Showing posts sorted by relevance for query Sanskrit poetry. Sort by date Show all posts
Showing posts sorted by relevance for query Sanskrit poetry. Sort by date Show all posts

Hinduism And Hindu Theology - What Does Alamkara Mean?



Alamkara is a Sanskrit word that means "ornamentation." 


  • A phrase for the more than one hundred different kinds of figures of speech in Sanskrit poetry. 
  • Metaphor, simile, contrast, exaggeration, alliteration, and puns are only a few of the terms employed in English poetics. 
  • These figures of speech were further divided into more precise kinds by the Sanskrit literati, such as a simile expressing surprise, a simile expressing uncertainty, and poetic mistake, which is the opposite of a metaphor (“that's not the moon, but her face...”). 

  • Other styles are specific to Indian poetry, such as respective enumeration, a prolonged comparison in which one line names many referents and subsequent lines explain their characteristics, always in the same sequence as the initial line. 
  • Denial is a style of Indian poetry in which the speaker's actual purpose is conveyed via denial, but with enough hint to reveal the true meaning. 
  • Alamkara was used in all types of Sanskrit poetry, both religious and nonreligious, and many of these forms were incorporated into subsequent devotional poetry in Indian vernacular languages. 

See Daniel H. H. Ingalls, Sanskrit Poetry, 1968, for more information on Sanskrit poetics.

You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.


Hinduism - What Are Poetic Meters In Hindu Poetry And Literature?

 

Indian poetry has well-developed metrical forms that primarily follow two patterns.

The first metric is based on the number of syllables in a single line.

Each line in the second pattern has a specific number of metric beats, which is determined by the distinction between "heavy" and "light" syllables.

A heavy syllable is any syllable with a long vowel or a consonant cluster and is given two metric beats; all other syllables are considered light and counted as one beat.

Sanskrit poetry tends to stress the former pattern, and has codified meters ranging from four to twenty-six syllables per half-line, yet even within these syllabic constraints each meter usually has a prescribed sequence of light and heavy syllables as well.

Two different Sanskrit poetic meters may thus have the same number of syllables, but vary in their syllabic patterns.

Although such subtle differences could generate vast numbers of meters, in practice there were only about a hundred.

The vast majority of Sanskrit texts are written in a single meter, the anushtubh, which has eight syllables per half-line.

Later devotional (bhakti) poetry, particularly in northern India, tend to favor poetic forms based on the number of metric beats.

The most popular forms are the doha, which has twenty-four metric beats in two lines, and the chau pai, which has four lines of sixteen beats each.

Although there are several poetic forms based on the number of syllables in each line, particularly the savaiya and the kavitt, these were used less often.


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism - What Is The Sursagar?

 

 

 ("Sur Ocean") Surdas, a northern Indian poet-saint, is credited with a corpus of poetry in the Braj Bhasha language known as the Sursagar.

The Sursagar is traditionally split into twelve sections to reflect the organization of the Bhagavata Purana, which is the most significant Sanskrit source for Krishna mythology.

Surdas was a Krishna devotee (bhakta), and this arrangement gives vernacular religious poetry the glitter of an official Sanskrit book.

The Sursagar is most usually connected with verses painting personal and adoring portraits of Krishna's boyhood, much as the Bhagavata Purana lavishly portrays Krishna's juvenile escapades.

Although Surdas' poetry is attributed to him in Sursagar publications, the most of it is undoubtedly pseudonymous.

Surdas's poetry has at best a few hundred verses in the earliest manuscripts, and the corpus nearly increases every century, reaching the five thousand poems in the current Sursagar.

The tone of the early poems is also markedly different in terms of topic content.

Although they feature Krishna's boyhood, the poet's sufferings of separation (viraha) from Krishna or complaint (vinaya) about his spiritual woes are expressed in a significantly bigger percentage.

Even the oldest manuscripts indicate no common body of poetry, and it is probable that the "Surdas" literary tradition was derived from the songs of roaming singers from the beginning, a description that fits well with the poet's persona.

