Hinduism - What Are The Six Schools Of Hindu Philosophy?


The six established schools of traditional Hindu philosophy are known as the Six Schools.

The Vedas, which are religious books, are considered by all six schools to be the most authoritative pramana, or ways by which human beings may receive real and correct knowledge.

All six schools also believe that philosophical reflection must serve religious aims in order to free the embodied soul (atman) from an otherwise endless cycle of transmigration.

Apart from these commonalities, each of these schools evolved its own unique and characteristic viewpoints.

Despite their differences, the schools were connected in pairs during the early centuries of the common era: 

  1. Nyaya
  2. Vaisheshika, 
  3. Samkhya-Yoga, 
  4. Purva Mimamsa 
  5. Uttara Mimamsa, 
  6. with the last school being known as Vedanta.

The Nyaya school examined and cataloged the pramanas, or techniques by which human beings may receive real and correct knowledge, and their findings were approved by all six schools.

The Vaisheshika school was a descriptive ontology that classified the universe in an atomistic manner, with everything being thought to be made up of smaller components.

This school had philosophical issues from the start, which contributed to its demise.

Samkhya is an atheistic dualism based on the distinction between an unconscious but active prakrti ("nature") and a conscious but inert purusha ("person," or spirit).

Failure to distinguish between the two, according to Samkhya proponents, leads to the development of the world and the particular person, but right comprehension reverses this process.

The Yoga school's theoretical foundation is Samkhya, which basically describes strategies to assist one obtain a proper comprehension of these two things.

Purva Mimamsa emphasizes the study of the Vedas as a source of human education, a focus that has led to the development of complex linguistic theories and methodologies of textual interpretation.

The Vedanta school employed these methods in their quest to discover the Vedas' ultimate meaning.

During the com mon period, the first millennium was a time of intense dispute between various schools, each of which had opposing viewpoints on fundamental issues like as the truth of the world.

By the end of the millennium, Vedanta had entirely eclipsed the other philosophical perspectives, albeit it had absorbed some of their impacts.

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Charles A. Moore (eds. ), A Source Book in Indian Philosophy, 1957, for further information.

~Kiran Atma

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