to satisfy the Master (Bhajan; praising the Master). Even if he is young or humble, the individual who has been illumined by the "Light of Brahman" should be recognized as magnificent. 

    One who has a persistent desire for sense things becomes lost in them, whereas one who meditates on the Self (Atman) becomes the Self. Please don't say, "Later, I'll think about God. I'll do that when I have more time." You should sit, think, and allow your mind wander to the Self with tremendous affection for it on a regular basis. "Self-attainment" is indicated by this symbol. 


    Self attainment is defined as a lack of interest in anything other than oneself. Bondage is meditation on anything other than the Self. 


    Always think on your Self's "Divine Nature." Everything else is fictitious. Any concentrate other than on the Self, who is the Lord, is enslavement. Any meditation or thought that is not focused on the essence of your own being becomes a stranglehold. By definition, the "world" is the separation of species. It will never work properly. Any fruit that isn't the Self is a waste of time. Please consider this carefully. Because the ego sense never considers ultimate contentment, which can only be found in the Self, you are drawn to objective things. 

    When someone sincerely cares about their own well-being, the idea of "I am an individual" fades away because what remains is not the person (Jiva). The person gravitates toward sense things and, in doing so, gravitates toward sadness. The items that appear to be enjoyable are actually rather awful. Despite the fact that the items that look lovely are actually quite damaging and cause suffering, the individual is constantly drawn to them. 

    As a result, turn away from sense things and toward the Path of Devotion. One must imagine oneself as a Saint willing to make sacrifices. Worldliness is cut away when the Master's teachings are internalized, and though such a person may be in the world, he is not a slave to it. The Sage Shuka advised against chasing after sense things and instead being detached. Pursuing sense objects interferes with spiritual devotion, even if it is done with care. 


    The craving for physical fulfilment should be abandoned by anybody seeking Self-Realization. The Jiva is, in a sense, driven by a need for sensory fulfilment "he was hung "Only think about God, who is already there in your heart. The true "Alone-ness" is committed to the "One Self."



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    Hinduism - What Is The Vedarambha Samskara?

     


     

    Vedarambha (“beginning of Veda [study]”) Samskara.

     

    Traditionally, the twelfth of the life cycle ceremonies (samskaras).


    In this ceremony, a newly initiated brahmacharin—a young man who had entered the celibate student phase of life—would commence to study the Vedas, the oldest Hindu religious texts.

    This rite is not mentioned in the earliest texts in the dharma literature, perhaps under the assumption that Veda study would commence at an appropriate time, after learning had commenced with the earlier vidyarambha samskara.


    'Veda' is Vedic literature, and 'arambha' refers to the start. As a result, Vedarambha literally means "beginning of Vedic study."


    • After the Upanayanam, this ritual is done on any auspicious day. 
    • The student makes a pledge in front of the holy fire to dedicate himself to serving his Guru and living a disciplined life. 
    • The student takes the Brahmacharya path and concentrates only on education.


    The Vedarambha Sanskar is the beginning of knowledge and is also simultaneously seen performed with the Upnayanam Samskara initiation. 


    • It places equal focus on material and spiritual understanding. 
    • Under the guidance and blessings of Acharya or teacher of the Vedas, the student begins his study at Gurukul. 
      • The traits and behavior of Guru are reviewed here, and the youngster is given instructions by the parents as well. 
    • The character  of both teacher and student is given special attention to in the initial formative stages.
    • Brahmachaari is expected to solicit for charity to reduce arrogance, according to Vedic tradition. 
    • Following the same tradition, brahmacharinis walked throughout samskar asking for "bikshaamdehi," or "please give me alms," from visitors, and parents of pupils. 
    • The ritual is then followed by a group bhajan with submission to the almighty, which creates a tranquil mood.


    What are Vedrambha's Rituals?






    The earliest reference of Vedrambha 'samskara' is said to be in the "Vyasa Smriti." 

    After the "Upanayana," an auspicious day is set to do this "samskara." It may also be done on the day of the "Upanayana." 



    If it is not conducted on the same day, it is performed the following day, or it may be done on any auspicious day before the end of the "Upanayana" year.

    • In the absence of the father, the Vedrambha 'samskara' is performed by the child's father or the 'Acharya'. 



    The performer first bathes the youngster with pure, clean water. 

    • The infant is then clothed well and put next to the 'Acharya' on a good seat in the west of the 'Yajnavedi,' facing eastward.


    Following that, the eight mantras are used to conduct God's devotion, prayer, and meditation


    • Then, with three mantras and the sprinkling of water on the four corners of the 'Yajanakunnada,' 'Agnayadhana' and 'Samidhadhana' must be done. 
    • The 'Yajnakunda' fire is now burning with wood fuel. 
    • Now, in addition to the eight Mantras, the four oblations 'Agharavajyabhagahuti,' four 'Vyahriti Ahutis,' and four 'Ajyahutis' are presented.
    • The four 'Vyahriti Ahuti' oblations, one 'Svistakrit Ahuti' oblation, and one 'Prajapatya Ahuti' oblation are then presented on the child's hand. 