For further detail, read John Stratton Hawley's Krishna: The Butter Thief (1983) and Surdas: Poet, Singer, Saint (1984); also check John Stratton Hawley and Mark Juergensmeyer's Songs of the Saints of India (1988).


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism - What Is The Gitagovinda?

 

Gitagovinda ("Govinda's Song") is a song written by Jayadeva, a poet from the twelfth century.

The Gitagovinda is one of the last major devotional (bhakti) books composed in Sanskrit and is an exceptional example of Sanskrit poetry.

It was written at a period when vernacular languages were becoming the common medium for spiritual religiosity.

Jayadeva was affiliated with the Jagannath temple in the eastern Indian city of Puri, and his wife Padmavati was a dancer at the same temple, according to legend.

The Gitagovinda is a devotional poem dedicated to Jagannath, the Hindu deity.

The poem was clearly written to be sung, since each of the twenty-four cantos is composed in a distinct musical style (raga), conveying a different feeling.

For at least 500 years, the narrative has been portrayed via dance in the Orissi dance form, which originated in the Jagannath temple.

The Gitagovinda is still employed in Jagannath's daily devotion and has a place that no other literary source can match.

The Gitagovinda is a symbol of the human soul's oneness with God.

This union is shown in the narrative of Krishna's love for his human bride Radha, as they go through an early flush of desire, followed by jealousy, separation, reconciliation, and reunion.

Despite the abundance of motifs from Sanskrit love poetry in Jayadeva's narrative, it is considerably more than a romantic book.

The poem was composed to demonstrate that Krishna is the supreme ruler of the universe.

The Dashavatara Stotra, the first cantos following the introduction, offer praise to Krishna in his 10 avatars or earthly incarnations (Dashavatar), each of whom plays a role in maintaining cosmic balance.

In many portions of Hindu tradition, Krishna is regarded an incarnation of the divinity Vishnu, but for Jayadeva, Krishna is the highest deity.

Krishna's brother, Balarama, takes Krishna's position in the enumeration of the avatars, which he typically occupies.

The next song builds on this topic, describing Krishna's glorious attributes as Vishnu and underlining that the whole Gitagovinda represents the deity's divine pastime (lila).

After establishing the necessary backdrop in the early songs, Jayadeva's writing returns to a more traditional romantic love story.

The symbols of spring are described in the next chapter, which are meant to induce a romantic atmosphere.

However, Radha's jealously marrs the atmosphere when Krishna engages in games with a group of cowherd females, since she seeks Krishna for herself alone.

She withdraws and sits alone, pouting and dejected, only to erupt in wrath when Krishna appears, carrying evidence of yet another amorous connection.

Krishna realizes what he has done as a result of her rage and rejection.

He ultimately manages to calm her down and persuade Radha of his love.

They reconnect and fall in love passionately.

The book concludes with a description of their afterglow love play, in which Radha commands Krishna to decorate her as she likes, demonstrating her total control over him.

The Gitagovinda may be read on many different levels at the same time as a text.

Love, betrayal, and reconciliation are easy to relate to in daily life, yet theological and mystical dimensions are constantly present.

Finally, the god and the devotee (bhakta) are depicted as being in need of and adoring each other.

Without the other, neither is whole.

Radha's quest for exclusive love is first rebuffed, but her perseverance and determination are rewarded in the end.

Barbara Stoller Miller's superb translation of the Gitagovinda, The Love Song of the Dark Lord, was published in 1977.

Goa is one of contemporary India's tiniest states.

On the Arabian Sea's coast, it is sandwiched between the states of Maharashtra and Karnataka.

For more than 400 years, Goa remained a Portuguese colony, and it was not included into the Indian union until 1961, when India orchestrated a bloodless invasion.

Goa maintains much of its Portuguese influence, as seen by its gastronomy, laid-back pace, and continued presence of Roman Catholicism, making it one of India's most peculiar cultural zones.

Christine Nivin et al., India. 8th ed., Lonely Planet, 1998, provides an accessible reference for general information on Goa and all of India's provinces. 


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.




Hinduism And Hindu Theology - Who Was Amaru?



Amaru was a 7th century Sanskrit poet who is usually credited with writing the Amarushatakam (“Amaru's Hundred”), a collection of sexual love poetry. 