    Then, with this mantra, the fire of the 'Yajnakunda' is collected in the 'Kunda.' 


    "Acharya, the illustrious Acharya! Please help me become well-known in the world of education. 

    Acharya, I salute you! 

    You have a lot of clout and are well-versed in a lot of things. Acharya, I salute you! 

    You, as one of the wise men, are the keeper of the wealth of knowledge, Yajna, and so on. 

    So I became a man among men, the keeper of the Vedic knowledge and speech wealth "..


    The youngster next sprinkles water over the 'Yajnakunda' after making a circle around it while repeating the four specified mantras. 

    Now the youngster must stand on the south side of the 'Yajnakunda,' with his back to the north. 


    Then, while singing the following mantra, he takes one wood stock, dips it in ghee, and offers it in the centre of the 'Vedi' fire 


    "I've brought wood for igniting the Yajna fire, which is powerful in nature and found in all of the world's created objects. 

    As this wood-fueled fire blazer shines with long life, intelligence, vigour offspring, animals, and Vedic and Brahma knowledge. 

    May my Acharya have a long and happy life, and may I be blessed with great intellectual strength. 

    I promise not to act arrogant in front of anybody. I may be well-known, active, and endowed with heavenly qualities "..


    In the same way, the youngster must throw the second and third wood sticks into the fire. 

    By singing the proper mantras, the fire of the 'Vedi' has now collected, and water is sprayed on all four sides of the 'Vedi.' 


    "This fire is the preserver of body, let it preserve my body, this fire is the giver of life, let it grant me long life, this fire is the giver of brilliancy, whatever has exhausted in my body, let this fire recuperate, may the creator of the universe grant me wisdom, let the all-flourishing knowledge give us wisdom, let the teacher and presiding officer grant us wisdom, let the teacher and presiding deity grant us wisdom."


    Now, according to Vedarambha ritual, the kid pronounes the following mantras while touching the various organs listed in each mantra:


    1. "Oh, my God! May my speech organ be healthy and well-developed.

    2. Oh, my God! May my vision be clear and well-developed.

    3. May my hearing grow properly, O God.

    4. Oh, my God! May my arms, which have brought me renown and power, mature properly.


    Now, while repeating this mantra, the Vedarambha ritual proceeds with God's thought: 


    "May Agni, the self-renewing God, bestow knowledge, progeny, and power onto me. May Indra, the Almighty God, give knowledge, progeny, and biological strength upon me, and may Surya, the all-powerful God, bestow wisdom, progeny, and brilliance upon me; may I be effulgent with the effulgence Thou hast in three, my Lord! May I wield the power that Thou hast in three, my Lord! May the strength with which Thou hast equipped me, my Lord, make me an irresistible force!"



    The youngster then moves to the north side of the 'Yajnakunda' and sits on the ground with his knees supported while facing east. 


    The 'Acharya' sits in front of the kid with his back to the west. 

    The youngster now adds, "O Acharya, teach me the Gayatri Mantra, which has as its theme savitar, the sun. Please instruct me in this area."



    Vedarambha continues the 'Acharya' by placing a piece of cloth on the kid's shoulder and then holding the child's fingers in his own while repeating the 'Gayatri' Mantra in three parts to the infant. 


    • In this situation, the youngster must accurately pronounce the first section word for word. 
    • The toddler repeats the second section word for word, slowly and accurately. 
    • The 'Acharya' has the youngster recite the mantra three times and also gives the child the brief meaning of the mantra.


    The next phase in Vedarambha is for the kid and the 'Acharya' to swear a vow, similar to what is done in "Upanayana" with the singing of a set mantra. 


    • The girdle is then tied into the child's belt, which is extremely attractive and smooth. 



    This should be accomplished by saying this mantra 

    "This is the girdle, which is as holy and delightful as the sister. Devi is the hymn and symbol of virginity and purity. This has come into my hands, obstructing evil in thought and deed, safeguarding the integrity of the Varna system, and providing strength for our breathing and exhaling breath."


    After that, the 'Acharya' gives the youngster two fresh clean clothing and instructs him to wear one while repeating the specified mantra. With a stick in his hand, the 'Acharya' now steps up in front of the youngster. While reciting this mantra, the youngster receives the stick from the 'Acharya's hand with folded hand "This stick that has come into my possession is built on the earth and stands straight in space. I embrace it once again, particularly for the sake of long life, Vedic knowledge, and continence discipline and strength."


    The child's father then offers him broad celibacy knowledge on chastity and teaches him the code of behavior as follows: 

    "You've realized that you've been celibate since today. 

    You will always drink clean, pure water before each meal and say your prayers on a regular basis. Always avoid harmful deeds and engage in pious and noble deeds. 

    You will never sleep throughout the day. 

    You will always preserve in studying the Vedas with their limbs and sub-limbs if you remain under the supervision and control of your 'Acharya.' 

    Unless you finish the study of the four Vedas with limbs and sub-limbs, you will live a celibate life for 48 years in proportion to 12 years for each of the four Vedas, without failing. 

    You will always follow the laws of 'Dharma' under the guidance of your 'Acharya,' and you will always follow your 'Acharya's advise if he teaches you anything of 'Adharma' and wants you to behave in accordance with it. 

    You will refrain from becoming angry or lying. 

    You will always keep yourself away from the eight types of passionate activities. 

    You will only be able to sleep on the ground. 

    Never engage in the practice of 'kaushilava,' which includes poor singing, playing musical instruments, dancing, and other heinous behaviors, as well as the use of perfumes. 

    You will avoid excessive bathing, eating, sleeping, and waking, as well as reproach, over indulgence, dread, and sadness. 

    You will always do necessary acts such as clearing bowls, brushing your teeth with 'Dantadhanvana,' washing your mouth, bathing twice a day, two times meditations, eulogium, prayer and communion with God, and the practice of Yogic systems. Never consume dry meat or coarse grains, and never drink intoxicating beverages."


    The father continues, 

    "You will never live in a village (save at Gurukula), and you will never wear shoes or an umbrella unless it is to dispose of pee. 

    Never touch the urinary organ to prevent the release of sperm and the restraining of sperm in the body. 

    Always strive to become a guy whose sperm is never expelled and has thus become a source of information by adopting mental trends and doing your task with such attention.

    Do not use mustard-plaster for body attractiveness, and avoid eating foods that are highly sour, such as tamarind. 

    Do your daily meals and other interactions with great care and thought, and be engaged in information acquisition. 

    You will always have a decent character, be modest in your speech, and maintain excellent manners and seated etiquette in meetings and gatherings. 

    These are your everyday actions, and you should refrain from doing anything that has been banned."


    "I would without a doubt behave according to anything you have taught to me," the youngster now salutes his father and says to him with folded hands." 


    The youngster then proceeds to go around the "Yajnakunda" fire, asking for charity from his mother, father, sister, brother, maternal uncle, mother's sister, uncle, and so on. 

    The alms collected from them are gathered and given to the 'Acharya' by the youngster. 

    The 'Acharya' takes part of the grain and gives the balance of the alms to the celibate, who keeps it safe for his own meals. 

    The youngster then sits and sings the 'Vamdevya' song as instructed in the 'Samanya Prakarana'. 

    The youngster now consumes the alms that had been saved for him. 


    The youngster then naps until dusk, when the 'Acharya' instructs the child to pray and meditate as specified in 'Grihashrama Sanskara.'


    The 'Acharya' and the Brahmin then sit on the west side of the 'Yajnakunda,' with their backs to the east. 

    Then they make 'SthaliPaka,' as instructed in 'Samanya Prakarana,' and smear it with ghee before storing it. 

    They offer the four oblations of 'Agharavajyabhagahutis' and four oblations of 'Vyahriti Ahutis' while keeping the 'Kunda' fire blazing. 

    The youngster then gets up and warms his hand-palms on the 'Yajnakunda' fire before touching his limbs and lips in accordance with the 'Vedarambha Samskara' ritual. 

    The youngster then gives the cooked rice to the 'Acharya,' who will make oblations and consume it. 


    With the singing of this mantra, the 'Acharya' then sprinkles ghee on the rice and makes three oblations 

    "May I come to know God, the self-effulgent master of knowledge, marvelous, dear to everything that the human spirit desires, as well as discriminate wisdom. 

    Whatever has been said here is correct. 

    The oblations presented are for the sake of fulfilling 'Sadasaspati's order, not for me. I am imbued with the admirable attributes and light of the all-creating, all-powerful God. 

    May he guide our thoughts and actions in the direction of positive traits. Everything that has been said so far is correct. 

    The oblation being given is for Savitar, not for me. The attributes of seers who study Veda and see are described."


    After performing the first three oblations, 'Acharya' performs the fourth oblation using the appropriate mantra. 

    Following that, the four 'Vyahriti Ahutis' oblations and eight 'Ajyahutis' oblations are offered. 

    The youngster then sits with his back to the east, facing 'Acharya.' 

    "I born in the genealogy of such and so thank you, O my instructor," the youngster says, saluting him". 

    The 'Acharya' then responds, 

    "Oh, my devoted pupil! May you live a long life and be remembered for your wisdom." 


    As the 'Acharya' bestows his blessings on the infant, he consumes the leftover grains from the 'Yajna' as well as other delicacies. 

    The meal is then served to the invited guests. 

    Before departing, the people bless the kid.


    The infant must sleep on the ground for the following three days after the Vedarambha rite. 

    The method of three'samidha' with the specified mantra and the 'Angasparsha' procedure are conducted by the 'Acharya.' 

    He also asks the youngster to sing the mantras while performing the four oblations. 

    For three days, the youngster eats only salt-free meals. 

    The kid must next go to the 'Pathshala,' where he or she must complete the commitment and vows of the period of schooling. 

    Every day, he practices the 'Sandhayapasana' and continues his studies there till it is completed. 

    The instructor is awarded a 'Purnapatra' at the conclusion of Vedarambha, while the officiating Brahmana is given 'dakshina.'


    Kiran Atma


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