  • The title of the book is doubly deceptive, since current versions include over 200 poems, and there is significant evidence that it was collected from many previous collections, casting doubt on its authorship. 
  • Despite the fact that Amaru's poetry is not overtly religious and therefore explores the pleasures of carnal love, the themes of lover/beloved and union/separation addressed in this poetry subsequently became common topics in bhakti (devotional) poetry. 

Amaru is portrayed as a monarch who becomes mythically linked with the great teacher in the Shankaradigvijaya, a legendary biography of the philosopher Shankaracharya. 





  • Shankaracharya utilizes his yogic abilities to reanimate Amaru's corpse shortly after his death in response to the challenge that he knows nothing about sexuality. 
  • Shankaracharya, in this incarnation, is said to have had no desire to explore this aspect of human existence. 
  • Shankaracharya conducts affairs with Amaru's wives, partakes in the pleasures of passion, and records his exploits in the Amarushatakam. 

Despite the fact that this assertion is extremely dubious, it does serve to highlight some significant thematic links between religious and sexual poetry. 

For further information, read Lee Siegel's 1983 book Fires of Love—Waters of Peace.




You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism And Hindu Theology - Who Was Amaruka?

 


Another name for Amaru, the famous poet. 


  • The Amarushatakam (“Amaru's Hundred”), a collection of poetry on the subject of sexual love, is usually attributed to Amaru (7th c.?) Sanskrit poet. 
  • The title of the book is doubly deceptive, since current versions include over 200 poems, and there is significant evidence that it was collected from many previous collections, casting doubt on its authorship. 
  • Despite the fact that Amaru's poetry is not overtly religious and therefore explores the pleasures of carnal love, the themes of lover/beloved and union/separation addressed in this poetry subsequently became common topics in bhakti (devotional) poetry.


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism - Who Was Chandidas?

 


 

 

Bengali poet and devotee (bhakta) of the deity Krishna (15th century C.E.). 



Chandidas utilizes Sanskrit love poetry traditions to convey devotion to Krishna in his works, most frequently via the character of Radha as Krishna's favorite follower and lover. 






His lyrics are still sung in Bengal, and he was adored by Chaitanya, the Bengali devotee who founded the Gaudiya Vaishnava religious group, according to legend. 

Despite his poetry's enduring popularity, nothing is known about Chandidas' personal life. 

A Bengali poet of the Sahajiya sect, who composed many centuries after the original Chandidas and whose poetry is clearly differentiated by ideological differences, adopted the same name. 



Edward C. Dimock Jr. and Denise Levertov (trans. ), In Praise of Krishna, 1981, contains excerpts from Chandidas' poetry. 



You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.




Hinduism - What Is Viraha?

 



Viraha means “separation” in classical Sanskrit poetry. Much of vernacular devotional (bhakti) poetry, has Viraha as a well-established poetic genre.





Whether the separated lovers are two human beings or devotee (bhakta) and deity, the genre focuses on describing the pain that results from the separation of lover and beloved.





Separation is thought to cause specific physical symptoms, which the poets describe in great detail—lack of appetite, insomnia, inability to attend to daily life, or think about anyone but the beloved.







Because love in union is sweetened by the presence of the beloved, whereas the former must stand alone, the type of love felt in such separation is thought to engender an even more intense love for the beloved than love in union.


~Kiran Atma



You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.





Hinduism - What Does The Cuckoo Bird Symbolize In India?

 

Cuckoo. 


 Indian songbird (Cuculus melanoleucus or jacobinus) associated with both love and monsoon showers. 

During the monsoon, the cuckoo's piercing cries are fancifully translated as piu, piu (“beloved, beloved”). 

These screams are believed to arouse human lovers' emotions, either to passion if they are together or to terrible sorrow if they are separated by the monsoon. 

During the rainy season, the cuckoo's behavior is said to represent its affection for the monsoon. 

The cuckoo, according to common belief, only drinks rainfall, which implies it is thirsty for most of the year. 

The cuckoo is often used as a symbol for the devotee (bhakta) who is afflicted by the deity's absence yet patiently waits for the divine presence in devotional (bhakti) poetry. 

This bird is known as the chataka in Sanskrit poetry and as the kokila or koil in contemporary languages. 


 






Hinduism - What Is A Viragal?


 

Viragal or “Hero-stone” are stone memorials erected in honor of a warrior, usually the village headman, who died in battle defending the village cattle from pillage.


Deleury speculates that the Maharashtrian god Vithoba arose from such a deified hero, who was later assimilated into the pantheon as a form of Vishnu, and that such stones can be found all over the Deccan region.


Viraha is a word that has a lot of different meanings depending on who you (“separation”) Classical Sanskrit poetry, as well as much vernacular devotional (bhakti) poetry, have a well-established poetic genre.


Whether the separated lovers are two human beings or devotee (bhakta) and deity, the genre focuses on describing the pain that results from the separation of lover and beloved.

Separation is thought to cause specific physical symptoms, which the poets describe in great detail—lack of appetite, insomnia, inability to attend to daily life, or think about anyone but the beloved.

Because love in union is sweetened by the presence of the beloved, whereas the former must stand alone, the type of love felt in such separation is thought to engender an even more intense love for the beloved than love in union.


~Kiran Atma


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.


Hinduism - Who Was Harivamsh? What Are The Literary Works Of Harivamsh?

 

Harivamsh is a Hindu (d. 1552) Poet, singer, and creator of the Radhavallabh religious society based on Radha's image.

She was first shown as the deity Krishna's human wife, but she was eventually revealed to be his adulterous mistress.

Radha's character as a divinity, her equality and identity with Krishna, and her position as his legitimate wife were all stressed by the Radhavallabh group.

The Radhavallabhs emphasized Radha's love (hit) for Krishna, and as a result, the poet is also known as "Hit Harivamsh." Many of the classic topics found in Krishna devotionalism are addressed in Harivamsh's poetry, albeit from the perspective of a female partner (sakhi).

He created the Hit-chaurasi, an anthology of eighty-four poems noted for their highly Sanskritized vocabulary and inclusion of the alamkara ("poetic embellishment") heritage of older Sanskrit poetry.

For further details, read Charles S. J. White's 1977 book, Sri Hit Harivams' Caurasi Pad. 


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism - What Is Kavya?


 (“related to kavis”) is an extremely lengthy meter that lends itself well to extensive descriptions using alliteration; the poet-saint Tulsidas utilizes this meter with great effect to depict war scenes in his Kavitavali.

The most broad term for courtly poetry or lyrical prose, which is usually written in Sanskrit.

Such kavya was frequently composed and presented in a court environment, where originality and self-revelation were prized less than clever reworkings of classic forms.

The two-line stanza, which was a self-contained unit in terms of meaning, was the fundamental building block of such poetry.

Verses were written in a variety of meters, ranging from four to twenty-six syllables per half-line, and were embellished with numerous alamkaras ("figures of speech") to communicate the right mood (rasa) for the subject matter.

Single-verse epigrams, such as those of Bhartrhari, to long epic poems (mahakavyas), most famously those of Kalidasa, are examples of poetic genres.

Despite many allusions to religious life, such poetry was written largely for pleasure rather than moral exhortation, a focus that mirrors the court culture in which it was written.

The Gitagovinda of Jayadeva, a work thought to have been produced in the Jagannath temple in Puri and focusing on devotion to the deity Krishna as lord of the universe, is the lone exception to this pattern. 


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism - What Is The Raghuvamsha?

 

("Raghu's Family Tree") One of Kalidasa's major poetry works.

Kalidasa is widely regarded as the best classical Sanskrit poet.

The Raghuvamsha is a nineteen-canto quasi-historical epic dedicated to the Solar Line's rulers, notably its most prominent member, the god-king Rama.

Although Kalidasa presents Rama as an avatar or heavenly incarnation in a manner that Valmiki does not, the tale of Rama in Kalidasa's poetry is very comparable to that of the epic Ramayana.

The Solar Line rulers are also used in Kalidasa's poetry as examples of dedication to the four purposes of life (purushartha): riches (artha), pleasure (kama), religious duty (dharma), and release (release) (moksha).

The rulers at the end of the line, according to Kalidasa, are entirely immoral and just interested in pleasure.

The line is destroyed as a result of their flagrant disregard for their obligation to govern justly, and the poem's audience learns a valuable lesson.


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism - What Is The Man Lila?

 

Krishna and his disciples perform a holy drama (lila) called Man Lila (bhakta).

One of Krishna's female friends feigns injured pride (man) in this lila, generally as a result of his making a mistake, such as calling her by another woman's name.

She pretends to be upset for a while, but soon succumbs to his charm and undivided attention.

In Sanskrit poetry, the idea of a lady pretending to be angry in order to have her lover flatter and fawn over her and sweeten the delight of the final reunion has a long history.

This lila is often performed in devotional theatrical performances, which are also called as lilas ("plays"), since its purpose is to display the divine's labor.



You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism And Hindu Theology - What Is Amarushatakam?

 


Amarushatakam ("Amaru's Hundred") is a Sanskrit word that means "Amaru's Hundred." 


  • Amaru, a seventh-century poet, is credited with a collection of poetry on the subject of sexual love. 
  • The title of the book is doubly deceptive, since current versions include over 200 poems, and there is significant evidence that it was collected from many previous collections, casting doubt on its authorship. 
  • The themes of lover/beloved and union/separation addressed in this poetry eventually became typical genres of bhakti (devotional) poetry, despite the fact that the poem explores the pleasures of sensual love and is therefore not overtly religious.


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism And Hindu Theology - What Is Anushtubh?



Composed of two lines of sixteen syllables each with eight syllables each half line, this is by far the most frequently employed meter in Sanskrit poetry. 


  • Each half line's metric pattern is based on the difference between "heavy" and "light" syllables. Any syllable with a lengthy vowel or consonant cluster is considered heavy; all other syllables are considered light. 
  • Each half line's fifth syllable should be light, the sixth heavy, and the seventh alternatively heavy and light, according to the pattern. 



Many religious writings, including most of the Bhagavad Gita, use the anushtubh because of its simplicity.


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism - What Is Chataka?




The term for the cuckoo bird in Sanskrit poetry and literature, typically evoked as a symbol of yearning. 




Bankim Chandra Chatterjee (1838–1894) was a Bengali writer and Indian nationalist who was a key role in the nineteenth-century renaissance of Bengali literature and in turning the region into a hotbed of anti-British resistance. 



Chatterjee saw as a young man how the English language and culture were beginning to supplant Indian culture among educated Indians. 

Through his literature and political activity, he aimed to change this by urging Indian intellectuals to rediscover their ancient culture. 

He paved the path for poet Rabindranath Tagore and political activists Aurobindo Ghose and Subhash Chandra Bose by becoming a pivotal figure in both literature and politics. 

Anandamath, Chatterjee's most renowned book, was set during the late-eighteenth-century Sanyasi Rebellion, in which Hindu and Muslim militant ascetics battled the British East India Company for control of Bengal. 

Although historical research links this battle to current social and economic problems in Bengal, Chatterjee depicts it allegorically as a struggle of Mother India's faithful children to drive out the British invaders. 


Chatterjee also penned the lyrics of “Vande Mataram,” a patriotic song that is widely referred to as the unofficial Indian national anthem.



Hinduism - What Is The Malatimadhava?

 

Malatimadhava is a play composed by Bhavabhuti (early 8th century), a Sanskrit playwright known for his ability to articulate and communicate the play of emotions via words.

The play's main narrative is on Malati's victorious love for Madhava (a deity Krishna epithet), despite several impediments in their path.

The play is recognized for its fine poetry writing, as well as the fact that the main antagonist is a wicked ascetic who is commonly thought to be a member of the defunct ascetic sect known as the Kapalikas.

The Kapalikas were Shiva followers who wore their hair long and matted, smeared their bodies with ash (ideally from the cremation site), and carried a club and a skull-bowl to resemble Shiva in his wrathful aspect as Bhairava (kapala).

The Kapilikas were dreaded because they indulged in illegal behaviors such as drinking wine, eating meat, using cannabis and other narcotics, executing human sacrifices, and orgiastic sexuality.

Bhavabhuti's depiction is historically noteworthy since it is one of the first references to Shaiva asceticism.

Michael Coulson translated the play into English and released it in the collection Three Sanskrit Plays in 1981.


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.



Hinduism - Who Is Bhartrhari?




Bhartrhari is a 5th c. C.E.  Sanskrit poet and philosopher who wrote the Shatakatrayam (“Three Hundred”), a three-part collection of poetry on politics, love, and renunciation. 



Bhartrhari was the son of the brahmin Vidyasagara and his shudra wife, Mandakini, according to tradition. 


  • Vidyasagara was the king of Kalinga's advisor, and when the monarch died, he was granted the kingdom; following Vidyasagara's death, Bhartrhari's brothers recognized him as king. 
  • Bhartrhari was ecstatic till he discovered that his wife was cheating on him. 
  • When her secret was out, she attempted to blackmail him. 
  • Bhartrhari, completely disillusioned, abandoned the world and became an ascetic, at which time he is said to have written his poems. 
  • Bhartrhari was most likely a courtier, despite the fact that this is a nice tale. 





Many of these poems emphasize the degradation inherent in courtly life. 


  • All of life's traditional purposes are addressed in his poetry. 
  • The first two parts deal with strength (artha), sensual desire (kama), and virtuous conduct (dharma), while the third section deals with the ultimate goal, or soul liberation (moksha). 





Barbara Stoller Miller (trans. ), The Hermit and the Love-Thief, 1978, has further information.



You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.





Hinduism - What Is The Dharmashastra?



A broad word for the study of dharma (religious duty), whether it refers to the actual scriptures (Dharma Shastras), treatises on religious obligation, or the enormous commentary-like literature on these texts in general. 

Despite the fact that the Dharma Shastras are thought to have been composed between the second century B.C.E. 

and the early centuries of the common period, this literature was written until current times. 

The literature included in-depth analysis of legal issues such as crime and punishment, civil law, contracts, and evidence standards. 

It also dealt with issues of social order. 

(“Dharma Treatises”) This term refers to a certain corpus of Sanskrit writings in their most specific meaning. 

These works were specifically intended to provide instructions for society's structure and proper human conduct within that civilization. 

The Dharma Shastras (aphorisms on religious duty) were composed shortly after the Dharma Sutras (aphorisms on religious duty) and are obviously fashioned after them, although with a few key differences. 

The Dharma Shastras are written in simple poetry, but the Dharma Sutras are written in prose. 

The Dharma Shastras were written in a language that is similar to ancient Sanskrit, and the authors attempted to make their books as plain and understandable as possible. 

The Dharma Shastras cover the same ground as the Dharma Sutras in terms of substance, but they lay a greater focus on figuring out the practical issues of social life, notably the king's obligations and powers. 

The last distinction is their relationship to older Vedic literature. 

Along with the Shrauta Sutras (prescriptions for Vedic ceremonies) and the Grhya Sutras, the Dharma Sutras were intended as the last piece of a Kalpa Sutra (full manual of religious practice) (prescriptions for domestic rites). 

Each Kalpa Sutra was linked to one of the Vedas (the earliest holy Hindu books) and hence became the "family property" of the brahmins (priests) who were connected to that Veda. 

As a result, each Dharma Sutra was connected with a certain set of brahmins and served largely as a guide for their conduct. 

The Dharma Shastras, on the other hand, professed to set out norms for all members of society. 

They are unconcerned with rituals and have no ties to any specific Vedic school, instead professing to set down universal truths. 

The surviving Dharma Shastras are all assigned to mythological sages—Manu, Yajnavalkya, and Narada—while the Dharma Sutras are given human authorship in line with this focus. 

Thus, the Dharma Shastras establish dharma (dharmashastra) as a discipline separate from older Vedic literature and applied to society as a whole. 

A five-volume compilation by Pandurang Vaman Kane (trans. ), A History of Dharmasastra, 1968, has the most comprehensive list of all these texts. 


You may also want to read more about Hinduism here.

Be sure to check out my writings on religion here.